1 Oskar Czepeczek, The Application of the Cognitive Method and Drill in Teaching the Rudiments of English to Adults (2013), Contents INTRODUCTION...2 The aim of the work...2 CHAPTER ONE. Practical solutions to the problems outlined in the introduction The common features of the proposed exercises The goals of the proposed exerices The problems and the ways to overcome them The way in which students' mistakes should be corrected An example of a possible first lesson An example of homework A sample audio material script The wall chart...24 CHAPTER TWO. The theoretical foundations of the practical proposals The Cognitive Code Learning Theory Meaningful learning The application of advance organizers The use of students' native language Transformational Generative Grammar The application of a drill...50 CONCLUSION...51 References...52 ABSTRACT...53 ABSTRAKT...54
2 INTRODUCTION The aim of the work. A considerable number of learners failed to learn English language despite the fact that they had been taught the language for many years. At present in Poland children usually commence learning English in zero class of the primary school at the age of 5 or 6. They continue the language eductation for the next fourteen years in primary school (6 years), junior secondary school (3 years), secondary school (3 years) and finally at the university level (2 years). On average, a learner participates in English classes for fifteen years. Many of these learners after fifteen years of learning English do not possess basic communicative skills. One of the main reasons for the lack of success in learning foreign languages is the students' inability to organize the grammar of the target language in a coherent system. The failure is usually connected with learning the foreign language only in a rote manner without making attempts to discover the regularities of the language code. This is why the conscius knowledge of the grammar system of a given language is a basic and prerequisite condition for the development of the communicative skills. The main objective of this work is to propose how to conduct a set of exerises which are aimed at helping the adult beginners to organize in their minds the basic knowledge of the language code, i.e. grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation. The proposed exercises differ substantially from the common mainstream practices applied at the initial stages of teaching English to adult beginners. The chief goal of the proposal presented in this work is to prevent the learners from suffering a defeat while attempting to learn English. Another important goal of the proposal is to create the solid grounds for the future development of the communicative skills. These goals are to be accomplished by focusing the beginners' attention on understanding the language code of the target language with grammar treated as the key element and vocabulary and pronunciation as secondary elements. The work does not present the whole set of these initial exercises. The scope of the work
3 is limited to the presentation of one model lesson which illustrates the way in which one may organize the exercises to teach the basic elements of the language code in the most effective way. The teachers who rely on this model lesson can easily create more similar exercises adjusting their content to their particular needs. The script of this model lesson is presented in the first chapter of this work. The proposed exercises utilize the elements of the Cognitive Method, i.e. meaningful learning and advance organizers, the ideas taken from Transformational Generative Grammar and drill. The application of these elements in the proposed approach will be discussed in detail in the second chapter of this work.
4 CHAPTER ONE. Practical solutions to the problems outlined in the introduction. The practical solutions proposed in this work were inspired by the works of two authors, namely R.Wenzel and M. Thomas. They both put forward ideas how to teach foreign languages to adult beginners. Their solutions share two characteristics, i.e. 1) the deductive way of teaching grammar in the students' native language, 2) the students during the lesson are expected to generate orally new sentences based on the rules and vocabulary items given them by the teacher. For Wenzel (1991) these two characteristics are the starting point for his method which consists in creating by the students their own texts while Thomas (2006) bases his proposal only on these two ideas. The practical exercises proposed in this work are more similar to Thomas's proposal than to Wenzel's method. Despite some similarities the substantial differences between Thomas and the ideas presented here can be noticed. First of all, Thomas does not equip his students with the whole set of grammar constructions which are needed in communication. He teaches only some selected grammar patterns. In consequence, his learners will have very limited possibility of creating their own utterances. Secondly, Thomas introduces a complete ban on any homework given to the students. Thirdly, he does not offer any coherent system of revisions. Last but not least, his students perform only oral exercises; they are not taught the target language in the written form. The exercices presented here do not have all these shortcomings of Thomas's proposal. The proposed exercises are designed for beginners and false beginners and are suitable both for teenagers and adults (they are not recommended for children). The exercises can be used in three ways: 1) as an introduction to the English language for beginners, 2) as a method of revision of the basics of English, 3) as a crash course for the learners who have the urgent need to acquire the rudiments of English.
5 1.1. The common features of the proposed exercises. 1. The grammar is explained in a deductive way in the students' native language (in Polish). The teacher explains a grammar point; then the students are asked to interpret from Polish into English the sentences given by the teacher in which the grammar rule that the students have just learnt is applied. The students create single sentences in their affirmative, interrogative and negative forms or build compound sentences with the usage of connectors, e.g. because, because of, although, but, and. 2. The students understand the material and then goes through exercises which are to make him remember it. That is achieved by constant revisions of the previously introduced vocabulary and the grammar structures. 3. Each time a new grammar structure is introduced, the students also practise the vocabulary introduced earlier by putting it into the newly learnt grammar structure. 4. The students do not need to memorize any grammar rules. 5. Advance organizers are deliberately applied, they introduce metalanguage terms and demonstrate the differences and similarities between Polish and English. 6. Paradigmatic and syntagmatic mode of presenting grammar is combined, e.g. if the vocabulary item comprises a verb and an adverbial phrase, e.g. to be at home, the verb element of the vocabulary item is always taught in a paradigmatic manner, i.e. the whole conjugation of the verb to be in the Present Tense is presented to the student whereas the adverbial phrase at home is a syntagmatic element. 7. Teaching by analogy. The students are first presented with the structures based on the verb ''to be'' later with modal verbs and then with the structures in which auxiliaries (do, does, did) appear. 8. There is no traditional textbook. The learning process is based on a special wall chart. On the wall chart the most important grammar structures of the English
6 language are placed. The grammar structures are presented in the form of simple formulas. The second part of the wall chart (section 5 and 6) presents the basic vocabulary the learners have mastered during the course. Thanks to presenting the content of the course on one wall chart the students will perceive learning English as a task that is attainable for them, the task they are in full control of. 9. The proposed wall chart has a rectangle shape and is divided into six sections in which the grammar formulas and the vocabulary items are placed GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR GRAMMAR VOCABULARY VOCABULARY 10. The selection of the vocabulary in section 5 and 6 of the wall chart is not accidental.the words are selected from the list of The Oxford 3000 TM - the group of words which are statistically the most important in English (they occur most frequently). The whole list of these words can be found, e.g. in Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary 7 th Edition. 11. At one time only one vocabulary item (from section 5 and 6 of the wall chart) is introduced to the students then they are asked toapply them in the grammar structures they have already been taught. 12. The written assignments are given to students as their homework. The goal of the written assignments is to give the students an opportunity to consolidate the knowledge and skills they have acquired in the classroom as well as to give them an opportunity to practise English in the written form.
7 13. From the very outset of the course a great emphasis is put on the correct pronunciation. The teacher repeats after the student each sentence and sometimes practises with the student the pronunciation of some more troublesome words. The teacher also explains the most important pronunciation rules, e.g. the rules concerning the final consonantal devoicing such as the pronunciation of -s ending in English nouns in the plural or the -ed ending in the 2 nd and 3 rd forms of regular verbs. 14. After the whole course the students are supplied with self-study audio materials which will enable the learners to revise the course material on their own. The recordings are especially useful for mastering English pronunciation and for automation of the usage of the grammar and the vocabulary from the course. The audio exercises are constructed in the following way: first the student hears a sentence in Polish, then there is a pause during which the student is expected to interpret the sentence into English and then to say the sentence aloud. Finally, the student hears the correct sentence in English which allows him to chceck if his/her answer is correct. In one exercise various grammar points from the wall chart are mixed. 15. Positive reinforcement helps the students develop the correct habits, after each correct answer, the teacher says, e.g. very good or OK and repeats the correct answer. 16. The students answer the teacher's questions, which gives the teacher the possibility to check the students' understanding of the presented grammar material. During the first stage of each lesson the students are not allowed to look at the wall chart. They have to rely on their memory. If they cannot remember a proper vocabulary item, the teacher prompts it to them. In the second stage of each lesson the students revise the material they have just learnt. This time they are allowed to look at the wall chart.
8 The goals of the proposed exerices. 1. The students must understand everything the teacher explains, no gaps in the students' comprehension of the grammar material are possible. If the student can not answer the teachers' question, the teacher comes back to the point in which the student ceased to understand and explains it to the student once again. 2. The students are asked to interpret the sentences by the teacher. Every student has to be active, there is no possibility for a student not to participate in the lesson. This strategy will help to overcome the students' fear of speaking in a foreign language. 3. The student after a few hours of instruction should be able to compose a simple text in English, e.g. an (based on the wall chart and a dictionary). 4. The students should be able to use newly acquired words (outside the course) in the grammar structures they mastered at the course. 5. The wall chart can be hung, e.g. on the wall or used as a desk pad which gives the students an opportunity to revise the course material during their everyday activities. 6. Numerous repetitions and revisions of the material from the wall chart and the audio materials enhance the chance of putting the course material into the students' long-term memory The problems and the ways to overcome them. There are two major issues that the students face when they encounter the proposed tasks: 1. The application of these exercises is limited as they are suitable only for adult beginners (to teach only the rudiments of English). Children have too short attention span to be able to focus on conducting the proposed exercises in the classroom. Adult learners after they master the rudiments of English should start doing different kinds of exercises and the teacher is recommended to limit the
9 usage of the students native language. 2. The sentenses produced by the students in the proposed exercises are rule-governed (generated based on grammar templates). As a result the students are not taught here any not rule-governed elements (lexical phrases) which constitute a large part of the language. To overcome this problem of the proposed exercises the teacher can supply students with a list of popular lexical phrases and incorporate them in the lessons. The students should view the language as a set which is composed both of rule-governed and not-rule-governed elements. However, the students should not be inundated with the lexical phrases at this stage. Example lexical phrases which can be presented to the students. at first to tell you the truth frankly speaking by the way on the other hand for the time being to sum up as a result in fact 3. The vocabulary and the sentences the students create in the classroom are out of context. They are not a part of e.g. any story. Consequently, some students may find the proposed exercises boring.
10 To overcome the humdrum of the lesson the situational context can be created, e.g. while practising the verb to be the teacher can create real life context for the practised structures. Example (1): T: (to S1): Wyobraź sobie, że jesteś w sklepie i chciałbyś zapytać o cenę np.telefonu komórkowego.(to S2): Odpowiesz, że telefon kosztuje 100 PLN. S1: How much is this mobile? S2: This mobile is 100 PLN. Example (2): T: (to S1): Wyobraź sobie, że chciałbyś zapytać kolegę, ile ma lat..(to S2): Odpowiesz, że masz 25 lat.. S1: How old are you? S2: I'm 25. For the structure: I'd like to : Example (3) T: (to S1): Wyobraźcie sobie, że jesteście w restauracji. S1 jest kelnerem i pyta co gość chciałby zamówić. S2 klient, odpowiada, że chciałby zamówić kurczaka i piwo. S1: What would you like to order? S2: I'd like to order chicken and beer.
11 The way in which students' mistakes should be corrected. Leading the students towards the correct form each time it is possible after the student makes a mistake or does not know the answer to the teacher's question he/she should be directed by the teacher into the correct answer by the usage of analogical thinking. In other words, the correct answer should be elicited from the student rather then provided by the teacher. Example (1) T:?On był wczoraj w szkole. S: He was at school yesterday. T: OK.?Czy on był wczoraj w szkole? If the student cannot produce the correct answer the teacher can adopt the following strategy: T:?On jest teraz w szkole. S: He is at school now. T: Very good.?czy on jest teraz w szkole? S: Is he at school now? T: Very good.?czy on był wczoraj w szkole? S: Was he at school yesterday?
12 Example (2) T:?Dlaczego chcesz zrobić to teraz? S: Why you want to do it now? T:?Ty chcesz zrobić to teraz. S: You want to do it now. T: OK.?Czy ty chcesz zrobić to teraz? S: Do you want to do it now? T:?Dlaczego chcesz zrobić to teraz? S: Why do you want to do it now? Example (3) T:? On musi to zrobić. S: You must do it. T:? Ty musisz to zrobić. S: You must do it. T:? On musi to zrobić. S: He must do it.
13 1.2. An example of a possible first lesson. Level: beginners Time: 45 minutes Aims: linguistic grammar teaching point: the conjugation of the verb to be in the present in affirmative and negative form; the imperative mood of English verbs; the difference between contracted and non-contracted form of the verb to be ; the notion of verb and infinitive - vocabulary included: 1) personal pronouns (I, you, he, she); 2) adjectives (busy, tired, late); 3) other words and phrases (to go, to work, to buy, at home, at work, at school, on time, now, and, but, because, not, in, from Poland, very); 4) the forms of the verb to be (am, are, is) - the pronunciation of the introduced vocabulary items Lead-in: an advance organizer: two metalanguage terms: verb and infinitive are introduced, the difference in expresing infinitive in Polish and English, the difference in expressing the imperative mood in Polish and English Main activity: - students practise the imperative mood for the verbs : to be, to go, to work, to buy - the teacher introduces the following phrases: on time, at home, at school, at work - the students practise these phrases with the imperative form of the verb to be - the teacher introduces personal pronoun I and the form of the verb to be for this pronoun am - the students create short sentences, e.g. I am at home, etc. - the teacher intriduces the contracted form : I'm - the students practise this form building sentences, e.g. I'm at work. - advance organizer why it is impossible to skip personal pronouns in English language - new words: now and busy
14 - the students practise these words building sentenses, e.g. I'm at work now. - personal pronoun you and the form of the verb to be for this pronoun are and the contracted form: you're - the students practise the form creating their own sentences - new words: tired, and, because - creating negative sentences in English - personal pronoun he and the form of the verb to be for this pronoun is and the negative form isn't - the students create sentences with this form - personal pronoun she and the form of the verb to be for this pronoun is and the negative form isn't - new words (late, in, but) - the students create sentences with she and he both in affirmative and negative form with all the words they have acquired so far - the students revise by means of the wall chart the material they have learnt Follow-up activity: practising the pronunciation of the newly acquired words.
15 The script of the lesson: Abbreviations: S a student T a teacher = means in English? - How would you say in English? Lead-in: an advance organizer: T: Czasownik to wyraz, który oznacza czynność, np. idę, lubię, śpiewam. Czasownik, który oznacza czynność ale nie można stwierdzić kto jest wykonawcą tej czynności nazywa się bezokolicznikiem, np. iść, lubić, płacić, pracować. W języku angielskim bezokolicznik zwykle tworzymy dodając słówko to przed czasownikiem np. to go = iść, to work = pracować, to buy kupować. An expository advance organizer is introduced. The students are presented with two metalanguage terms: verb and infinitive. At the same time a comparative organizer shows the difference in expresing infinitive in Polish and English. The short introduction is an example of deductive way of teaching grammar. T : Jeżeli od bezokolicznika odejmiemy słówko to to wtedy tworzymy rozkaz. Main activity: T:? iść S: to go T:? idź! S: go! T: Forma czasownika bez to to rozkaz zarówno dla jednej osoby, jak i dla wielu osób. T:? pracować
16 S: to work T:? pracuj!, pracujcie! S: work! T:? kupować S: to buy T:? kupuj!, kupujcie! S: buy! T: To be znaczy być. on time = na czas/punktualnie T:? bądź/bądźcie na czas S: be on time! The immediate application of the rule the students have been just taught. T: Excellent. Be on time The positive reinforcement. After each correct answer produced by the student the teacher repeats it. If the student's pronunciation was wrong the teacher asks the student to repeat the problematic phrase, word or sentence as many times as it is necessary. In the further part of the script the part with the teacher repeating the student's answer is omitted but it should be treated as default element. T: at home = w domu T:? bądź/bądźcie w domu S: be at home! T: OK. Be at home T: at work = w pracy T:? bądź w pracy punktualnie S: Be at work on time T: Very good. Be at work on time T: Jak jest po angielsku szkoła? The teacher asks students about the meaning of the word they probably know. And then asks the students to create a new phrase w szkole based on analogy. T:? w szkole
17 S: at school T:? bądźcie w szkole na czas S: be at school on time T: I = ja, am = jestem T:? Ja jestem w domu. S: I'm at home. T:? Ja jestem w szkole. S: I'm at school. T:? Ja jestem w pracy punktualnie. S: I'm at work on time. Habit formation. The students repeat the same vocabulary items and the grammar structures many times. T: W języku codziennym formę ''I am = ja jestem'' skracamy do ''I'm''. T:? Ja jestem punktualnie. S: I'm on time. T. OK. I'm on time T: Ważna uwaga: w języku polskim zwykle mówimy: Jestem w pracy, Jestem w domu, Jestem w szkole. Opuszczamy słowo ja Forma jestem sygnalizuje nam ja. W języku angielskim nigdy nie opuszczamy słów typu ja, ty, on, ona, my, wy, oni, one. T: now = teraz. W języku polskim teraz wstawiamy zwykle w środku zdania : Jestem teraz w szkole, w języku angielskim ''now'' wstawiamy zwykle na końcu zdania. Another example of comparative advance organizer. T:? Jestem teraz w pracy. S: I'm at work now. T:? Jestem teraz w szkole. S: I'm at school now. T:? Jestem teraz w domu.
18 S: I'm at home now. T: busy = zajęty T:? Jestem teraz zajęty. S: I'm busy now. T: you = ty, jesteś = are T:? Ty jesteś teraz zajęty. S: You are busy now. T: Mówimy: I am albo? S: I'm T: Skrócona forma: you are to you're T:? Ty jesteś teraz zajęty. S: You're busy now. T: tired = zmęczony T:? Ty jesteś teraz zmęczony. S: You're tired now. T: and = i T:? Ty jesteś teraz zajęty i zmęczony. S: You're busy and tired now. T:? Jestem teraz w pracy i ja jestem zmęczony. S: I'm at work now and I'm very busy. T: Przeczenie w języku angielskim tworzymy za pomocą słówka: not. Ja nie jestem = I'm not. T:? Ja nie jestem teraz w pracy. S: I'm not at work now. T: because = ponieważ T:? Ja nie jestem teraz zajęty ponieważ nie jestem teraz w pracy. S: I'm not busy now because I'm not at work now.
19 T: he = on, formą czasownika być dla zaimka he jest is. T:? On jest teraz w domu. S: He is at home now. T: late = spóźniony T:? On jest spóźniony. S: He is late. T:? On nie jest spóźniony. S: He is not late. T: is not jest zwykle skracane od formy isn't T:? On nie jest teraz zmęczony. S: He isn't tired now. T: very = bardzo T:? On nie jest zajęty teraz ale jest bardzo zmęczony. S: He isn't very busy now but he is very tired. T: she = ona T:? ona jest S: she is T:? Ona nie jest S: She isn't T:? On jest teraz w pracy ale ona nie jest. Ona jest teraz bardzo zajęta w domu. S: He is at work now but she isn't. She is very tired at home now. T: in = w: na przykład w Londynie to in London. T:? On nie jest teraz w Londynie ponieważ on jest w Nowym Yorku. S: He isn't in London now because he is in New York. T:? Ona jest teraz w Londynie, ale nie jest bardzo zajęta ponieważ nie jest w szkole. S: She is in London now but she isn't very busy because she isn't at school. T: Znajdźmy teraz wszystkie ćwiczone konstrukcje na planszy i powtórzmy to co przed
20 chwilą ćwiczyliśmy. The teacher asks similar (sometimes the same) questions checking the students' understanding. At this stage of the lessons the students are allowed to look at the wallchart. Follow-up activity: T: Powtórzmy teraz wymowę nowo poznanych słów: I, you, he, she, busy, tired, late, to go, to work, to buy, at home, at work, at school, on time, now, and, but, because, not, in, from Poland, very, am, are, is. The students repeat individually and in chorus newly acquired words An example of homework. The homework is a written obligatory assignment. Its aim is to consolidate the language material which was practised in the classroom. The students are told to check the spelling of the English words on the wall chart and if they have some doubts about the grammar, they consult the Section 1 (point 1 of the wall chart). The exercise. Instruction. Translate the following sentenses from Polish into English. 1. Idź! Pracujcie! Kup! 2. Jestem teraz w szkole. 3. On nie jest teraz w pracy. 4. Ona jest teraz bardzo zajęta. 5. Ty nie jesteś teraz bardzo zajęty ponieważ nie jesteś teraz w pracy. 6. Ona jest teraz w Nowym Yorku. 7. Jestem teraz w domu. 8. Ona nie jest teraz w domu ponieważ ona jest w pracy. 9. Bądź na czas.
21 10. On nie jest spóźniony. On jest punktualnie. 11. Nie jestem teraz w pracy ponieważ jestem bardzo zmęczony. 12. Ona nie jest z Londynu, ona jest z Nowego Yorku. 13. Jestem z Polski. 14. On nie jest teraz bardzo zajęty. 15. Jestem teraz bardzo zmęczony A sample audio material script. The audio materials are given to the students after the whole course. The recordings serve as a tool for practising the pronunciation and for reviewing the material from the course. The numbers in the brackets, e.g. (9) refer to the points on the wall chart and indicate the place of the grammar structure which is applied.in a given sentence. The student, if confused, can easily locate a troublesome grammar struture on the wall chart and revise it. Similar or the same sentences occured in the classrom or as a part of the students' homework. This is self-study material and the teacher does not check what the students do with it.
22 The script: Instrukcja : Przetłumacz i wypowiedz głośno zdanie wypowiadane po polsku przed usłyszeniem tłumaczenia w języku angielskim. Ćwicz aż osiągniesz zupełną automatyzację tzn. będziesz w stanie przetłumaczyć słowa i zdania na język angielski w sposób automatyczny i bez popełniania błędów. 1. Chciałbym zostać dzisiaj w domu. (9) PAUSE I'd like to stay at home today. 2. On chce sprzedać swój stary samochód. (2.1) PAUSE He wants to sell his old car. 3. Czy możesz mi pomóc? (4) PAUSE Can you help me? 4. Czy mnie rozumiesz? (2.1) PAUSE Do you understand me? 5. Jutro muszę wstać bardzo wcześnie. (8) PAUSE Tomorrow I must get up very early. 6. Czy ona znalazła wczoraj nową pracę? (10.1) PAUSE Did she find a new job yesterday? 7. Kto może mi pomóc? (4) PAUSE
23 Who can help me? 8. Ona właśnie to zrobiła. (14) PAUSE She's just done it. 9. Czy kiedykolwiek byłeś w Paryżu? (14) PAUSE Have you ever been to Paris? 10. Czy możesz zaczekać na mnie? (4) PAUSE Can you wait for me? 11. Czy potrzebujesz mojej pomocy? (2.1) PAUSE Do you need my help? 12. Jutro o tej porze będę leciał do Nowego Yorku. (12) PAUSE This time tomorrow I'll be flying to New York. 13. Gdzie ona była dwa dni temu? (10.1) PAUSE Where was she two days ago? 14. Bądź na czas, nie spóźnij się. (16) PAUSE Be on time, don't be late. 15. Zróbmy to teraz. (16) PAUSE Let's do it now. 16. Ona zdecydowała się wyjechać za granicę. (10.1) PAUSE
24 She decided to go abroad. 17. Czy jesteś bardzo zmęczony? (1) PAUSE Are you very tired? The wall chart. The wall chart is divided into six sections (columns). In the first four sections the grammar formulas are placed, sections 5 and 6 contain vocabulary items. Beneath the photo the content of each section is presented. The photo of the wall chart
25 SECTION 1 1. TO BE or not to be być albo nie być I am = I'm ja jestem you are = you're ty jesteś he is = he's on jest she is = she's ona jest it is = it's to jest we are = we're my jesteśmy you are = you're wy jesteście they are = they're oni/one są am I? - czy ja jestem? is he/she/it? - czy on/ona/to jest? Where is she? - Gdzie ona jest? are we/you/they? I'm not - ja nie jestem he/she/it is not (isn't) we/you/they are not (aren't) Przeszłość (was, were): I/he/she/it was was not = wasn't we/you/they were were not = weren't How are you today? - Jak się masz dzisiaj? Thanks, I'm fine. - Dziękuję, świetnie. How old are you? - Ile masz lat? I'm 5. How much is it? - Ile to kosztuje? It's 10 PLN To kosztuje 10 złotych
26 There is a book on the table. - Na stole jest/znajduje się książka. 2. TERAŹNIEJSZOŚĆ 1.czynności powtarzalne I/you/we/they buy a car. he/she/it buys a car Do I/you/we/they buy a car? Where do you buy a car? Does he/she/it buy a car? Who buys a car? I/you/we/they don't buy a car. he/she/it doesn't buy a car. often często, seldom rzadko always zawsze, usually zazwyczaj every day codziennie, never nigdy 2. now = at the moment teraz to be (am,are,is) + czasownik + ing He is buying a car now. Is he buying a car? What is he buying now? He is not (isn't) buying a car.! The price of petrol is going up. - Cena benzyny rośnie. (zmiany wokoł nas)! He's always doing it. - On zawsze robi to. (jesteśmy zirytowani tym faktem)
27 3. TO HAVE - mieć I/we/you/they have he/she/it has Do I/you/we/they have? Does he/she/it have? I/you/we/they don't have a car. He/she/it doesn't have a car. 4. CAN umieć, potrafić, móc I can buy a car. Can I do it? - Czy ja potrafię zrobić to? What can he do? - Co on potrafi zrobić? I can't buy a car. I could do it. - Potrafiłem robić to. I can see/hear a car. Widzę/słyszę samochód.
28 SECTION 2 5. I SHOULD powinienem I should buy a car. - Powinienem kupić samochód. (teraz lub w przyszłości) Should I buy a car? - Czy powinienem kupić samochód? Where should I buy a car? - Gdzie powinienem kupić samochód? I shouldn't buy a car. - Nie powinienem kupić samochodu. You shouldn't have done (3) it. Nie powinieneś był tego robić. (w przeszłości) 6. MUST = to have to - musieć I must buy it. = I have to buy it. Must I buy it? = Do I have to buy it? I don't have to buy it. 7. MUSTN'T nie wolno I mustn't buy a car. - Mnie nie wolno kupić samochodu. 8. MUST - w przeszłości (rozkaz) I had to buy a car. - Musiałem kupić auto. Did I have to buy a car? What did I have to buy? I didn't have to buy a car. (i nie kupiłem) You needn't have bought (3) it.
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