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1 PISMO ŚRODOWISKA BADACZY PROBLEMÓW RYNKU ukazuje się od 60 lat handel wewnêtrzny rynek przedsiębiorstwo konsumpcja marketing 2014 nr 1 (348) dwumiesięcznik Spis treści Changes of Polish Customers Attitudes Towards Non-Ethical Activities of Food Producers Agnieszka Izabela Baruk... 3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Enterprise Activity in Network Organisations Some Aspects Anna Skowronek-Mielczarek Upadłość konsumencka ujęcie teoretyczno-empiryczne Anna Dąbrowska Dysproporcje w poziomie oferty handlowej w województwie podkarpackim. Część II. Ocena zakresu asortymentowego placówek handlu detalicznego Piotr Cyrek Warunki mieszkaniowe ludności w krajach Unii Europejskiej Agnieszka Kozera, Cezary Kozera Społeczna odpowiedzialność a projakościowe zarządzanie organizacją Wiesław Łukasiński Symboliczny i społeczny wymiar marki wpływ na zachowania konsumentów odzieży Katarzyna Sempruch-Krzemińska Rola designera w procesie rozwoju nowego produktu Justyna Starostka Przegląd wydawnictw i recenzje Anna Dąbrowska, Konsument na rynku usług w Polsce Irena Ozimek Joanna Wyrobek, Wpływ eksportu na finanse przedsiębiorstwa Anna Skowronek-Mielczarek

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3 HANDEL WEWNĘTRZNY 2014;1(348): Agnieszka Izabela Baruk Politechnika Łódzka Changes of Polish Customers Attitudes Towards Non-Ethical Activities of Food Producers Article s goal: to identify and carry out a comparative analysis of the changes that occurred in opinions and attitudes of Polish final customers towards unfair activities addressed to them by food producers in the years Those activities were divided into 3 groups: related to the product, its packaging and advertising. Research approach: striving to achieve the main goal, the author used the analysis of findings of primary surveys, inclusive of the comparative analysis considering the time factor. Basic research findings: based on the findings of primary surveys the author drew the conclusion of a definite growth of the respondents radical attitudes in case of product-related activities, what indicates an increase in their sensitivity to such stimuli. At the same time, there took place an apparent growth in the respondents tolerance towards controversial activities related to packaging many of which were not any longer considered by a significant part of people as non-ethical, though still more than half of respondents coined most of those activities as unethical. Practical implications: results of the analysis of the changes taking place in the final customers opinions and attitudes should direct producers activities what is indispensable for implementation of the assumptions of the modern marketing orientation. Social implications: the emphasised in the article divergence between the postulated in the subject literature partner-like approach to customers and the actual behaviour demonstrated by manufacturers, which is aggravated by their non-ethical actions, precludes joint achievement of aims, as it is not then possible to establish a marketing commonwealth of market partners comprising the offerer and customers. Key words: final customer, producer, ethics, marketing, partnership. JEL code: M31 Introduction One of the key rules of marketing says that the customer is the most important for the offerer. One may ask the question if this is the statement conveying the actual state of affairs or merely a beautifully sounding slogan having not much with the reality. Analysing the presented in the literature of the subject views of various authors pointing out to the need to form long-term relationships with customers, seeing in them partners, with whom offerers cooperate preparing their market offer, setting up the marketing community 1 integrated 1 See A. Baruk, Offerers relations with customers. Marketing holistic approach and marketing practice, Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken 2013.

4 4 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... around their common pursuits, etc., as well as comparing them with empirical research findings, one may have an impression that the theoretical assumptions more and more depart from the practice. The place of partnership in the reality more and more often is taken up by manipulating customers being treated not as partners but as inquirers whose value is evaluated only with their current financial capacities. There is not seen or appreciates the fact that the customers potential is decided, first of all, by their knowledge, experience, feelings, etc. 2, which they certainly will not want to share with offerers treating them objectively 3. This is particularly apparent in case of food producers. There arises the question whether the application towards customers of the actions contradicting the rules of ethics allows establishing such partnership. Certainly not, the more so as customers, as more and more aware market participants, better and better can identify the unfair stimuli addressed to them 4. One may, therefore, have an impression that producers still many a time do not understand the need to apply the activities confirming equal treatment of customers, arousing their positive attitudes, in practice basing, first of all, on the use of the stimuli enabling achievement of short-term objectives, irrespective of long-term negative effects they may cause. Observing the market reality one may state that producers not only do not know the theoretical assumptions of contemporary marketing concepts or they forget of them, but they fail to observe one of the basic rules of social coexistence 5, which says: do as you would be done by 6. However, one should remember that ethical conduct is not, contrary to all appearances, simple; just the opposite, it is the complex decision-making process where there is the need to frequently make difficult choices 7. Authentic realisation the seemingly simple fact that without customers there cannot exist any firm, and adoption of their point of view 8 just is conducive to achievement of market objectives of the offerer is the first, crucial step in the process of implementation of the marketing orientation whose foundation is observance of the rules of ethics 9. The customers point 2 See R. P. Lee, G. Naylor, Q. Chen, Linking customer resources to firm success: The role of marketing program implementation, Journal of Business Research 2011, Vol. 64, Issue 4, pp Then it is not possible to create new knowledge (see Te Fu Chen, Hsuan-Fang Huang, An integrated CKVC model to building customer knowledge management synergy and impact on business performance, in: International Conference on Economics, Trade and Development. IPEDR, 2011, IACSIT Press, Singapore, pp ) reinforcing mutual partnership. 4 Surveys show that value of the socially responsible enterprise, i.e., inter alia, those observing the rules of ethics in business, is growing if the level of customers market awareness is high. See H. Servaes, A. Tamayo, The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Value: The Role of Customer Awareness, Management Science 2013, January, ( ). All the more producers should conduct ethically, also playing the role of market educators in relations to purchasers. 5 Rules of such a type takes into account in his definition of business ethics, inter alia, W. I. Sauser, Ethics in business: answering the call, Journal of Business Ethics 2005, Vol. 58, No. 4, pp They forget that ethics has been considered as the fundamental value prejudging to be or not to be of an organisation in the 21 st century. See S. E. Brimmer, The Role of Ethics in 21 st Century Organizations, Leadership Advance Online 2007, Issue XI, ( ). 7 See L. K. Trevino, M. E. Brown, Managing to be ethical: Debunking five business ethics myths, Academy of Management Executive 2004, Vol. 18, No. 2, pp On the importance of subjective assessment of customers in shaping their market attitudes and behaviours, including satisfaction and loyalty there write, among other things, Z. Yang, R. T. Peterson, Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty: The Role of Switching Costs, Psychology & Marketing 2004, Vol. 21, No. 10, pp They should take into account the changes occurring in the generally accepted in a given community system of values, what requires improvement thereof. Hence, they are not of a static nature but dynamic one. See P. E. Murphy, Developing,

5 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 5 of view must be understand in a broad sense, not relating it exclusively to the exposed in marketing the customers needs, but comprising with it, inter alia, their opinions and assessments of various activities taken by offerers as, based on them, there are shaped customers attitudes leading to definite market behaviours, inclusive of those purchase-related. Hence, the basic aims of this article are to identify and analyse opinions and attitudes of the food customers concerning the applied by food producers activities related to the product, its packaging and advertising as well as to carry out a comparative analysis of the changes occurred in this respect in the years The pursuit to achieve the mentioned aims was a basis for carrying out by the author primary surveys. They were implemented during 2 editions: in 2010 and A research instrument was a survey questionnaire, which contained in both research editions the identical questions, what enabled carrying out a comparative analysis of the results obtained in both years and, thus, determining the scope of possible changes in respondents opinions and attitudes concerning non-ethical marketing activities of food producers. During each research edition, it covered by 500 respondents representing practically all the age, income, social, etc. groups of final customers from the territory of Lublin Voivodeship. In both research editions, the demographic (for such traits as sex and age), social (for marital status), geographical (for residence), and economic (for the average monthly per capita income in the household) structure of the respondents was very similar, to what we were intentionally aspiring in order to have the achieved results with greater comparability. Hierarchy of the purchase-related decision-making factors and its changes in the years The changes taking recently place in Poland, particularly social and cultural, are also reflected in Polish customers market attitudes and behaviours. They are especially clearly visible in case of food products, what issues from the specificity of the needs being satisfied owing to them. These transformations concern, inter alia, frequency of shopping, places of purchasing products, amounts of one-time shopping, type of products being chosen, etc. 10. They are also seen in customers attitudes towards producers and their offer stemming from the level of compliance of their conduct with the rules of ethics, which will be in detail analysed in a further part of the article. However, earlier it is proper to pay attention to the factors taken into account by customers in the purchasing decision-making process concerncommunicating and promoting corporate ethics statements: a longitudinal analysis, Journal of Business Ethics 2005, Vol. 62, No. 2, pp Pentor Research International has been carrying out for several years cyclical surveys on Poles shopping behaviours, primarily in the FMCG market. The omnibus surveys are carried out on 1000-individuals representative samples of Poles aged 15+. See Zachowania zakupowe Polaków w 2010 roku [Poles shopping behaviours in the year 2010], ( ). Recently, such surveys were also carried out by other institutions, confirming the substantial changes in Polish customers shopping attitudes and behaviours. See ShoppingShow edition Zwyczaje zakupowe Polaków, ( ).

6 6 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... ing foodstuffs, particularly places occupied by them among the issues of ethical conduct of the manufacturer. As Table 1 shows, for respondents in both time-periods in question, of the key importance was general quality of the product and its price, though in 2012 by as much as 21% less people mentioned quality, what caused the drop of this factor from the 1 st to the 2 nd place in the hierarchy of determinants of food products purchasing. The simultaneous insignificant (by 2%) growth of the per cent of indications concerning price additionally evidences its growing importance. Nevertheless, one must remember that for many customers price is a direct mapping of the level of product quality, i.e. it is closely connected with quality. The still significant importance of quality is also evidenced by the fact that in 2012 the 3 rd place were taken by product nutritional properties (they were mentioned by as much as 55% of respondents), i.e. the factor directly issuing from the level of product quality. Earlier, it took only the 7 th place and was indicated by more than three times less percentage of respondents. Therefore, it was definitely the biggest growth of the per cent of indications as well as the greatest improvement of the place in the hierarchy. The so far discussed three factors were the only ones indicated in 2012 by more than half of the respondents, whereas in 2010 there were only two such factors. It is worth to note that then the product quality was mentioned by more than 80% of individuals, whereas two years later no factor was indicated by more than 70% of the respondents, what means a considerable reduction of differences between the factors occupying the first positions. Table 1 Factors affecting respondents purchasing decisions concerning food products Evaluated factor Indications (in %) Place Change in % places General quality of the product Price of the product Positive opinions on the product Confidence in the producer issuing from one s own experience Positive opinions on the producer Brand of the product Properties and nutrition values of the product Advertising Habit Purchase places Packaging appearance High charity activity of the producer Source: author s own elaboration based on surveys findings.

7 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 7 In 2012, all in all five decision-making factors were mentioned by more than 30% of the interviewees, i.e. by one more than in the earlier period. They included confidence based on one s own experience. Indeed, in 2010, it was indicated by a higher by 8% per cent of individuals, taking the 4 th place, but in 2012 it was still the factor influencing purchasing decisions of 31% of respondents, and the percentage change between it and the factor occupying the first position has significantly decreased against that of the year 2010 when it accounted for as much as 47%. Therefore, one may state that for the respondents there was more important their own experience related to a definite producer as, at the same time, a definitely lower percentage of people considered in 2012 as important positive opinions on the product (it was the highest drop compared to 2010 both in terms of percentage and of the place occupied) as well as positive opinions on the producer, which were mentioned by more than twice less people. The experience gained during contacts with a given offerer stems, inter alia, from their level of ethics. Low generates negative experience 11, whereas high is conducive to acquisition by customers of positive experience. As the carried out surveys show, each of them as experience gained personally acquires greater and greater importance compared to experience of other individuals, articulated by them in their opinions on the product and producer. Considering the definite decline of the role of others opinion, all the more it should not surprise the invariably low importance of advertising as the decision-making factor. It is also worth noting that habit played the third-rate role, albeit purchases of food products are stereotypically described as routine ones. It appears, however, that in practice they are not of such nature, what is also evidenced by the fact that in 2012 habit was mentioned by more than six times lower per cent of respondents than confidence based on one s own experience, i.e. the factor being subject to dynamic, sometimes even rapid, changes (particularly in case of noticing by the customer breach of the rules of ethics by the producer), what distinguishes it from the habit for which characteristic is the static nature. Moreover, in 2010, three factors were not taken into account by respondents while making decisions on purchasing food products, whereas in 2012 their number dropped to two. Nevertheless, in both periods, they included the producer s charity activity. Ignoring this factor by researchers may result from perception by them of the fact that charity campaigns undertaken by offerers often enough do not reflect their authentic care of weaker subjects, but they merely issue from their striving for a superficial creation of an image of socially responsible organisation, which has little common with its actual conduct towards customers, employees, etc., in relation to whom there are not observed the rules of ethics. Perception of such discrepancy reinforces the customers negative experience, negatively affecting their shopping decisions. 11 Producers must remember that the purchaser must as many times as 12 acquire their positive experience in contacts with a given offerer that it could be possible to obliterate only one negative experience share by one customer in relationships with that offerer, what is confirmed by empirical research findings. See A. K. Smith, R. N. Bolton, An Experimental Investigation of Service Failure and Recovery: Paradox or Peril?, ( ).

8 8 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... Respondents attitudes towards non-ethical activities taken by producers and their changes in the years In case of food products, customers purchasing experience concerns primarily the very products, their packaging and advertising. Although, of course, as it issues from the hitherto analysis, of the greatest importance as the decision-making factor related to future purchasing behaviour is experience related to the very product, the respondents also noticed nonethical producers activities related to packaging and advertisements, assessing them more or less negatively. However, taking into consideration a relatively greater role of features of the very product and related thereto experience, it is proper to start from analysing the changes that have occurred in respondents attitudes since As Table 2 shows, among the six evaluated activities closely related to the product, in case of as many as 5 in 2012 there increased the per cent of indications concerning the need to punish producers for use thereof. It needs to be emphasised that in each case it was a growth by more than 10%, while in case of three activities it exceeded 25%. The greatest growth (by as much as 32%) took place in case of improper product labelling which was in 2010 assessed as the activity, for which the producer should be punished, by the least group of people (29%, i.e. by less that the percentage growth of indications). A significant increase of the per cent of individuals believing that application of most activities in question should entail penalising of the producer caused that it exceeded 60%, and in case of four activities even 70%, each of which was in 2012 considered as punishable by most respondents than the activity mentioned earlier as punishable, i.e. adulteration of the product s composition. It is worth adding that in 2012 still the biggest part of respondents believed that producers should be punished for them but their per cent grew to 87%. The only activity, in case of which there took place a decline of the percentage of indications reflecting respondents opinions on the necessity to punish the producer for its use, was manufacturing of counterfeits of the known products, though, all in all, in 2012, 74% of respondents described them as non-ethical; however, a little bit bigger number of people viewed that its use should not entail producers punishing (respectively 36% and 38%). The growth of the percentage of respondents believing that the activities in questions should be punishable caused that there decreased, at the same time, the share of individuals considering particular activities as non-ethical, but not requiring penalisation of producers for the application thereof. In case of two activities, that decrease did not exceed 25%, and the biggest was in case of product dilution what undoubtedly affects its quality. Whereas in 2010 the biggest group of respondents (47%) thought that there was no need to punish the producer for them, despite the fact that this activity was non-ethical, in 2012 such an opinion was shared by only every tenth respondent (12%), what additionally indicates a definite growth of radicalism of respondents attitudes towards unfair activities of food producers. This conclusion is also confirmed by the fact that in case of the four activities in question in 2012 the percentage of individuals, according to whom it is not proper to punish producers for them, was lower than 20%, albeit two years earlier no activity was not in this context

9 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 9 Table 2 Respondents opinions on activities carried out by food producers related to the product (in %) Indications (in %) Evaluated activity Non-ethical activity for which the producer should be punished Non-ethical activity for which the producer should not be punished Activities on the borderline of ethics Fully ethical activity Change Change Change Change Adulteration of the product s composition Concealment of the fact of replacement of one component with another but worse Improper product labelling Application in the product s composition of additives not revealed on the packaging Product dilution Manufacturing of counterfeits of the known products Source: author s own elaboration based on surveys findings.

10 10 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... mentioned by such a low per cent of people; what s more, two of them were indicated by almost one half of the interviewed individuals. The characteristic activity was manufacturing counterfeits as, on the one hand, it was the only activity, in case of which there dropped the percentage of people believing that it should be proper to punish producers for them, but, at the same time, it was the only activity, in case of which no change took place as regards the share of people considering that it is non-ethical, but does not require punishing manufacturers. One may, therefore, state that it was the only product-related activity that did not affect stiffening respondents attitudes, which confirmation is also the two-fold growth of the percentage of respondents believing that is on the merge of ethics (from 13% to 26%). To be sure, in 2012, there also grew the number of respondents for whom the activity on the borderline of ethics is product dilution, though in 2010 nobody assessed it this way, but, at the same time, as much as to 79% there grew the per cent of individuals considering that producers must be punished for that act, what evidences greater radicalism of respondents. The definitely greatest drop of the per cent of individuals not considering explicitly a definite activity as non-ethical took place in case of improper product labelling (from 33% to 4%), what means that in 2012 as much as 96% of respondents considered it as non-ethical. As it was already mentioned, it was also the activity, in case of which there took place the greatest per cent of indications concerning the need to punish producers for them, what indicates a definite increase of customers sensitivity to such conduct of producers, maybe issuing from a relatively frequent experiencing thereof. On the other hand, no changes took place in respondents attitudes towards the activities in question, related to consideration whichever of them as fully ethical. Both in 2010 and in 2012, nobody described any of these activities as fully ethical. Most food products are offered in packaging which also may be an object of non-ethical impact on customers by producers. What s more, in practice they even apply more unfair acts concerning packaging than those related to the very products. Moreover, those activities are, as a rule, earlier apparent for customers as, before they get acquainted with the very product, they have contact with its packaging, and the experience they gain then may cause their negative purchasing decision. To be sure, respondents invariably alleged that they did not take into account the packaging as the decision-making factor, but the issue was with its appearance. And whatever perceived irregularities stemming from non-ethical conduct of producers are the grounds for negative experience which belonged to the factors of a great decision-making importance. Most of the nine activities in question, related to packaging, was in 2012 considered by a higher than in 2010 percentage of respondents as a non-ethical activity for which the producer should be punished (Table 3). It is worth noting that those growths were relatively higher than the drops which in case of three activities did not exceed 4%. In result, as many as five activities were then considered as requiring punishment of producers by at least 1/3 of the interviewees; two activities were assessed this way by at least 45% of individuals, whereas in 2010 only two activities were considered as punishable by more than 30% of

11 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 11 respondents, and only one activity by more than 1/3 of individuals. However, it must be added that in 2012 none of activities was considered as punishable non-ethical act by more than 50% of respondents, otherwise than the activities related to the very product; only one of them was so assessed by less than half of individuals. Moreover, in case of two activities in 2012, none respondent considered they should be punishable, although earlier each of the analysed activities had been in this context mentioned by at least a few per cent group of people. The matter is here with adding useless free goods to the packaging and application of a very similar shape of the packaging to the shape of the product packaging of a well-known producer. Hence, one may state that particularly these two activities were in 2012 considerably less important for the respondents, what is additionally evidenced by the fact that in their case there took place the biggest drop of the per cent of indications of the individuals considering them as non-ethical, though not requiring penalisation (respectively by 28% and 50%), with the simultaneous highest growth of the share of respondents in whose opinion these are the fully ethical activities (respectively by 58% and 70%). On their example one can, therefore, clearly see the changes taking place in respondents attitudes towards the packaging-related activities applied by producers, which over time become less radical, and even stop to be negative. This is particularly apparent while comparing for both period the number of activities which were by some respondents considered as fully ethical. In 2010, there were indicated only three such activities, whereas in 2012 as much as twice more, i.e. six activities. What s more, as many as three of them as fully ethical were in 2012 considered by at least every fourth interviewee, and two were rated so by as much as 89% and 73% of people, whereas earlier only one activity was considered as ethical by more than every fourth respondent (31%). It is proper to remind here that in case of activities related to the very product, disregarding the time span, none was considered as fully ethical, what clearly confirms a definitely greater sensibility of the interviewees to unfair activities related to the product compared with the activities related to packaging, also confirming its growth in case of the product-related activities and the drop as regards the packaging-related activities. As Table 3 shows, in 2010 every activity related to packaging, all in all, as non-ethical was considered by more than half of the interviewees, except for adding useless gifts to packaging, which were considered as non-ethical, in aggregate, by 32% of individuals. On the other hand, in 2012, three activities as non-ethical were considered by less than 50% of respondents, while two activities by less than 10% of people; of them one activity was not considered as such by anybody. The matter here is with the already mentioned adding useless free goods to the packaging. Therefore, it was the only activity which was, in the opinion of respondents, fully ethical (as much as 89% of indications) or was on the borderline of ethics (11% of indications). Hence, one may say that application thereof by producers does not have negative impact on behaviour of customers who, as it can be seen, do not pay any greater attention to it.

12 12 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... Table 3 Respondents opinions on some food producers activities related to product packaging (in %) Indications (in %) Evaluated activity Non-ethical activity for which the producer should be punished Non-ethical activity for which the producer should not be punished Activities on the borderline of ethics Fully ethical activity Change Change Change Change Application of more similar colours of the packaging to the colours of the product packaging of the known producer Placement on the packaging of a very similar artwork to the artwork of the product packaging of the known producer Placement on the packaging of a very similar logo to the logo of the known producer Placement on the packaging of a very similar typeface to the typeface on the product packaging of the known producer Adding to the packaging of useless free goods Application of a very similar shape of the packaging to the shape of product packaging of the known producer

13 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 13 Application of downsizing, i.e. decreasing the contents of the packaging without decreasing the size of the very packaging Application on the packaging of logos suggesting the features of the product it does not have Presentation of the packaging of the idealised product which does not reflect the reality Source: author s own elaboration based on surveys findings

14 14 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... However, one should not forget that still invariably three activities related to the packaging were considered by respondents as terminal or non-ethical, and as non-ethical they were in 2012 considered, all in all, by the majority of respondents. The matter is here with the application on the packaging of logos suggesting the product s features it does not have (altogether 74% of indications); presentation on the packaging of the idealised product which is far from the reality (altogether 81% of indications) and application of downsizing, i.e. decreasing of the packaging contents without decreasing the size of the very packaging (altogether 84% of indications), albeit the last of the specified activities was considered by the twice higher per cent of respondents as non-ethical, though not requiring punishment than as non-ethical and, at the same time, punishable contrary to two others, which were considered by a bigger part of respondents as punishable than as non-ethical, though not requiring penal actions against producers. Therefore, it can be seen that among the activities strictly related to the product packaging there also take place such activities that are more and more often noticeable for customers, negatively predisposing them to the producers applying them. Therefore, they should, in the first instance, eliminate them from their marketing activities, with which, after all, they have not much in common as forms of activity intentionally misleading customers as regards the product s features or size thereof. They are rather an element of manipulation, not marketing, with which, unfortunately, they are many a time identified by customers, affecting negative perception thereof what, in practice, effectively hampers the postulated in the assumptions of all modern marketing concepts of building partnership between offerers and customers, hurting in effect both parties, inclusive of the producers applying them. Although advertising as a decision-making factor was invariably mentioned by a low per cent of respondents (Table 1), this does not mean that respondents did not perceive irregularities related thereto. Quite the opposite, awareness of their occurrence is probably one of the basic reasons for immune of customers to advertising messages, which, in their opinion, are unreliable and sometimes even hurting. Dis, therefore, change the respondents attitudes towards the addressed to them unfair advertisements, and if so, how big were those changes? As Table 4 shows, unlike the product- and packaging-related activities, in case of most activities consisting in advertising the product there took place a drop of the per cent of indications related to their consideration as non-ethical and penal. Only in case of two activities a major part of the respondents assessed them in 2012 in such a way, though only in case of one activity, i.e. presenting advertisements, which discriminate some customers, that growth was two-digit and accounted for 30%. Owing to that, it took the second place as the activity causing the most negative attitude, becoming, at the same time, one of the two activities mentioned in this context by more than half of the interviewees, whereas in 2010 only one activity was so evaluated by more than half of the respondents. The issue is here with presentation of advertisements which humiliate the dignity human being and which were in 2010 considered as punishable by 69% of respondents. It is worth noticing that two years later there took place a minor decrease of that percentage to 68%, what did not change the fact that this activity still occupied the first place among the activities considered as punishable. All in all, in 2012, the biggest group of respondents (as much

15 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 15 as 93%) considered it as a non-ethical activity; it must be said that more than two and half times bigger part of them considered that the producer should be penalised for them as compared with the percentage of individuals considering them as non-ethical but not requiring penalising the manufacturer. At the same time, it was the only activity evaluated as terminal by less than 10% of respondents. This means that vis-à-vis other advertising activities in question the respondents demonstrated the highest degree of sensitivity to the application of advertisements humiliating the dignity of human being. A clear growth of the degree of respondents sensitivity manifesting itself in their negative attitudes took also place in case of the already mentioned presentation of advertisements which discriminate some customers. This is evidenced, on the one hand, by the fact of the definitely biggest growth of the per cent of individuals considering the as punishable, while, on the other hand, by a clear drop of the share of respondents considering them as nonethical but not requiring penalisation, as well as by the drop of the share of people treating them as the activity on the borderline of ethics. Therefore, one may say that for customers, together with time elapse, of greater and greater importance become the issues of respecting the human being dignity, so to say pushing to a background the issues related to the very product, for example, to non-disclosure of its negative features which were in 2010 considered by as many as every third respondent not only as non-ethical but, at the same time, as requiring penalisation. It is worth emphasising that per the seven analysed advertising activities in case of as many as five there took place in 2012 growth of the percentage of indications reflecting the respondents opinion that they were non-ethical activities, but there was no need to penalise producers for them; three of them were so assessed by more than 30% of people more than two years earlier. All in all, by more than 80% of individuals they were considered as nonethical, whereas in 2010 they were altogether considered as non-ethical by significantly lower per cent of respondents (from 52% to 60%), what also stemmed from the fact of considering them as terminal by a definitely bigger part of the interviewees than in 2012; however, respondents attitudes became clearly less radical as in case of two of those activities more than three times bigger per cent of people, and in case of one as much as more than five times bigger group of respondents did not see the need to penalise producers for them as compared with the respondents who would like to have penalised them. As Table 4 shows, a specific activity was presentation of advertisements which compare the product with another product as in 2012 it was the only activity which was not considered by anybody as penalisable, whereas two years earlier each of the activities in question was by at least several per cent of respondents so evaluated, although in 2010 this activity as requiring penalisation of producers was considered by the least percentage of respondents, i.e. 16%. However, in its case it is possible to state a definite revaluation of its importance for respondents as earlier altogether 58% of individuals considered it as punishable. At the same time, it was the only activity, in respect of which there took place growth of the per cent of people considering it as fully ethical; what s more, that growth accounted for as much as 52% (from 4% to 56%). In other words, more than half of respondents considered that it was fully ethical, what is only comparable with the two activities relating to packaging, which

16 16 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... Table 4 Respondents opinions on some food producers activities related to product advertising (in %) Indications (in %) Evaluated activity Non-ethical activity for which the producer should be punished Non-ethical activity for which the producer should not be punished Activities on the borderline of ethics Fully ethical activity Change Change Change Change Presentation of advertisements which exaggerate the product s values Presentation of advertisements which play on customers heartstrings Presentation of advertisements which arouse disgust in customers Presentation of advertisements which compare the product with another product Presentation of advertisements which conceal negative features of the product Presentation of advertisements which discriminate some customers Presentation of advertisements which humiliate the dignity of human being Source: author s own elaboration based on surveys findings.

17 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 17 were also assessed so in 2012 by more than 50% of people. Therefore, one may assume that application of the comparative advertising is not, from the point of view of its addressees, anything improper and it does not arouse negative attitudes towards advertisers. It must also be noted that there decreased the number of advertising activities considered as ethical. In 2012, it was only one such an activity, whereas in case of packaging-related activities there occurred a definite growth of their number, what points out to a little bit higher sensitivity of the interviewees to application in relation to them of non-ethical advertising stimuli compared to sensitivity to the packaging stimulus. Such a conclusion may also be confirmed by the fact that some advertising activities were considered as penalisable by more than half of respondents, whereas in case of packaging-related activities the biggest percentage of such opinions in 2012 accounted for 46%. Resumption Pursuant to the fundamental assumption of marketing, the perspective of market activities addresses should always be a benchmark for offerers. In her article, therefore, the author made a comparative analysis of their attitudes towards the product-, packaging- and advertising-related activities directed to them, with a pursuit to determine the changes that took place in the years in terms of the subjectively evaluated level of their compliance with the rules of ethics. The presented considerations indicate a diversified customers sensitivity to the addressed to them by food producers unfair activities some of which were evaluated definitely worse than other ones. Certainly the respondents were the most sensitive to producers activities closely related to the product, considering them not only as non-ethical but, at the same time, as penalisable. Moreover, with time elapse, there were tightened assessments of almost all of those activities, what is an important hint for manufacturers that a further application thereof may have caused negative sales effects as own experience gained by respondents for every third of them was a crucial decision-making factor affecting their purchasing decisions concerning food products. Respondents also displayed quite a high sensitivity to the directed to the controversial advertising activities considering most of them as non-ethical, though, unlike in case of the product-related activities, they rather did not think that producers should be punished for them. Moreover, in 2012, there grew the percentage of individuals considering many of those activities as indeed non-ethical but not requiring application of sanctions against producers. However, on the other hand, there definitely decreased the share of respondents who think that the advertising activities in question can hardly be explicitly coined as non-ethical, what is confirmed by a certain tightening of opinions and, eo ipso, deepening radicalism of respondents attitudes towards the advertising messages reaching them. This evidences the necessity to apply them cautiously by producers in order not to build negative experience of the customers who did not indeed display such high sensitivity to these activities as in case of the product-related activities; nevertheless, they also changed their attitudes towards them from less to more unambiguous.

18 18 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... The research findings show that the lest radically respondents evaluated unfair producers activities related to packaging, most of which were considered in 2012 by more than 10% of individuals as fully ethical, two of which were assessed so by more than 70% of the interviewees. Taking, at the same time, into account the fact that two years earlier, in case of most packaging-related activities nobody considered them as fully ethical, one may state even growth of liberalism of the respondents, hence the decline in their sensitivity to unfair activities related to packaging, what differs these activities from the one from the two remaining groups. Of course, this does not mean that producers may feel owing to that impregnable having permission to apply such stimuli. However, it is important that application thereof should not entail such negative sales consequences as in case of advertising activities and particularly product-related ones. Producers should, therefore, particularly take care of food products composition, avoid in advertising them whatever elements suggesting lack of respect for man and not mislead customers through application on their packaging of verbal and/or non-verbal markings indicating that the product has certain features which it actually does not have. Of course, the ultimate state should be a complete elimination of whatever activities causing negative opinions even in part of customers as, despite a relatively lower respondents sensitivity to unfair or controversial packaging-related activities, none of them was, after all, considered by all the interviewees as fully ethical. The only activity, not only among the packagingrelated activities in question, but among all the activities presented in the article, which were not in 2012 considered by any respondent as non-ethical, was adding useless free goods to the product packaging. As much as 89% of people considered them as even fully ethical, though two years earlier that percentage accounted for 31%. Hence, it is worth remembering that there change not only customers needs but also their attitudes towards various activities of offerers who, not being able to foresee in advance if the change of customers attitude towards a specific form of impact is negative or positive, or how quickly it occurs, should all the more strive to achieve the said ultimate state for which specific is application of exclusively explicitly ethical activities. Bibliography Baruk A.I. (2013), Offerers relations with customers. Marketing holistic approach and marketing practice, Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrücken. Brimmer S.E. (2007), The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations, Leadership Advance Online, issue XI, ( ). Lee R.P., Naylor G., Chen Q. (2011), Linking customer resources to firm success: The role of marketing program implementation, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 64, Issue 4. Murphy P. E. (2005), Developing, communicating and promoting corporate ethics statements: a longitudinal analysis, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 62, No. 2.

19 AGNIESZKA IZABELA BARUK 19 Sauser W.I. (2005), Ethics in business: answering the call, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 58, No. 4. Servaes H., Tamayo A. (2013), The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on Firm Value: The Role of Customer Awareness, Management Science, January, ( ). Smith A.K., Bolton R.N. (2013), An Experimental Investigation of Service Failure and Recovery: Paradox or Peril?, ( ). ShoppingShow edition Zwyczaje zakupowe Polaków [Poles shopping habits], ( ). Te Fu Chen, Hsuan-Fang Huang (2011), An integrated CKVC model to building customer knowledge management synergy and impact on business performance, in: International Conference on Economics, Trade and Development. IPEDR, IACSIT Press, Singapore. Trevino L.K., Brown M.E. (2004), Managing to be ethical: Debunking five business ethics myths, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 18, No. 2. Yang Z., Peterson R. T. (2004), Customer Perceived Value, Satisfaction and Loyalty: The Role of Switching Costs, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 10. Zachowania zakupowe Polaków w 2010 roku [Poles shopping habits in the year 2010], ( ). Zmiany postaw polskich nabywców wobec nieetycznych działań producentów żywności Streszczenie W artykule zaprezentowano opinie i postawy nabywców wobec nieuczciwych działań producentów żywności. Wskazano na lukę między teoretycznymi założeniami odnoszącymi się do partnerstwa z klientami a praktycznymi działaniami producentów. Na podstawie wyników badań terenowych dokonano analizy postaw respondentów wobec trzech grup działań rynkowych (odnoszących się do produktu, jego opakowania i reklamy). Dokonano również analizy zmian postaw respondentów od roku 2010 do Stanowiło to główny cel rozważań. Podstawowe wyniki dotyczyły poziomu radykalizmu w przypadku postaw wobec działań związanych z produktami oraz wzrostu poziomu tolerancji w przypadku postaw wobec działań odnoszących się do opakowań, tym niemniej nadal większość respondentów uznawała te bodźce za nieetyczne. Zmiany w postawach nabywców powinny być wskazówkami dla producentów, by zbliżać się do zasad orientacji marketingowej. Słowa kluczowe: nabywca końcowy, producent, etyka, marketing, partnerstwo. Kod JEL: M31

20 20 CHANGES OF POLISH CUSTOMERS ATTITUDES... Изменения отношения польских покупателей к неэтическим действиям производителей продуктов питания Резюме В своей статье автор представила мнения и отношения клиентов к нечестным действиям производителей продуктов питания. Указывается разрыв между теоретическими предпосылками, относящимися к партнерству с клиентами, и практическими действиями производителей. На основе результатов полевых исследований выявили и провели анализ отношений респондентов к трем группам рыночных действий (относящихся к продукту, его упаковке и рекламе). Провели тоже анализ изменений в отношениях респондентов от 2010 г. до 2012 г. Это была основная цель статьи. Основные результаты относились к уровню радикализма в случае отношения к связанным с продуктом действиям и повышения уровня толерантности в случае оношения к действиям, связанным с упаковкой; тем не менее большинство респондентов воспринимали эти стимулы как неэтические. Изменения в отношении покупателей должны стать для производителей указаниями, чтобы приблизиться к правилам маркетинговой ориентации. Key words: конечный потребитель, производитель, этика, маркетинг, партнерство. Код JEL: M31 Artykuł nadesłany do redakcji w październiku 2013 r. All rights reserved Afiliacja: dr hab. Agnieszka Izabela Baruk Politechnika Łódzka Katedra Systemów Zarządzania i Innowacji Zakład Innowacji i Marketingu ul. Piotrkowska Łódź tel.:

21 HANDEL WEWNĘTRZNY 2014;1(348): Anna Skowronek-Mielczarek IBRKK Warszawa Advantages and Disadvantages of Enterprise Activity in Network Organisations Some Aspects Summary In her article, the author focused her attention on advantages and disadvantages of cooperation undertaken by enterprises operating within the framework of network organisations in the Polish economy. Establishing cooperation by enterprises may become nowadays one of the bases of formation of their development strategies. In the conditions of high variability of the environment, the growing uncertainty of enterprise activity, there gain in importance the concepts making use of definite relationships and partnership cooperation with other entities. There appear new forms of that cooperation, new organisational structures, inter alia, network organisations. Affiliation to them is connected with achievement by enterprises of definite benefits, while, on the other hand, it may result in occurrence of some threats. The empirical research carried out in 2013 in a group of 363 enterprises belonging to various network organisations conform that really enterprises achieve definite benefits carrying out their activities within the framework of network. And they are decidedly more emphasised than definite threats. Key words: enterprises, network organisations, advantages, threats to functioning. JEL codes: D20, D23, M21 Introduction Contemporarily operating enterprises greater and greater attention in their developmental strategies pay to cooperation with other entities. The key for achievement of market success, besides rivalry and carrying out competitive struggle, may also be collaboration and cooperation. Competition does not exclude establishment of cooperation between enterprises. Thus, there appear new forms of that cooperation but also new expectations as to the opportunities to gain definite effects of that cooperation. An aim of the article is to present a review of definite results being achieved in cooperation between enterprises, undertaken within the framework of activities carried out by network organisations in the Polish economic practice. Results issuing from enterprises affiliation with network organisations Owners of every economic entity undertaking business activity want to keep them in the market, to develop and, thus, to gain success. These activities are usually accompanied by expectation to achieve a higher level of competitiveness in the course of enterprise s

22 22 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... development as well as higher than their potential competitors. In the processes of raising the level of enterprise s competitiveness, after all dependant on very many factors, greater and greater attention is paid to the possibilities to make use of synergy effects sticking in business cooperation between economic entities (Everett 2011, Strzyżewska 2011). As one of those forms of cooperation there may be considered the network organisation. There are many different approaches as regards understanding the essence of network organisations. In the present study, it is assumed that a network organisation is a voluntary union of independent enterprises (broader: organisations) which, through their common use of complementary resources implement definite objectives, achieving faster, in a more flexible and innovative way synergy effects of their cooperation. There would not be any attempts to undertake such cooperation if entrepreneurs or economic entities managers did not expect achievement of definite benefits contributing to growth of competitiveness of a definite network organisation, as well as its individual members or partners. It seems that the key importance in this respect is attributed to the economic and financial effects which may be achieved by individual partners within the framework of establishing and conducting cooperation in the network organisation. They result in optimisation of operating costs, increasing the volume of sales gained (Parung, Bitici 2006, p ). Through a joint implementation of definite processes one may reduce costs as there is eliminated repetition of similar actions. For example, carrying out joint purchasing actions contributes to reduction of costs of realisation of a single order; there is possible to gain significant discounts on selling prices of the products offered; it is also possible to reduce costs related to logistic service of individual partners. Increasing the value of orders partners become more reliable for their suppliers; therefore, there is increasing the certainty of order realisation; on the other hand, their bargaining power towards suppliers is increasing. Similarly conducting joint bookkeeping and administrative service may contribute to reduction of definite costs. Thus, optimisation of enterprises operating costs will be conducive to growth of the level of achieved profits and return on investment. Undertaking joint activities within the framework of network organisation also contributes to growth of the scale of partners activities, there may increase the territorial scope of the activities carried out as well as their intensity. Establishing cooperation with similar entities, enterprises may propose a more complex and diversified offer, are also able to increase the frequency of carried out deliveries as well as to enhance the scale of used distribution channels. An effect of such activities may be improvement of the quality of customers attendance, raising the level of their satisfaction with delivery of commodities in the proper place, at the proper time and at the expected price. Jointly implemented marketing activities contribute to creation of new needs of potential customers, to a more aware formation of the image of a given network organisation, their recognisability in the market. Such activities are conducive to creating the brand of products or services provided by partners. Thus, in relation to competitors, a given network organisation becomes more recognisable among customers, and owing to which it may increase its sales and develop (Robbins, DeCenzo 2007). Implementation of joint actions also allows the network organisation participants an effective use of the existing resources, not only by way of making use of own resources but

23 ANNA SKOWRONEK-MIELCZAREK 23 also exploiting external ones available for a partner (Popławski, Sudolska, Zastempowski 2008, p. 22). Thus, there takes place a more effective allocation and mobilisation of assets within the framework of a given network organisation. Partners, members of a given organisation, may this way perform reconfiguration of the assets indispensable in implementation of specific orders; they may share duties and fulfil definite functions, processes and tasks. Such an approach enables concentration of enterprises, being network organisation members, on the specific areas; create a unique configuration of resources (Griffin 2008, p ). Therefore, it contributes to specialisation of activities carried out by individual enterprises what may be a basis for creation of development strategies, niche ones, just in a group of enterprises belonging to the network. Carrying out joint actions within the framework of network organisation also contributes to reduction of the risk related to enterprises activities. Usually it concerns undertaking joint investments (Warner, Witzel, 2004, p. 126). The risk of failure of business activities is then distributed among a bigger number of partners. Each of them may invest in new business projects only part of assets; hence, they limit their involvement in a given concept and, at the same time, may diversify financial outlays on various investment ventures. Additionally network organisation members jointly have at their disposal greater opportunities to acquire financing for the planned investment projects than a single enterprise. Similarly, they may present jointly better and higher sureties, for instance, on the drawn investment credits what increases their bargaining power towards capital providers. Joint actions of network organisations may also influence implementation of business projects through alteration of their arrangement, reduction of duration, quality improvement, and implementation of innovation. By way of elimination of redundant, repeatable actions enterprises may faster carry out definite activities, they may reduce the decision-making processes as well as there takes place a faster reaction to the changes occurring in those entities environment. Observation and quick reaction to those changes allow cooperating enterprises implementation of new business solutions, new business models. Often it is just then when process innovative solutions may appear. Nowadays enterprises are, so to say, forced to raise the level of their innovativeness. This is the feature understood as ability to continually seek for and use in practice new concepts, ideas and inventions as well as research and development findings. Innovativeness is also improvement and expansion of the existing production, exploitation and service technologies (Bessant, Tidd 2013, p. 5; Janasz 2011). The enterprises having in their strategy development treat innovation and innovativeness as a factor driving the enterprises interest in the product, in a wider supply offer, specific promotional values but also in a higher quality standard, up-to-datedness. In this meaning, it is worth to note that innovativeness is a vehicle of competitiveness because it provides for opportunities to gain competitive advantage, creation of a better product offer or better terms for meeting definite needs of final customers. Considering innovativeness at the part of activities of network organisations concerns also introduction of new solutions in an organisation, improvement and development of the infrastructure related to collection, processing and dissemination of information. In all these manifestations of innovativeness it is possible to make use of a closer cooperation

24 24 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... between business entities, e.g. through possession of joint R&D background, carrying out joint research, joint purchases of innovative solutions, technologies, licences, establishment of cooperation with R&D centres, etc. Business entities innovativeness may also rely on process (organisational) innovation or also concerning management of their particular assets. It is the degree of efficacy of organisation and implementation of definite processes and managerial functions, which significantly determine today gaining competitive advantage by an individual enterprise or a definite group of enterprises. The key to market success in this respect is a skilful use of joint resources, creation of a unique set of competences and skills (Skowronek-Mielczarek 2013, p. 50). Important is definition of basic processes and ways on which collaboration of a given network organisation will rely. On the other hand, such an approach to an effective management requires elimination from an enterprise of useless processes and resources and, thus, release of financial assets that may be invested in the activity areas with a higher level of attractiveness and profitability. It issues that undertaking joint actions in the sphere of process and resources management may contribute to growth of innovativeness of individual enterprises setting up a network organisation and, thus, also to raising the level of their competitiveness (Galavan, Murray, Markides 2008, p. 188). Summing up the above considerations one may notice that results of cooperation between enterprises within the framework of network organisations may lead to achievement of definite benefits, but they also may lead to occurrence of definite threats. First of all, such threat may be dispersion of resources or loss thereof by the enterprise accessing the network organisation. This may lead to weakening of the economic potential, decreasing of a scale of activities or limitation thereof. It may also cause perturbations within the framework of customer base, their move to other enterprises operating within the framework of network organisation. As a disadvantage of acting within the framework of network organisations there can be treated a specific loss of independence by an enterprise as well as different motivation and commitment of partners. It may cause definite problems at the level of agreeing aims of activities, implementation of joint projects or carrying out real business processes. Nevertheless it seems that the very fact that network organisations emerge and function causes an advantage of benefits over drawbacks of this way of enterprises activities, their development and gaining the competitive advantage. Therefore, it is worth to present empirical research findings from the Polish economic practice concerning identification of advantages and disadvantages of enterprises functioning within the framework of network organisations. Benefits gained by enterprises within the framework of network organisation s activities The author of the article took part in 2013 in research whose aim was to identify determinants of innovativeness of network organisations in the Polish economy 1. The empiri- 1 The research project of the National Science Centre 2013 No. 2011/01/B/HS4/04808, manager Dr hab. Prof. SGH B. Bojewska.

25 ANNA SKOWRONEK-MIELCZAREK 25 cal research was carried out in a group of 363 enterprises belonging to network organisations carrying out their activities in Poland. The research was carried out by the method of Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The research population constituted enterprises being members of a franchise network (121 enterprises), clusters (121 enterprises) and virtual organisations (121 enterprises) 2. Within the framework of carried out research one of the areas of interest was identification of positive and negative effects of functioning of the enterprises in question within the framework of network organisations. Respondents might indicate maximum three responses as regards positive effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation (Fig. 1). What is interesting, about 50% of the enterprises surveyed indicated the growth of market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand as well as the growth of the level of customer satisfaction and the level of their loyalty. Those were also the most Figure 1 Benefits issuing from functioning within the framework of network organisation (in %) Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n= The sample was of the quota nature. Interviews were executed on the basis of the franchise firm base prepared for the purpose of research containing 370 businesses. According to the population structure there were adopted quotas (a definite number of interviews compliant with the population structure) per voivodeship and category: trade and services. Interviews were carried out on the basis of cluster coordination base prepared for the purpose of research containing 198 firms. According to the population structure, there were adopted quotas (a definite number of interviews compliant with the population structure) per voivodeship and nature of the institution being a member of the cluster: enterprises, research units, institutions of the business environment. In case of virtual organisations there were adopted quotas by voivodeship (in view of lack of knowledge of the population structure of virtual organisations, the quota was based on the structure of population of all firms in Poland).

26 26 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... frequently indicated responses not only from the point of view of enterprises belonging to the network but also from the point of view of the entire network organisation. These two benefits of functioning in the network may also be treated as the factors inducing to undertake cooperation by independent enterprises. And indeed, in opinion of respondents, this cooperation yields definite positive results. However, in case of the growth of the level of customers satisfaction, more often that effect was indicated by enterprises (49% of indications) than the network 37% of indications. May be just for many enterprises accessing to and functioning in the network this factor plays definitely more positive role. The following benefit issuing from functioning within the framework of network is the growth of the level of network s confidence, loyalty and cohesion. It was indicated by 33% of all respondents. At the similar level there was also indicated the increase of the degree of up-to-datedness of the technologies applied; it was by approx. 28% of indications both from the point of view of enterprises and the whole network. At the level of approx. 20% of indications concerned enhancement of efficacy of organisational structures of enterprises and networks. The next benefit in terms of the frequency of indications is the increased effectiveness and efficiency of the use of data bases, IT systems; it was indicated by 15% of enterprises and 18% of networks. This may mean carrying out joint actions in the area of integrating IT systems and use of information. Around 10-13% of respondents indicated the growth of effectiveness of the conducted market research. Taking into consideration the type of the network organisation, to which the interviewed respondents belonged, there are visible definite differences as regards the range of frequency of selection of positive effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation (Tab. 1). In all groups of the distinguished networks, there the most often were indicated the growth of market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand as well as the growth of the level of customers satisfaction and the level of their loyalty. However, different was the level of those indications. And so, among franchise enterprises, it accounted for 60% as regards market recognisability of a given organisation and for 56% as regards the growth of the level of customers satisfaction and loyalty, whereas in the group of clusters respectively 55% and 27%, and in the group of virtual organisations for 36% and 64%. What deserves our attention is the fact that in virtual organisations with a similar frequency as in case of market recognisability of a network organisation there was indicated the increase in the level of up-to-datedness of the technologies applied. May be it is just the virtual organisations that may be treated as the most up-to-date, and participation in them as a manifestation of the strive for growth of the level of enterprise innovativeness. As for dependencies of the benefits indicated by the enterprises belonging to networks in view of their size and range, the distribution of the obtained responses is in principle approximate to the distribution for the whole body of respondents interviewed (Tab. 2). There attracts attention the fact that with the increase of the number of network organisation s members and the range of its activities, the greater importance is assigned to the growth of market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand. In turn, for

27 ANNA SKOWRONEK-MIELCZAREK 27 Table 1 Positive effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation depending on its type (in %) Franchise firms Clusters Virtual organisations An increased effectiveness and efficiency of the use of data bases and IT systems Increase of the level of up-to-datedness of the technologies applied Improvement of efficiency of organisational structures Growth of effectiveness of the market research carried out Growth of the market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand Growth of the level of customers satisfaction and their loyalty Growth of the level of confidence, loyalty and cohesion of the network Difficult to say Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n=363. Table 2 Positive effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation depending on its size and range (in %) Number of network members Network s range up to above 50 local regional national international An increased effectiveness and efficiency of the use of data bases and IT systems Increase of the level of up-to-datedness of the technologies applied Improvement of efficiency of organisational structures Growth of effectiveness of the market research carried out Growth of the market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand Growth of the level of customers satisfaction and their loyalty Growth of the level of confidence, loyalty and cohesion of the network Difficult to say Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n=363.

28 28 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... smaller networks, those of the local range, there was more often indicated the growth of the level of customers satisfaction and loyalty. This can certainly contribute to achievement of a higher level of sales and it is really felt by enterprises. It may also be treated as a criterion deciding one s accession to the network. What is interesting this is the fact that for enterprises being members of the largest networks (number of participants above 50 and an international range of network s activity) a substantial benefit is also an increase of the level of confidence, loyalty and cohesion. Negative effects of enterprises membership in a network organisation Interesting research findings were also obtained as regards recognition of negative effects attributed to functioning within the framework of network organisation, both from the view point of enterprise its participant and the entire network organisation (Fig. 2). Attention is attracted by the fact that most often there was indicated lack of negative effects of functioning in the network; for enterprises it was 35% of indications and for the network more than 31%. More than 22% of enterprises and 17% of all networks indicated lack of Figure 2 Negative effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation (in %) Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n=363.

29 ANNA SKOWRONEK-MIELCZAREK 29 certainty of achievement of the assumed effects. More than 21% of enterprises as well as networks indicated an uneven spread of costs and benefits resulting from functioning within the framework of network. With a similar frequency there was indicated the possibility to take over customers and part of processes by other network s participants. The possibility to loose resources was indicated by approx. 16% of respondents, while extension of the change-related enterprises and networks response time by approx. 13%. In principle, therefore, there prevails the conviction of lack of very severe negative effects of functioning within the framework of a network organisation. With the indicated other negative effects, in principle, there can be made a conclusion that they are naturally related to carrying out business activities. Subjecting to an analysis the relationships occurring between the type of network organisation and the negative effects of functioning within its framework one may point out that most often the respondents indicated the lack of occurrence of those effects (Tab. 3). Table 3 Negative effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation depending on network type (in %) Franchise firms Clusters Virtual organisations Uneven spread of costs and benefits Possible takeover of customers, part of processes Possible loss of resources and relationships Extension of the change-related response time Lack of certainty of achievement of the assumed effects No disadvantages of cooperation Difficult to say Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n=363. The highest frequency in this respect took place among clusters. The second place in terms of frequency among clusters as regards indications was taken by lack of certainty of achievement of the assumed effects. Among franchise enterprises, there were indicated lack of certainty of achievement of the assumed effects and uneven spread of costs and benefits. In turn, among virtual organisations, the second place as regards the frequency of indications was taken by the possibility to take over customers and resources. The distribution of other responses was similar to the one obtained for the whole body of respondents. As for dependency of the indicated negative effects by enterprises belonging to a network in view of their size and range, the distribution of obtained responses is in principle similar to the one for the whole body of interviewed respondents (Tab. 4).

30 30 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... Table 4 Negative effects of functioning within the framework of network organisation depending on its size and range (in %) Number of participants Network s range up to above 50 local regional national international Uneven spread of costs and benefits Possible takeover of customers, part of processes Possible loss of resources and relationships Extension of the change-related response time Lack of certainty of achievement of the assumed effects No disadvantages of cooperation Difficult to say Source: own research of the Institute of Management of the Warsaw School of Economics (SGH) 2013, n=363. It is worth to pay attention that for smaller networks, those with the number up to 10 participants and with the local and regional range, more often than in relation to large networks there was indicated the possibility to take over customers and part of processes as a threat issuing from enterprise s affiliation with a network organisation. However, for the majority of enterprises the most often indicated response is lack of disadvantages of cooperation what confirms the fact of an advantage of achieving benefit through activity carried out within the framework of network organisations. Resumption The dynamic market changes and their unpredictability cause that individual enterprises often are not able alone to resist an ever growing competition. Having this in mind, establishing cooperation with other enterprises and setting up jointly with them network organisations may contribute to their survival in the market, to reduction of threats issuing from the dynamic changes in the environment. Most often when choosing such an action strategy there are taken into account definite achievable benefits. The empirical research carried out in the Polish economic practice confirmed that enterprise managers most frequently indicated the growth of the market recognisability of a given network organisation, its image and brand as well as the growth of the level of customers satisfaction and their loyalty. They were also the most often indicated responses not only from the point of view of enterprises belonging to networks, but also from the point of view of the whole network organisation. The subsequent places in terms of frequency of indications were taken by the growth of the level of confidence, loyalty and cohesion of the network as well as the growth of the level of up-to-datedness of the technologies applied. As negative effects of functioning within the framework of network organisations

31 ANNA SKOWRONEK-MIELCZAREK 31 were, in the first instance, indicated the lack of certainty of achievement of the assumed effects and uneven spread of costs and benefits resulting from the functioning within the framework of networks. What s interesting, as related to negative effects of functioning in the network, the most often indicated was their lack. Therefore, may be accession to a network organisation is preceded by an analysis of benefits and drawbacks, and advantage of the former is decisive that a specific enterprise begins to act in a definite network. Bibliography Bessant J., Tidd J. (2013), Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2 nd edition, John Willey and Sons. Everett K. (2011), Designing the Networked Organization, Business Expert Press. Griffin R.W. (2008), Management, Houghton Mifflin Company. Galavan R., Murray J., Markides C. (2008), Strategy, Innovation, and Change: Challenges for Management, Oxford University Press. Robbins S.P., DeCenzo D.A. (2007), Fundamentals of Management: Essential Concepts and Applications, Pearson/Prentice Hall. Innowacje w zrównoważonym rozwoju organizacji (2011), scientific editor W. Janasz, Difin, Warsaw. Parung J., Bitici U.S. (2006), A conceptual metric for measuring collaborative networks, Journal of Modelling in Management, Vol. 1, No. 2. Popławski W., Sudolska A., Zastempowski M. (2008), Współpraca przedsiębiorstw w Polsce w procesie budowania ich potencjału innowacyjnego, Dom Organizatora, Toruń. Strzyżewska M. (2011), Współpraca między przedsiębiorstwami odniesienie do polskiej praktyki, Oficyna Wydawnicza SGH, Warsaw. Warner M., Witzel M. (2004), Managing in Virtual Organizations, Thomson Learning. Zasobowe uwarunkowania rozwoju przedsiębiorstw w Polsce (2013), scientific editor A. Skowronek- -Mielczarek, CeDeWu, Warsaw. Korzyści i wady działania przedsiębiorstw w organizacjach sieciowych wybrane aspekty Streszczenie W artykule skoncentrowano uwagę na korzyściach i wadach współpracy podejmowanej przez przedsiębiorstwa funkcjonujące w ramach organizacji sieciowych w polskiej gospodarce. Nawiązywanie współpracy przez przedsiębiorstwa może stać się współcześnie jedną z podstaw tworzenia ich strategii rozwoju. W warunkach dużej zmienności otoczenia, rosnącej niepewności działania przedsiębiorstwa, zyskują na znaczeniu koncepcje wykorzystujące określone związki i partnerską współpracę z innymi podmiotami. Pojawiają się nowe formy tej współpracy, nowe struktury organizacyjne, m.in. organizacje sieciowe. Przynależność do nich wiąże się z osiąganiem przez przedsiębiorstwa określonych korzyści, z drugiej zaś strony może skutkować wystąpieniem określonych zagrożeń. Badania empiryczne przeprowadzone w 2013 r. w grupie 363 przedsiębiorstw należących do różnych organizacji sieciowych potwierdzają, iż rzeczywiście przedsiębiorstwa osiągają określone

32 32 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF ENTERPRISE ACTIVITY... korzyści prowadząc działalność w ramach sieci. I są one zdecydowanie mocniej akcentowane niż określone zagrożenia. Słowa kluczowe: przedsiębiorstwa, organizacje sieciowe, korzyści, zagrożenia funkcjonowania. Kody JEL: D20, D23, M21 Выгоды и недостатки действия предприятий в сетевых организациях избранные аспекты Резюме В статье обратили внимание на выгоды и недостатки сотрудничества, к которому приступают предприятия, функционирующие в польской экономике в рамках сетевых организаций. Установление сотрудничества предприятиями может в настоящее время стать одной из основ формирования их стратегий развития. В условиях большой изменчивости окружающей среды, растущей неуверенности действий предприятий повышается значение концепций, использующих определенные связи и партнерское сотрудничество с другими субъектами. Появляются новые формы этого сотрудничества, новые организационные структуры, в частности, сетевые организации. Принадлежность к ним связана с достижением предприятиями определенных выгод, с другой же стороны она может вести к появлению определенных угроз. Эмпирические исследования, проведенные в 2013 году в группе 363 предприятий, относящихся к разным сетевым организациям, подтверждают, что действительно предприятия достигают определенных выгод, осуществляя деятельность в рамках сети. И они решительно больше подчеркиваются, нежели определенные угрозы. Ключевые слова: предприятия, сетевые организации, выгоды, угрозы для функционирования. Коды JEL: D20, D23, M21 Artykuł nadesłany do redakcji w listopadzie 2013 r. All rights reserved Afiliacja: dr hab. Anna Skowronek-Mielczarek Instytut Badań Rynku, Konsumpcji i Koniunktur Al. Jerozolimskie Warszawa tel.:

33 HANDEL WEWNĘTRZNY 2014;1(348): Anna Dąbrowska IBRKK Warszawa Upadłość konsumencka ujęcie teoretyczno-empiryczne Streszczenie Rosnące zadłużenia Polaków i niespłacane zobowiązania, 88 upadłości konsumenckich ogłoszonych w latach skłoniły ustawodawców do ponownego przyjrzenia się treści ustawy Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze. Artykuł ma charakter teoretyczno-empiryczny. Przedstawiono w nim najważniejsze kwestie wynikające z obowiązującej ustawy i postulowane kierunki zmian. Podejście teoretyczne wzbogacono wynikami badania własnego, które zrealizowano w sierpniu 2013 roku na 1000 osobowej próbie dorosłych Polaków. Słowa kluczowe: upadłość konsumencka, wyniki badania ilościowego, kierunki zmian. Kody JEL: D11, D12 Wstęp Kwestia upadłości konsumenckiej jako pierwsze podjęło liberalne prawodawstwo amerykańskie (znowelizowane w 2005 r. w celu ograniczenia jego nadużyć), na którym wzorowały się inne kraje, m.in. Niemcy, Francja, ale także Polska (Upadłość konsumencka ). Upadłość konsumencka w naszym kraju nie ma długiego rodowodu prawnego. Ustawa o upadłości konsumenckiej została wprowadzona w życie w marcu 2009 roku. Znawcy problematyki uważali, że zastosowanie regulacji upadłości konsumenckiej zostało zbyt mocno zawężone zarówno pod względem podmiotowym, jak i przedmiotowym. Skutkiem tego można mówić o niewielkiej skali korzystania z dobrodziejstw ustawy. Przyczyny nie miały jednorodnego charakteru, dlatego wielokrotnie wskazywano także na potrzebę edukacji konsumentów 1. W artykule omówiono najważniejsze, z punktu widzenia konsumenta, zapisy w obowiązującej ustawie, przedstawiono wyniki badania autorskiego przeprowadzone w sierpniu 2013 roku na ogólnopolskiej próbie 1000 Polaków, a także proponowane zmiany regulacji prawnej. 1 M.in. autorka artykułu zwróciła uwagę na ten problem podczas prezentacji pt. Upadłość konsumencka aspekt ekonmicznospołeczny na seminarium Upadłość konsumencka regulacje prawne, praktyka, aspekt społeczny, które odbyło się 29 maja 2012 roku w Senacie RP na wspólnym posiedzeniu Komisji Praw Człowieka, Praworządności i Petycji (34.) oraz Komisji Budżetu i Finansów Publicznych (30.), s [dostęp: grudzień 2013].

34 34 UPADŁOŚĆ KONSUMENCKA UJĘCIE TEORETYCZNO-EMPIRYCZNE Upadłość konsumencka w świetle prawa Upadłość konsumencka została wprowadzona do polskiego prawa w dniu 31 marca 2009 roku, na mocy ustawy z dnia 5 grudnia 2008 roku o zmianie ustawy Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze oraz ustawy o kosztach sadowych w sprawach cywilnych 2. Od początku wzbudzała ona kontrowersje. Adwesarze zwracali uwagę na zbytnią restrykcyjność ustawy, brak doprecyzowania określeń lub brak ujęcia sytuacji, które miały istotne znaczenie dla przyjętych rozwiązań. Zastrzeżenia znalazły wyraz podczas konferencji zatytułowanej Upadłość konsumencka mity i fakty, którą zorganizowała Gazeta Prawna w dniu 27 lutego 2009 roku. Autorka miała przyjemność być moderatorem konferencji. Jej celem było przybliżenie stanowisk przedstawicieli różnych środowisk na temat niewypłacalności osób fizycznych nieprowadzących działalności gospodarczej i możliwości wpływu tego zjawiska na polską gospodarkę, sytuację uczestników rynku dłużników i wierzycieli. W momencie wejścia w życie ustawy poziom zadłużenia polskich gospodarstw domowych był problemem stosunkowo nowym, ale przybierającym na sile, także z uwagi na kryzys finansowy. W lutym 2009 roku, według danych raportu InfoDług: -- liczba klientów podwyższonego ryzyka w Polsce wynosiła 1,29 mln osób, -- łączna kwota zaległych płatności Polaków to 8,59 mld zł (w stosunku do sierpnia 2007 roku wzrosło o 3,7 mld zł), -- średnie, zaległe zadłużenie Polaka wobec banków, kontrahentów lub firm dostarczających usługi masowe wynosiło 6,64 tys. zł (InfoDług ). Na koniec września 2013 roku, jak wynika z raportu InfoDług: -- liczba klientów podwyższonego ryzyka w Polsce wynosiła 2,28 mln osób, czyli o 1 mln osób więcej niż w 2009 roku, -- łączna kwota zaległych płatności Polaków to 39,03 mld zł, co oznacza, że wzrosła ona ponad czterokrotnie, -- zobowiązań terminowo nie regulowało 6,0% Polaków (Ogólnopolski Raport ). Do zadłużania się Polaków, zaciągania kredytów hipotecznych i konsumpcyjnych, z jednej strony zachęcała i zachęca rynkowa oferta towarów i usług, możliwość kupna własnego mieszkania, chęć zakupu usług medycznych, edukacyjnych, turystycznych, urządzenia uroczystości rodzinnej, czyli zaspokajanie coraz szerszej gamy odczuwanych potrzeb, które wcześniej z uwagi na uwarunkowania systemowe i luki rynkowe było długo odkładane lub zaspokajane fragmentarycznie. Z drugiej strony, takim zachowaniom konsumentów sprzyjały zmiany na rynku usług finansowych (liberalizacja warunków udzielania kredytu), na 2 Ustawa z dnia 5 grudnia 2008 roku o zmianie ustawy Prawo upadłościowe i naprawcze oraz ustawy o kosztach sądowych w sprawach cywilnych (Dz. U. Nr 234, poz. 1572).

35 ANNA DĄBROWSKA 35 którym banki, instytucje para- i pozabankowe zachęcały do sięgania po łatwo dostępny pieniądz. Generalnie upadłość konsumencka daje możliwość umorzenia zobowiązań osoby fizycznej nieprowadzącej działalności gospodarczej w przypadku zaistnienia niezawinionej niewypłacalności. Jest szansą na rehabilitację konsumenta jako uczestnika rynku. Już w marcu 2009 roku, w wywiadzie z A. Frankowską, Kamil Basaj z firmy Connect, zajmującej się doradztwem i obsługą dłużników podkreślał, że upadłość konsumencka cieszy się sporym zainteresowaniem, ale procedura tylko pozornie jest prosta. W miesiącu wejścia w życie ustawy do firmy zgłosiło się 600 osób, ale tylko cztery z nich spełniły wymogi konieczne do ogłoszenia upadłości konsumenckiej. Prawnicy szacowali wówczas, że w roku 2009 roku upadłość konsumencką ogłosi niewielu Polaków (Upadłość konsumencka ). Jak pokazało życie, upadłość konsumencka jest przeprowadzana w Polsce niezwykle rzadko, co obniża zainteresowanie tą instytucją zadłużonych Polaków. Z danych Ministerstwa Sprawiedliwości wynika, że od 2009 roku sądy ogłosiły tylko 88 upadłości osób fizycznych nieprowadzących działalności gospodarczej wobec 2435 wniosków, które wpłynęły (por. tabela 1). Warto zauważyć, że w 2013 roku ogłoszono najwięcej upadłości, ale wpłynęło najmniej wniosków. Głównym powodem oddalenia i zwrócenia wniosków był brak majątku po stronie dłużników wystarczającego choćby na pokrycie kosztów samego postępowania upadłościowego oraz źle wypełnione wnioski. Tabela 1 Ewidencja spraw dotyczących upadłości konsumenckiej w latach Wyszczególnienie oddalenie wniosku Załatwienie, w tym: Wpływ spraw o ogłoszenie upadłości Ogłoszenie upadłości umorzenie postępowania prawomocne przekazanie sprawy połączenie sprawy prawomocny zwrot wniosku załatwione w inny sposób (np. odrzucone z powodu niedopuszczalności lub z przyczyn formalnych) b.d. b.d Razem Źródło: dane Wydziału Statystyki i Analiz Ministerstwa Sprawiedliwości.

36 36 UPADŁOŚĆ KONSUMENCKA UJĘCIE TEORETYCZNO-EMPIRYCZNE Wśród mankamentów ustawy szczególną uwagę zwracano na następujące kwestie: -- upadłość mogą ogłosić osoby fizyczne, które nie prowadzą działalności gospodarczej raz na 10 lat (wcześniejszy projekt przewidywał ogłoszenie upadłości tylko raz w życiu); -- upadłość mogą ogłosić osoby, które w kłopoty popadły wyłącznie w wyniku wyjątkowych, niezależnych od nich, zdarzeń losowych (zdarzenia te nie zostały doprecyzowane); -- osoby, które nie mają trwałego majątku, albo go skutecznie ukryły, mogą traktować upadłość konsumencką jako sposób na wygodne pozbycie się raz na jakiś czas długów; -- sąd likwiduje majątek dłużnika, w tym mieszkanie, dom. Z pieniędzy uzyskanych ze sprzedaży nieruchomości wydzielona będzie dla dłużnika kwota na wynajem mieszkania przez okres około jednego roku; -- w okresie planu spłat dłużnik nie może brak kredytów, ani kupować na raty (do tego zapisu negatywnie odnosił się Związek Banków Polskich); -- po 5 latach (maksymalnie 7) pozostałe nieuregulowane długi są umarzane. Jeżeli dłużnik nie będzie dobrowolnie spłacał swych zobowiązań zgodnie z planem lub zaciągnie kolejne zobowiązania, albo nie będzie współpracować z organami prowadzącymi postępowanie, zostanie ono umorzone. Tym samym swoje należności będzie musiał regulować na ogólnych zasadach. Upadłość konsumencka w opinii Polaków W sierpniu 2013 roku przeprowadzono badanie ilościowe przy wykorzystaniu kwestionariusza ankiety (metoda CATI) na ogólnopolskiej próbie dorosłych Polaków (18-74 lata) posiadających co najmniej minimalne kompetencje konsumenckie. Głównym celem badania było poznanie kompetencji polskich konsumentów i ich znaczenia dla stymulowania innowacyjnych zachowań i zrównoważonej konsumpcji. Badanie przebiegało dwuetapowo. W I etapie (wstępnym) przeprowadzono badanie omnibusowe (czerwiec/lipiec 2013 r.) na ogólnopolskiej reprezentatywnej próbie 1000 dorosłych Polaków w wieku lata. Były to wywiady face to face przeprowadzone przy wykorzystaniu techniki PAPI. II etap (badanie główne) stanowiły wywiady przy wykorzystaniu kwestionariusza ankiety (technika CATI) przeprowadzone w sierpniu 2013 r. na ogólnopolskiej próbie 1000 dorosłych Polaków (18-74 lata). Do badania głównego kwalifikowano osoby mające przynajmniej minimalne kompetencje konsumenckie (ustalane na podstawie pięciu pytań testowych z zakresu tematyki zrównoważonej konsumpcji, wytypowanych przez zespół ekspertów respondent musiał odpowiedzieć twierdząco na co najmniej 3 z nich). Badanie zostało sfinansowane ze środków Narodowego Centrum Naukowego w ramach realizowanego projektu badawczego Kompetencje konsumentów jako stymulanta innowacyjnych zachowań i zrównoważonej konsumpcji, 2011/03/B/HS4/04417, którego autorka jest kierownikiem. Badanie zrealizował niezależny instytut badawczy ABM Agencję Badań Marketingowych Sp. z o.o. (ABM).

37 ANNA DĄBROWSKA 37 Struktura próby badawczej (wybrane cechy) przedstawiała się następująco: Płeć: Kobiety 51% Mężczyźni 49% Dochód gospodarstwa domowego netto: Do 2 tys. zł - 29%; zł 34% 4001 zł i więcej 16% Odmowa 21% Wiek: lat: 26%; lat: 16%; lat: 19%; lat: 15%; 60+: 24% Miejsce zamieszkania: Wieś 39%; Miasto poniżej 25 tys. 13% Miasto tys. 11%; Miasto tys. 8%; Miasto 100 tys. i więcej 30% Wykształcenie: Podstawowe - 6%; Zawodowe - 14%; Średnie - 46%; Wyższe- 34% Dzieci w gospodarstwie domowym: Brak 81%; 1 dziecko 11%; 2 dzieci 7%; 3 dzieci 2% Województwo: Dolnośląskie 7%; Kujawsko-pomorskie 5%; Lubelskie 5%; Lubuskie 3%; Łódzkie 7%; Małopolskie 9%; Mazowieckie 14%; Opolskie 3%; Podkarpackie 5%; Podlaskie 3%; Pomorskie 6%; Śląskie 12%; Świętokrzyskie 4%; Warmińsko-mazurskie 4%; Wielkopolskie 9%; Zachodniopomorskie 4%. Źródło: opracowanie własne. Założono poziom istotności α = 0,05. Wyniki uznano za istotne statystycznie, gdy wyliczone prawdopodobieństwo testowe p spełniało nierówność p < 0,05. Jeden z obszarów badawczych dotyczył upadłości konsumenckiej. Respondentów poproszono o ustosunkowanie się do określonych rozwiązań ustawy dotyczących upadłości konsumenckiej czy są one korzystne czy niekorzystne dla polskich konsumentów. Jak już wspomniano, upadłość możliwa jest tylko w przypadku niezawinionym np. choroba, niezawiniona utrata pracy, śmierć. Zdaniem 27% respondentów taki zapis w ustawie jest korzystny dla konsumentów, przeciwnego zdania było 56% (por. wykres 1). Jednak co drugi respondent nie miał zdania na ten temat. Za zdecydowanie korzystne rozwiązanie, czyli możliwość ogłoszenia upadłości konsumenckiej tylko w przypadku niezawinionym, uznali je przede wszystkim mężczyźni, osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem co najmniej średnim, oceniający swoją sytuację materialną negatywnie, mieszkające w miastach do 100 tys. mieszkańców, osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, mające dzieci, pochodzące z województwa lubelskiego. Za korzystne przyjęte rozwiązanie uznali przede wszystkim mężczyźni, osoby w wieku lat (zależność istotna statystycznie), legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym (zależność istotna statystycznie), oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby mieszkające na wsi, osoby osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby posiadające dzieci, z województwa łódzkiego. Konsument może ogłosić upadłość konsumentów raz na 10 lat. 27% Polaków, uważało, że jest to korzystne rozwiązanie dla konsumentów, a 19%, że niekorzystne. Żadnego zdania nie miało 42% respondentów (por. wykres 2).

38 38 UPADŁOŚĆ KONSUMENCKA UJĘCIE TEORETYCZNO-EMPIRYCZNE Wykres 1 Opinia respondentów nt. możliwości ogłoszenia upadłości konsumenckiej tylko w przypadku niezawinionym (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: badania własne (2013). Wykres 2 Opinia Polaków na temat ogłoszenia upadłości raz na 10 lat (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1.

39 ANNA DĄBROWSKA 39 Za możliwością skorzystania z upadłości konsumenckiej raz na 10 lat zdecydowanie opowiedziało się 6% Polaków, a kolejne 21% uznało, że jest to korzystne dla konsumentów. Wśród tych pierwszych przeważali mężczyźni, osoby w wieku 60+, legitymujące się wykształceniem średnim, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie, mieszkające na wsi lub w miastach do 100 tys. mieszkańców, osiągające dochody zł, niepracujące, pochodzące z województwa lubelskiego. Za korzystne rozwiązanie uznały je osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie (zależność istotna statystycznie), mieszkające w miastach do 100 tys. mieszkańców (zależność istotna statystycznie), osiągające dochody powyżej 4 tys. zł, pracujące, pochodzące z województwa łódzkiego. Kolejnym elementem oceny była konieczność sprzedaży mieszkania/domu, celem spłacenia zadłużenia. Ten zapis budził wiele emocji już na etapie uchwalania ustawy. Przeciwnicy wskazywali na aspekty społeczne, rodzinne, a nawet na konsekwencje wobec polityki socjalnej. Pozytywnie wyraziło się o tym zapisie 27% badanych Polaków, 22% negatywnie, nie miało zdania na ten temat 38% (por. wykres 3). Inni podkreślali, że wobec faktu, iż o upadłość może wystąpić tylko jedna osoba (np. współmałżonek), stwarza to możliwość omijania prawa. W omawianym badaniu 28% Polaków uznało, że ten zapis jest korzystny dla konsumentów, a 21%, że jest on niekorzystny, w tym 10%, że zdecydowanie niekorzystny. Wykres 3 Konieczność sprzedaży mieszkania/domu, celem spłacenia zadłużenia (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1.

40 40 UPADŁOŚĆ KONSUMENCKA UJĘCIE TEORETYCZNO-EMPIRYCZNE Zdecydowanie za zapisem o konieczności sprzedaży mieszkania/domu, celem spłacenia zadłużenia opowiedzieli się głównie mężczyźni, osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie, mieszkające w miastach powyżej 100 tys. mieszkańców, osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, a także osoby nie posiadające dzieci oraz pochodzące z województwa kujawsko-pomorskiego. Jako korzystne rozwiązanie ocenili je przede wszystkim mężczyźni, osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem średnim, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie (zależność istotna statystycznie), mieszkające w miastach pow. 100 tys. mieszkańców, osoby osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby nie mające dzieci, pochodzące z województwa łódzkiego. Następnym zagadnieniem była ocena przyjętego rozwiązania, że w świetle ustawy upadłemu zapewnia się kwotę wystarczającą na wynajmowanie mieszkania przez 12 miesięcy. Według Polaków uznanych za bardziej kompetentnych, 29% uważało, że jest to dobre rozwiązanie, przeciwnego zdania był co piąty respondent, a 44% Polaków nie wyraziło zdania na ten temat (por. wykres 4). Wykres 4 Zapewnienie upadłemu kwoty wystarczającej na wynajmowanie mieszkania przez 12 miesięcy (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1. W tym przypadku także starano się poznać profil respondentów, którzy pozytywnie ustosunkowali się do aktualnego zapisu ustawy.

41 ANNA DĄBROWSKA 41 Za zdecydowanie korzystne to rozwiązanie, uznali przede wszystkim mężczyźni, osoby w wieku 60+, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną negatywnie, mieszkające w miastach co najmniej 100-tysięcznych, osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, osoby niepracujące, z województwa warmińsko-mazurskiego. Za korzystne przyjęte rozwiązanie uznały przede wszystkim kobiety, osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie (zależność istotna statystycznie), mieszkające na wsi, osoby osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, osoby niepracujące, z województwa świętokrzyskiego. W ustawie o upadłości konsumenckiej przewidziano 5-letni plan spłaty. Pozytywną ocenę wobec przyjętego rozwiązania wyraziło 17% Polaków, a negatywną 18%, nie miało zdania 44% respondentów (por. wykres 5). Wykres 5 Stosunek Polaków do 5-letniego planu spłaty (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1. Za zdecydowanie korzystne to rozwiązanie uznali przede wszystkim mężczyźni, osoby w wieku 50+, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie lub przeciętnie, mieszkające w miastach co najmniej 100-tysięcznych, osoby osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, nie posiadające dzieci, z województwa warmińsko- -mazurskiego. Za korzystne przyjęte rozwiązanie uznały przede wszystkim kobiety (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem średnim (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie (zależ-

42 42 UPADŁOŚĆ KONSUMENCKA UJĘCIE TEORETYCZNO-EMPIRYCZNE ność istotna statystycznie), mieszkające na wsi (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, osoby posiadające dzieci, z województwa dolnośląskiego. W ustawie o upadłości konsumenckiej ustawodawca przyjął zapis, że niewielka poprawa sytuacji materialnej upadłego (np. podwyżka wynagrodzenia, znalezienie lepiej płatnej pracy) nie musi wiązać się ze skróceniem czasu spłaty. W świetle wyników badania prawie co trzeci respondent uważał, że jest to korzystne rozwiązanie, a co piąta osoba, że wręcz przeciwnie. Odpowiedzi nie udzieliło 39% Polaków (por. wykres 6). Wykres 6 Niewielka poprawa sytuacji materialnej upadłego (np. podwyżka wynagrodzenia, znalezienie lepiej płatnej pracy) nie musi wiązać się ze skróceniem czasu spłaty (% odpowiedzi) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1. Za zdecydowanie korzystne to rozwiązanie uznały przede wszystkim kobiety, osoby w wieku 60+, legitymujące się wykształceniem wyższym (zależność istotna statystycznie), oceniające swoją sytuację materialną negatywnie, osoby mieszkające w miastach co najmniej 100-tysięcznych, osiągające dochody pow. 4 tys. zł, osoby niepracujące, z województwa warmińsko-mazurskiego. Za korzystne przede wszystkim kobiety (zależność istotna statystycznie), osoby w wieku lat, legitymujące się wykształceniem co najmniej średnim, oceniające swoją sytuację materialną pozytywnie, mieszkające w miastach co najmniej 100-tysięcznych, osoby osiągające dochody w granicach zł, niepracujące, z województwa lubuskiego.

43 ANNA DĄBROWSKA 43 W badaniu starano się poznać opinię Polaków w kwestii wprowadzenia nowych rozwiązań w ustawie o upadłości konsumenckiej. Wyniki badania przedstawiono w tabeli 2. Tabela 2 Opinie Polaków w kwestii wprowadzenia nowych rozwiązań w ustawie o upadłości konsumenckiej Wyszczególnienie Tak Nie Trudno powiedzieć Okres spłaty dłuższy niż 5 lat Okres spłaty krótszy niż 5 lat Brak konieczności sprzedaży domu/mieszkania Obowiązkowe szkolenia i doradztwo w zakresie finansów gospodarstwa domowego Możliwość ogłoszenia upadłości również w przypadku zawinionym przez dłużnika Możliwość złożenia wniosku o upadłość razem przez współmałżonków Możliwość zawarcia pozasądowej ugody z wierzycielami z pomocą zawodowych doradców/mediatorów Źródło: badania własne (2013). Według badanych w nowelizowanej ustawie powinny znaleźć się zapisy o krótszym okresie spłaty niż 5 lat (skrócenie okresu bycia niepełnym konsumentem), możliwość złożenia Wykres 7 Możliwość ogłaszania upadłości konsumenckiej (częstotliwość) Źródło: jak w wykresie 1.

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