1 ORGANIZACJA I ZARZĄDZANIE KWARTALNIK NAUKOWY Nr 1(13) WYDAWNICTWO POLITECHNIKI ŚLĄSKIEJ GLIWICE 2011
2 SPIS TREŚCI 1. Nina STĘPNICKA Nowoczesne formy współpracy przedsiębiorstw handlowych w Polsce i na świecie w świetle koncepcji płaskiego świata T.L. Friedmana Stefan BERG Połączenie zadań Six Sigma oraz Design for Six Sigma w procesowym modelu interaktywnym dla całościowej poprawy w domenie produktowej i procesowej Radha R. SHARMA, Shallini SAGGAR Badania i praktyka w zakresie etyki biznesu: przykład indyjski przedsiębiorstwa Shreyans Paper Mills Ltd João J. FERREIRA, Alcino COUTO, Carla Susana MARQUES, Francisco DINIZ, Deolinda ALBERTO Wzmacnianie konkurencyjności regionalnej poprzez zastosowanie modelu Potrójnej Spirali. Studium przypadku Anna RAKOWSKA Współpraca między uczelniami a biznesem jako warunek konieczny dla rozwoju przywództwa i umiejętności menedżerskich wspierających przetrwanie organizacji Agnieszka SITKO-LUTEK, Monika JAKUBIAK Samoocena kompetencji studentów kierunków ekonomii i zarządzania w kontekście wymagań rynku pracy Wojciech KOWALSKI Character merchandising na tle prawa francuskiego i niemieckiego Grażyna OSIKA Procesy innowacyjne w organizacji a koncepcja systemów informacyjnych Karla Weicka Katarzyna SIENKIEWICZ-MAŁYJUREK Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem publicznym w samorządzie lokalnym istota i inicjatywy Jerzy M. ŚCIERSKI Kierunki zmian w podejściu do systemów zarządzania jakością 151
3 Nina STĘPNICKA Uniwersytet Humanistyczno-Przyrodniczy, Piotrków Trybunalski Instytut Stosunków Międzynarodowych MODERN FORMS OF COOPERATION OF TRADING ENTERPRISES IN POLAND AND OVER THE WORLD IN THE LIGHT OF T.L. FRIEDMAN S FLAT WORLD CONCEPTION Summary. The main point of the thesis is an analysis of modern ways of managing business activity in Poland and over the world, based on cooperation and mutual connections, omitting competition, as one of significant terms of market economy. The reference to considerations of the thesis are examples of well-known companies and enterprises operating in traditional way, as well as using Internet channel and functioning only on the Internet. The examples used in order to illustrate these targets are: QXL Poland and Allegro, ebay Inc., Li&Fung, Wal-Mart and others. The main terms, characteristic for discussed issue include: outsourcins, insourcing, offshoring, uploading and in-forming. Keywords: enterprise, outsourcing, offshoring, Internet NOWOCZESNE FORMY WSPÓŁPRACY PRZEDSIĘBIORSTW HANDLOWYCH W POLSCE I NA ŚWIECIE W ŚWIETLE KONCEPCJI PŁASKIEGO ŚWIATA T. L. FRIEDMANA Streszczenie. Celem głównym pracy jest analiza nowoczesnych metod prowadzenia działalności gospodarczej w Polsce i na świecie, opierających się na współpracy i wzajemnych powiązaniach, z pominięciem konkurencji, jako jednego z istotnych pojęć gospodarki rynkowej. Punktem odniesienia dla rozważań pracy będą przykłady znanych firm i przedsiębiorstw prowadzących działalność gospodarczą w sposób tradycyjny, jak również z wykorzystaniem kanału internetowego oraz funkcjonujących tylko w Internecie: QXL Poland i Allegro, ebay Inc., Dell, Li&Fung, Wal-Mart i inne. Do najważniejszych pojęć, charakterystycznych dla omawianej problematyki, zaliczają się: outsourcing, insourcing, offshoring,
4 6 N. Stępnicka homesourcing, uploading, in-forming. Metodami i technikami badawczymi wykorzystanymi w pracy są między innymi: study case, badania porównawcze przedsiębiorstw, badania statystyczne, analiza rzeczywistości ekonomicznej. Słowa kluczowe: przedsiębiorstwo, outsourcing, offshoring, Internet 1. Introduction Outsourcing and offshoring as two of ten forces flattening the world in the light of Th. L. Friedman s conception are considered as characteristic phenomena of 1990s and record lasting accumulation trend. The number of companies and enterprises, both Polish and foreign ones, which decide on using outsourcing and offshoring in their business models increases around per cent annually. This deputing of different services to external domestic and foreign companies is currently identified with companies and enterprises aiming at activity perfection which is determined by concentration on main targets and ideas of the company s activity and deputing other tasks with lasting realization term and high costs to own external companies. The principal aim of the thesis is an attempt to point out methods of conducting market activity in Poland and over the world, which has become one of the main flattening forces and are dependent on collaboration and cooperation. Outsourcing and offshoring are two of ten forces in Th. L. Friedman s conception which foster innovativeness of enterprises, both traditional and operating on the Internet and are necessary for their functioning on broad scale. Nowadays the aim of every company and enterprise concentrates on issues concerning: efficiency and rationalization of activity, reduction of costs, profitability of production, trade and service activity, maintaining leading position on the market, etc. Most of these aims and determinants if not all of them are nowadays possible to achieve mainly thanks to cooperation of previously competing enterprises in the field of outsourcing and offshoring. Phenomena of outsourcing and offshoring concern more and more enterprises and the demand for new localizations is fulfilled by rising supply. These aspects and circumstances, among others have disposed the author to wider analysis of outsourcing and offshoring as two modern forms of cooperation.
5 Modern forms of cooperation 7 2. The conception of flat world and its determinants In the old times the opinion that the world is flat, which everyone believed in predominated. However later came up the people who decided to deny this belief. Despite their successful persuasion, today it turned out that the world really is flat. (Whitney, Bloch 2007). The flatness of the world can be identified with an allegory of many occurrences, which take place in different dimensions of people s and organizations environment. We deal with the flat world when some processes and phenomena, which seemed so distant and impossible to achieve, mostly because of barriers: of time, geographical, lexical, language, cultural, profitability, etc., now are for the asking. Thanks to hi-tech used in interpersonal contacts, the force and the power of the flat world reached primarily those countries, companies, subjects and units which: surrendered to its will, became involved in its creation, use the knowledge, abilities and possibilities in its creation and are ready to go only forward. Globalization and advanced digital innovations, which commit not only countries but also enterprises, companies and people in different business actions and enable communication from any place in the world, can be listed as aspects which affect further development of the Flat World. For Friedman (2005) the Flat World seeks its source in chronologically differentiated historical events, gaining somewhat the form of different clues, remarks, interdictions or laws. The first group of factors dates back to the end of 1980s, while the second group is based on more current phenomena. Among the forces that have flattened the world, we can list, according to Th. L. Friedman: 1. Date of the ninth November 1989, which symbolizes The Fall of The Berlin Wall, 2. The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) and internet browsers, the pop of the speculative bubble, 3. The rise and integration of software which provides the ability to manage workflow, making the faster than ever before flow of work between companies and continents possible, 4. Uploading, meaning publicizing custom transmissions: files, pictures and other materials and spreading their content on the global scale omitting any traditional organizations and official institutions (GNU/Linux, social network services: Facebook, Nasza Klasa, Wikibooks, 1 Wkitionary, 2 Wikinews, 3 Wkipedia, blogging), 1 Wikibooks websites containing digital textbooks and user s manuals. 2 WIkitionary websites containing dictionaries and thesauruses. 3 Wikinews webpage containing news that is edited by the users themselves.
6 8 N. Stępnicka 5. Outsourcing, meaning deputing a part of production with realization that, for various subjective or objective reasons could be unprofitable, to other domestic subjects, 6. Offshoring, meaning moving whole factories abroad, where the same product, in the same way is produced, using only cheaper work power, subsidized energy and lower costs of insurance or lower taxes, 7. Supply chaining; using the chain of supply a level cooperation between suppliers, sellers and customers in order to: create surplus value, meaning supplying an enterprise and unification of standards and facilitating global cooperation, 8. Insourcing relied on synchronization of global chain of supply for different companies, both big and small ones (UPS, 4 FedEx), 9. In-forming, being a notion concerning a unit, relied on the possibility of building individual information, knowledge and entertainment supply chain (internet search engines: Google, Yahoo!, MSN Search; devices like: TiVo, 5 ipod and others), 10. Steroids, meaning some new technologies, which contribute to strengthening other forces that flatten the world. From the point of view of modern forms of cooperation between countries, enterprises and units, both in Poland and all over the world, the significant meaning are possessed by those processes and phenomena that: foster further development of economic, social and political life, lead to reduction of costs and/or increase in efficiency of production and create a new surplus value. The significant meaning is also held by: economic development and change in the corporation s structure, as the modern organization has become a complex web of mutual enterprises which uses resources from all over the world. The flat world is characterized by enormous communication easiness, powered by the technology and a vast geographical spread of team members or companies (Whiteley, Bloch 2007). In the Flat World modern enterprises and companies with global range create bonds, govern and manage the team of people hundreds of kilometers away. 3. Outsourcing as one of the forces that flatten the world and a new form of cooperation between competing enterprises The origins of outsourcing date back to 1960s. The business conception of this flattening force has formed already in 1920s, when in 1923, Henry Ford s 6 famous statement went 4 UPS, United Parcel Service is a courier company known all over the world. 5 TiVo a device which allows a user to become an editor of television programme, meaning recording digitally favourite programmes and watching them omitting unwanted commercials. 6 Henry Ford ( ) was an industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company. In 1896 he built his first car prototype; three years later he became co-founder of Detroit Automobile Company, transformed into Cadillac Motor Company.
7 Modern forms of cooperation 9 down in history: If there s something we can t do more efficiently, cheaper and better than our competition, there is no sense doing it and we should employ someone to do the better work for us (Henry Ford 2010). The usage of outsourcing is connected to necessity of making an important decision: make or buy. The main point of outsourcing is concentrating of an enterprise on its own, base proficiencies, while all other processes which do not constitute the enterprise s specialization, can be deputed to other enterprises or companies, for which these proficiencies are their base proficiencies. 7 Outsourcing and its different forms is used by both enterprises that operate in traditional way 8 and companies that deal with Internet trade activity. The industrial structure of companies that use outsourcing services is also differentiated. These companies most frequently operate in: logistic, metallurgical, IT, accommodation, banking, transportation branches (table 1). Table 1 Examples of Polish and foreign companies operating traditionally and on the Internet and using outsourcing or its related forms in their business models Name of the company Amazon ebay Inc. Huta Batory Huta Łabędy Huta im. Tadeusza Sedzimira KGHM Polska Miedz SA QXL Poland/Allegro US Steel Kosice Urząd Miasta Katowice (Katowice City Hall) Selected actions and services that subject to outsourcing Hosting service, online payment Online payment, online stores service, advertising, promotion IT services IT services, resource, finances and costs management and management supporting systems Clearing services Stores logistic service, hosting, service s Server, online payment, shopping using mobile phone, advertising, etc. Duty-free shops service, warehousing strategic resources, security of property, installation and service of energetic devices, forklift trucks service, renovation services, social services Hosting of: City Hall s online service, publishing City Hall s Public Information Bulletins and Public Information Bulletins of city units controlled by Katowice City Hall, public procurements announcements of Katowice City Hall and units controlled by Katowice City Hall publishing system DTP services (Desktop publishing) Wydawnictwa Szkolne i Pedagogiczne Source: Own study based on: Postrach (2010), Smierciak, Zawistowski (2009), Wikipedia.pl (2010). 7 Concerning specialist services which can be bought by enterprises within outsourcing such fields can be listed: advertisement agencies services and Public Relations, outlets research, logistic services, property security, IT services, staff training, taxes and accounting. 8 Managing economic activity without using the Internet, in the real world.
8 10 N. Stępnicka Well-known examples of internet companies that use outsourcing are: QXL Poland, ebay Inc., Amazon, as well as numerous internet shops. The latter use outsourcing mainly to establish new stores, using complex e-commerce solutions created by other companies. As A. Mezynski reports (2010), the main suppliers of such solutions for Polish online stores are: Soteshop, KQS.store, istore.pl, oscommerce, Shoper.pl, Otwarte24.pl, Home.pl, Business Shop and IAI-Shop.com. Concerning issues related to providing outsourcing services for internet companies, the most popular and biggest auction service in Poland Allegro.pl, governed and coordinated by QXL Poland a company from Poznan which is a property of South-African collective investment scheme Naspers, seems to be an important example. Allegro.pl, as well as other domestic and foreign auction services (Swistak.pl, Aukcjusz.pl, AukcjeFM.pl, Kiermasz.pl, ebay.com and ebid.com group services, DelCampe and others), unlike online shops and other non-internet companies that use outsourcing services, do not own rights to any of selling products and the main source of income of those companies are: payments for giving a position in this huge virtual market to all sellers 9 and commissions for selling products. Managing auction service and other foreign services, connected to Allegro, 10 QXL uses outsourcing services in: Analysis of users behaviors (Kozak 2002), Transferring and storing informational resources, Supplying hardware infrastructure, Online payment service, Marketing internet search engines services, Organization, planning, monitoring and reporting emissions of web banners on websites, Effective solutions in interactive marketing and relationship marketing, Preparation and execution of advertising campaigns in traditional media, on the Internet and by mobile phones, Organization of security system in online transactions that are made through the service, Provision of dedicated line services, Organization and preparation of nationwide events. Outsourcing as one of the forces that flatten the world makes previously competing enterprises begin to cooperate, making their activity profile dependent on activity profile of other companies. Outsourcing in the sphere of traditional trade and e-commerce is an activity model characteristic for Globalization 3.0, used in almost every branch and sectors of market. Especially fast development of outsourcing services is observed on the Internet, and it is 9 Both individual sellers and stores and other companies that sell their products or services by Allegro.pl.
9 Modern forms of cooperation 11 clearly visible in companies and services which are most of all a place for trade offers: previously mentioned auction services, advertising services and Internet stores. 4. Usage of offshoring and related forms in trading enterprises functioning The process of globalization, connected with technology development and drop of transportation and communication prices, stated by K. Rybinski (2007) as the death of distance, resulted in development of outsourcing as well as offshoring, 11 being a critical factor of business environment shaping. According to M. Krynicki (2006) offshoring is the brightest manifestation of global shift in production activity, leading to international division of work in the region of services providing. The definition of offshoring is connected with the ability to isolate and move nonproduction functions of a company or production and services that can be produced or manufactured remotely to any country, lowering the costs or increasing quality. Offshoring can be used in different branches and sectors, from building services and production processes to research development activity, marketing or consultative and legal services. The examples of companies that use offshoring and its related forms in their business models are: Li&Fung, 12 Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., 13 Reebok, Adidas, Nike or Volkswagen (table 2). Examples of Polish and foreign companies that conduct traditional activity and use offshoring and its related forms in their business models Table 2 Name of the company Selected activities and services that are Activities and own services subordinate to offshoring Adidas Production, logistics Research development tasks British Petroleum Marketing, transportation, petroleum and No information gas production General Electric Call centers, logistics services, leasing No information services Li&Fung Production, packing, marking, logistics Supply export, distribution, selling, marketing Nokia Management and administration of operational activities, software for Research development tasks, selling network, marketing teamwork, technical support Puma Production, logistics Project tasks, marketing 10 Auction services in East-Central Europe: in Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kazakhstan, Russia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Ukraine and Hungary, belonging to QXL Poland. 11 Also called captive offshoring. 12 Li&Fung is an enterprise founded in 1906 in China, specializing in complete organization of supply on the global scale. 13 Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is an American network of supermarkets founded in 1962 by Sam Walton.
10 12 N. Stępnicka cont. table 2 Reebok Production, logistics Research development tasks, selling, marketing Unilever Purchase, production and supplying of No information printed materials Volkswagen Accounting, staff, cleaning works Production, research, selling network, marketing Wal-Mart Production, supplying, logistics Selling, marketing Source: Own study on the basis of: Smierciak, Zawistowski (2009), Wikipedia.pl (2010). The examples of foreign companies that act according to offshoring in Poland are (Ciesielska 2009): In contact centers, whose functioning condition includes gaining employees with foreign languages: Stream International, 14 KRUK, 15 Operator Telekomunikacyjny Dialog, Lukas Bank and Agencja Handlowa ITP, 16 In Research and Development, employing qualified work power with specialized skills: Plivia, 17 Avon, Delphi. 18 In the sphere of common services centers, which take business functions over from international corporations and emerge in places where low costs of work occur in connection with productivity and work quality: KPMG, 19 Philips, Thompson. Offshoring activities in traditional companies 20 concern mainly such forms of activity as: production, logistics, accounting, technical support and data archiving. For example, Chinese company Li&Fung is not the owner of any factory, while it coordinates network consisting 8300 suppliers operated by over seventy supply offices located in over forty countries. It deals with supply export, distribution and retailing, ensuring employment for over two million people in supply network. It does not employ any production employee (Fung, Fung, Wind 2008). The company Li&Fung using its knowledge about clothing market deputes production and distribution processes at all times to only the company which is prepared to fulfill 14 Stream International belongs to the group of global leaders in granting technical support for electronic and IT technology producers and communication. It specializes in providing highest quality customer service and technical service for computer, electronic and telecommunication hardware users. Consortium founded in 1990s in the United States. It owns 50 contact center departments in 22 countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Africa. 15 Capital group KRUK is the branch leader and key player both in the field of debt collection and purchase and sale of receivables. 16 ITP operates in selective cosmetics distribution branch. 17 Pliva is a Croatian pharmaceutical enterprise with headquarters in Zagreb. 18 Delphi is leading global supplier of electronic solutions and system technologies for motoring sector. The combine has invested over $280 million in Poland, both in production and in research and development. It employs over four thousand people in four production facilities and modern Technical Center in Cracow. 19 KPMG is one of the biggest companies providing so called professional services (audit, tax consulting and market advisory services). KPMG employs people in global network in 146 countries, including 1200 people in Poland. 20 Operating in real, not on the Internet.
11 Modern forms of cooperation 13 customers expectations in the best way. Harmonization of such process network is only one of the ways to stimulate company growth. Besides, it deals with: designing supply chain, cooperation with factories in different regions, dividing processes into parts, deputing them to different companies in different localizations and then managing scattered processes (Chan Kim, Mauborgne 2008). The phenomenon of offshoring, although still in development phase, is most bright sign of global shift in production activity, leading to new international division of work in the sphere of providing services (Krynicki 2006). Development perspectives of offshoring and other forms of cooperation are not unrestricted, though. In the case of many services, closeness of receivers, interacting with them or trust are more important than their potential advantages (Krynicki 2006). The challenge that countries which move services abroad face is the one of restricting social and technical adjustable costs to minimum and making sure that the people affected directly by negative effects of offshoring transition period is as mild as possible and adjusting processes as successful as possible. 5. The economic analysis of outsourcing and offshoring usage in business activity of companies and enterprises The economic analysis concerning the usage of outsourcing and offshoring requires an answer to question: make or buy? which should be supported by solid analysis of factors that could affect the financial outcome of an enterprise. According to A. Koliński (2010), the decision of maintaining own production ( make ), or deputing this process outside ( buy ) is dependent on production capacity and relies on few basic costs categories: fixed, 21 variable, 22 unit, 23 transaction. 24 Pursuant to this assumption following such possibilities should be concerned: 21 Fixed costs are costs that do not change with the changes in production quantity in the short term. In the long term, all costs are variable. 22 Variable costs are costs that change with the changes in production quantity in the short term: when production increases, variable costs will increase as well; when production decreases, variable costs will decrease as well. 23 Unit costs (average) are costs of a produced unit. We distinguish: unit fixed costs, unit variable costs and unit gross costs. 24 Transaction costs are costs that emerge from cooperation of many economic subjects. They can be divided into groups: gathering information costs (necessary to check if given good is available on the market, who offers the best conditions, etc. These are typical costs of market research and agreements planning), marketing and contract signing costs (necessary to ensure a transaction), control costs (born for assuring that the other side has ensured contract conditions. These can be marketing costs, control costs, process and outcome monitoring costs, corruption and opportunism caused losses insurance). Source: Transaction cost (2010).
12 14 N. Stępnicka Having free production capacities; in this situation own production is more profitable when variable costs of own production are lower than other enterprise production s buying costs, Hold-up of own production capacities; in the situation of own production s hold-up outsourcing and offshoring is more profitable when costs of buying other enterprise s production including other enterprise s fixed costs are lower than gross costs of own production, Possibility of development of own production capacities; in this situation making a decision of own or other enterprise s production is more complicated and the make or buy analysis relies its assumptions on decision threshold: Ksw Kso Decision threshold = Kzo Kzw where: K SW own production fixed costs, K SO outsourcing and offshoring fixed costs, K ZW own production variable costs, K ZO outsourcing i offshoring variable costs. If prepared prognosis plan higher demand than the value of threshold decision, the more profitable solution is development of production capacities and own production. In an opposite situation the purchase of products is more profitable. Most frequently outsourcing and offshoring allow decreasing of fixed costs, assuming that the price for outsourcing and offshoring services the companies and enterprises must pay is higher than acquired unit variable costs. Therefore reducing the costs is connected with the buy option. It results mainly from the fact that the fixed costs contain: Costs directly connected with production which can be deputed to external subjects by outsourcing or offshoring, Common costs that have been accounted, Therefore fixed costs count as the first group of costs which that undergo reduction, because liquidation of production means liquidation of fixed costs and this reduction is treated as decision cost (Postrach 2010) If buying or production fixed costs are the same and no savings in analyzed costs after deputing production to external companies occur, the choice is made by comparing the price with unit variable costs. The upper limit of profitability for buying options is then set by decision costs (significant) which are unit variable costs (offered price cannot be higher
13 Modern forms of cooperation 15 than these costs). Fixed costs which do not undergo reduction are non-decision costs (not significant) as any decision made by a company does not influence their level (Postrach 2010). If the suggested price for a service is lower than production s unit variable costs in turn, entrepreneurs in their economic account should refer to the buy option no matter what the size of the order is. The problem of choice occurs when fixed costs for make option are higher and unit variable costs lower than those for counter option, meaning suggested price is higher than unit variable costs of production on one s own. It means that commissioning production or tasks to other companies we gain savings on fixed costs, but higher variable costs. Comparative profit calculus of own production and purchase costs is one of many criterions of outsourcing and offshoring estimation analysis. Other tools that support making a decision of outsourcing and offshoring is SWOT 25 analysis, Porter Five Forces Analysis, 26 or quality analyses. Outsourcing and offshoring analysis based on costs shows some regularity: at the beginning of economic activity when an enterprise shows low sales level, lack of capital, lack of stable development perspective, outsourcing and offshoring of many fields of enterprise s activity is not only profitable but also recommended solution. However, with sales development, expansion into new markets, strengthening the brand, companies should verify shaped structure of economic activity and business process realization with usage of outsourcing and offshoring (Kolinski 2010). The remarkable influence on outsourcing and offshoring of business processes development and their production have also transaction costs, as they determine the level of usage of these solutions by enterprises and companies. Transaction costs are not so much connected with production and service processes effectiveness as with measures taken to gain and maintain cooperation with suppliers, quality verification and supplying products and services in satisfying for clients expectations way. Enterprises and companies should then aim not so much at limiting transaction costs themselves as limiting total costs of enterprise s functioning (Daniel, Kodwani, Datta 2009). We have to assume that in the situation of using outsourcing or offshoring transaction costs are definitely higher than in the moment when enterprise decides on internal realization 25 SWOT analysis is and analysis of strong and weak points, as well as chances and risks. 26 Porter five Forces Analysis is an analysis of five factors shaping attractiveness of an enterprise for current and future investors, based on following components: suppliers influence force and possibility to pressurize sector s enterprises, buyers influence force and possibility to pressurize sector s enterprises, fighting intensity inside the sector, thread of appearance of new producers and thread of appearance of substitutes. Development possibilities and sector s attractiveness are lower when the suppliers and buyers pressure on the sector is higher, when the possibilities of entering the market for the new producers or appearance of substitutes are higher and when the competition between producers in the sector is higher.
14 16 N. Stępnicka of defined process. Validity of introducing both processes is determined by whether total costs associated with separation of specific process, including all expenses associated with providing services or supplying products are lower in the moment than in the moment when an organization would execute them on its own. Transaction costs associated with outsourcing and offshoring, in most cases posses the variable, not constant character. It is important for enterprises because as a result of changes in global environment, relatively fast reduction of born costs in the moment of external demand reduction is possible (Ciesielska 2009). 6. Abstract In currently lasting outsourcing and offshoring development wave, originated in XXI century, dynamic introduction of more complicated business processes, based on the knowledge and concerning disciplines like: research and development, medicine, law, accounting, as well as highly complicated services which supply companies and enterprises clients with high surplus value emerged. This third wave of outsourcing and offshoring is connected with the necessity of seeking human resources which posses both useful skills and ability to join them into one specialization by some enterprises and companies. However, as far as success and achievement connected with implementation of outsourcing and offshoring brings significant reduction of functioning costs for companies and enterprises, failure of implementation of analyzed processes is connecter with possibility of high financial risk, especially in the context of using offshoring, concerned with absorption of distinguished process and underestimation of transaction costs. Rapid development of outsourcing and offshoring, falling on last thirty years made traditional and Internet companies and enterprises like: Allegro.pl, ebay, Amazon, Microsoft, General Electric, Intel and American Express depend on quick development of their companies, assuming that their success and good results depend also on skilful deputing parts of their processes and services to competing domestic and foreign companies. For Polish and foreign enterprises entering the zone of changes that are brought by Globalization 3.0 and the Flat World has become a parameter that points on its competitiveness, while constant process of adjusting to transforms that occur all the time in the global trade is the parameter of situation, where enterprises understood: what the flatness of the world is evinced in, by using which mechanisms and tools they should function and how important today outsourcing, offshoring, networking or insourcing are.
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16 18 N. Stępnicka 20. Śmierciak M., Zawistowski A.: Outsourcing kiedy i na jakich warunkach. Warszawa Whiteley Ph., Bloch S.: How to Manage in a Flat World: Get Connected to Your Team Wherever They Are, FT Press, Recenzenci: Prof. dr hab. inż. Jan Stachowicz Prof. dr hab. Ewa Bojar
17 Stefan BERG Regional Manager Six Sigma Tenneco Inc. Edenkoben, Germany THE COMBINATION OF THE SIX SIGMA AND DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA WORKFLOW INTO AN INTERACTIVE PROCESS MODEL FOR HOLISTIC IMPROVEMENT ON PRODUCT AND PROCESS DOMAIN Summary. Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) are both very successful strategies for the enhancement or the development of new products. Many researchers have studied Six Sigma and DFSS over the years and there is consensus that companies do benefit from applying both methodologies together. A clear understanding of when to use which approach is essential to optimize the potential of both methodologies. In general, the area of focus for projects is either on the process domain or on the product domain. By expanding the improvement scope of both domains, interactions of the Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma methodology for improvement are possible and lead to enhanced process models for improvement, facilitating a holistic improvement approach. 102 implemented projects from Tenneco Inc. s global engineering centers have been analyzed and grouped according to this model. Keywords: Six Sigma, Design for Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, Lean Product Development, Engineering POŁĄCZENIE ZADAŃ SIX SIGMA ORAZ DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA W PROCESOWYM MODELU INTERAKTYWNYM DLA CAŁOŚCIOWEJ POPRAWY W DOMENIE PRODUKTOWEJ I PROCESOWEJ Streszczenie. Six Sigma oraz Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) stanowią dwie bardzo skuteczne strategie wspomagania i rozwoju nowych produktów. Wielu badaczy, analizując przez lata Six Sigma oraz DFSS, doszło do wniosku, że przedsiębiorstwa
18 20 S. Berg czerpią korzyści ze stosowania obydwu metodologii jednocześnie. Klarowne rozumienie, kiedy należy wykorzystywać, które z tych podejść, jest kluczowe dla uzyskania optymalnego potencjału metod. Obszar projektów stanowią zarówno procesy, jak i produkty. Poprzez rozszerzenie zakresu poprawy obu tych dziedzin, możliwa staje się poprawa interakcji Six Sigma oraz Design fo Six Sigma, co prowadzi do stworzenia lepszych modeli uwzględniających podejście charakteryzujące poprawę w rozumieniu całościowym. Według modelu zaprezentowanego w niniejszym artykule przeanalizowano i pogrupowano 102 projekty wdrożone w globalnych centrach firmy Tenneco Inc. Słowa kluczowe: Six Sigma, Design for Six Sigma, Lean Six Sigma, odchudzony rozwój produktu, inżynieria 1. Introduction Six Sigma DMAIC was developed by Motorola in the 1980s as an enhancement of their Total Quality Management (TQM) approach focusing on quality improvement. Companies such as General Electric (GE) developed the concept even further and extended the application of Six Sigma tools to their entire business, including the development of new products focusing on financial gain and customer satisfaction. From an engineering point of view, Six Sigma offers a rigorous, data-driven procedure for process and product improvement. 1 A) Product design baseline not ok. Improvement of function. Manufacturing process not involved. B) Process baseline nok. Improvement of process performance. Product design not involved. A) B) PRODUCT DOMAIN DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL PROCESS DOMAIN Fig. 1. Scenario 1: DMAIC methodology structured improvement of products and processes Rys. 1. Scenariusz 1: metoda DMAIC strukturyzowana poprawa produktów i procesów 1 Brand J., Berg S., Garcia P.: Using Six Sigma concepts in the engineering process of automotive suppliers: Analysis of an acoustical test bench, SAE AE191, Detroit.
19 The combination of the Six Sigma 21 Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) targets the concurrent development of a new or radically redesigned product and all of the processes (Research, Design, Production, Logistics and Distribution, Service and Sales) to enable the product to achieve Six Sigma business performance. The DFSS process can be seen as an algorithm, an iterative team-oriented process, to design and develop solutions in a structured and data driven way. 2 This engineering vision can be accomplished by integrating design best practices, reducing design vulnerabilities, permitting a balance between creativity and discipline with accountability and flexibility. The phases of this methodology for designing products (goods, information or services) or processes are Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify (DMADV), linking proven methods and tools taken from the Quality Management and Quality Engineering toolbox. 3 A) Product baseline not ok. Baseline can not be re-designed or improved to reach customer needs / targets. New product design needed. Existing manufacturing process sufficient therefore not involved. B) Process baseline not ok. Can not be re-designed or improved to reach customer needs / targets. New process design needed. Existing product design sufficient therefore not involved. A) B) PRODUCT DOMAIN DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE DESIGN VERIFY PROCESS DOMAIN Fig. 2. Scenario 2: DMADV methodology in the context of new product or process design Rys. 2. Scenariusz 2: metoda DMADV w kontekście projektowania nowego produktu lub procesu Implementing and utilizing Six Sigma in an engineering environment is accompanied by the question whether Six Sigma or Design for Six Sigma is the right approach. Many companies implemented Lean and Six Sigma programs in their manufacturing areas and a Design for Six Sigma program in their engineering departments. Due to the difference in tools and methodology and targeted audience, both programs run more parallel than cohesive. Many companies are successful with Six Sigma but are having difficulties with their Design for Six Sigma deployment. 4 2 Raisinghani M.S., et al.: Six Sigma: Concepts, tools and applications. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 2007, vol. 105, no. 4, p Yang K., El-Haik B.S: Design for Six Sigma. Mc Graw Hill, New York 2009, p Berg S.: Using Six Sigma throughout the product life cycle. Presentation at IQPC Conference, Berlin 2006.
20 22 S. Berg The conclusion from previous research on whether to use Six Sigma or Design for Six Sigma suggests that companies should apply both methodologies simultaneously, following clear project selection criteria. A major departure from existing product design guidelines would be an application for the Design for Six Sigma approach, where an incremental product improvement or enhancement would be a DMAIC Six Sigma case. 5 The focus of research and publications in this context is on the product domain, focusing on product improvement or development of new products. 2. Product domain versus process domain By definition the improvement focus in product engineering is on the product itself. However to develop best in class products in a very competitive environment may not only rely on a robust and data driven design methodology. The engineering process framework needs to be best in class, too in order to support and enable improvement efforts on the product domain. Looking at the process domain in engineering, it has been shown that Six Sigma and Lean principles can be applied on engineering processes as well. In particular testing and measurement routines in engineering benefit from a combined Lean and Six Sigma approach. 6 The Lean improvement focus targets reduction of lead time, variation and waste, complemented by the Six Sigma focus, looking at the quality of the measurement results. 7 Table 1 Complementary improvement focus for Lean and Six Sigma for an engineering process example testing and measurement process improvement Lean process improvement focus: Reducing number of process steps and lead time. Standardization of documentation and templates. Improving scheduling and planning. Improving of information flow and access. Clear flow information. Improving visual management. Six Sigma improvement focus: Improving reliability and quality of results. Improving stability and accuracy of measurements. Improving linearity and bias. Reducing variation due to repeatability and reproducibility. Introducing process controls. Looking at the challenges and opportunities during the development of new products there are multiple requirements in the product domain as well as in the process domain, at the 5 Antony J., Banuelas R.: Going from six sigma to design for six sigma: an exploratory study using analytic hierarchy process Berg S.: Using Six Sigma and DFSS to move the engineering culture from lagging to leading. Presentation at IQPC Conference, Amsterdam. 7 Baumann A., Garcia P., Kölsch R.: Six Sigma applied for transactional areas. SAE , 2007.
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