Czech Republic IGU Final Report. The Value of Flexible LNG Infrastructure IEA Gas Report Indonesia Gas Projects

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1 Czech Republic IGU Final Report Eastern Countries NGVs Report of the IGU and UN ECE Expert Group The Value of Flexible LNG Infrastructure IEA Gas Report Indonesia Gas Projects

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4 MEMBER OF no49 XI-XII 2011 Redakcja (office) tel. (+48) The New Fiat Panda LPG/CNG...5 CNG market info...6 Информация с рынка СПГ...8 Natural GAS Vehicles Joint Report of the IGU Study Group 5.3 and UN ECE International NGV Expert Group...10 World First for the Automotive Gas industry new TÜV standards for Valve Seat Indonesia is attracting gas and oil projects from non-oecd Europe...14 The value of flexible gas supply infrastructure...20 Country NGV Profile Czech Republic IGU NGV Final Report ( Triennium)...22 LPGtech Szybki, solidny rozwój z technologią dopracowaną w każdym calu...26 UE rozwiąże problem nadpodaży benzyn na rynku?...28 Canada Encana Opens New CNG Station in Alberta...30 Silnik TSI a LPG...32 Niezależny, długotrwały test Gaslube Spezial marki ERC przy współudziale TÜV Nord...34 Hyundai Eon LPG in India...36 RAIL SPA: Always in evolution, Moving with the times...38 Car tax and fuel duty...39 Fuels prices / Ceny paliw...40 Redaktor Naczelny (Chief editor) Sylwia Bujalska Opracowanie graficzne/ skład Paweł Wójcik Tłumaczenia Aleksander Skoblenko Skype: czas_na_gaz Wydawca (Editor) Amber Media ul. Myśliwska 8/20, Gdynia, Poland TAX ID: PL Redakcja nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za treść publikowanych ogłoszeń i reklam oraz może odmówić ich zamieszczenia, jeśli pozostają w sprzeczności z prawem oraz charakterem pisma. W razie konieczności, redakcja zastrzega sobie prawo do dokonywania skrótów i niezbędnych zmian w nadsyłanych tekstach. Wydanie bieżące oraz archiwalne dostępne bezpłatnie pod adresem: Present issue and archives are available freely on: The Publisher assumes no responsibility for the content of advertising, sponsored texts or written materials with copyrights of its authors. Opinions, pictures, slogans and logos stated in advertising are solely those of the advertiser. The Publisher reserves the right to reject any advertisement. While every effort has been made to ensure that the publication adheres to industry standard practices, Czas na gaz! magazine, shall not be liable or responsible for errors, omissions or inaccuracies whatsoever for the views expressed or the work provided by its contributors in the magazine. Cover, contents and Website are copyright protected and may not be reproduced in any shape or form without prior written consent from Czas na gaz!. Czas na gaz! does not knowingly accept false or misleading advertising or editorial, nor does the publisher assume any responsibility for the consequences that occur should any such material appear. Czas na gaz! also assumes no responsibility for content, text or artwork of advertisements appearing in Czas na gaz! the printed magazine and & Time For Gas! description WESOŁYCH ŚWIĄT MERRY CHRISTMAS BUON NATALE Established in July % independent (financed in 100% from adverts) Edited in English, Polish and Russian Bi-monthly editions Free distribution of hard copy in 41 world countries! Distributed while the biggest LPG, CNG and LNG events worldwide Member of NGVA Europe, cooperator of WLPGA Media Partner of international LPG and CNG expos and conferences Free for readers Free PDF version to be downloaded from the website Current list of LPG/CNG/LNG events available on SATISFACTION OF OUR ADVERTISERS IS OUR SATISFACTION! CZAS NA GAZ! The BEST Media to promote your company&products!

5 POJAZDY LPG / LPG CARS Fiat says its new Panda has reached 'full maturity' in the third-generation car that has been unveiled at the Frankfurt motor show. The Italian company says the latest evolution of the car has made a "qualitative leap in comfort, technology and safety equipment, and has a modern, harmonious look". The new Panda, which will only come as a five-door, features more passenger room and a bigger boot. That means it has grown in length from 3538mm to 3650mm, is 1640mm wide compared to its predecessor's 1578mm and is 10mm taller at 1550mm. The rear seat splits and slides to allow flexible space and seating arrangements, and the front passenger seat backrest can be folded to form a table. The Panda will be available with a range of efficient, low-capacity engines designed for city driving. Three petrol-driven powerplants were available at launch, including a brace of new 875cc two-cylinder units: an 85bhp TwinAir turbo and a 65bhp naturally aspirated version. The petrol line-up will be completed by a 1.2-litre, 69bhp engine. A 75bhp 1.3 Multijet diesel, featuring start-stop technology as standard, will also be offered. Several engine and transmission variants will be added to the range in the future. Two hybrids will join the starting line-up - a petrol/cng version of the 0.9-litre turbo and a petrol/lpg engine based on the 1.2 naturally aspirated unit. A range-topping Abarth-badged Panda is also believed to be under consideration. Based on the 875cc turbocharged petrol engine, it could pack 105bhp. A Dualogic robotized manual transmission will become available after the launch. Next year, a braking system will be added that is able to detect obstacles at close range and stop automatically at speeds below 20mph. Production will begin in November at Alfa Romeo s old Naples factory, which has been modernized by Fiat. The car should go on sale for ex. in the UK in April 2012, priced from about Fiat twierdzi, że jej nowa Panda osiągnęła "pełnię dojrzałości" w trzeciej generacji samochodu, który został zaprezentowany na targach motoryzacyjnych we Frankfurcie. Według Włochów, najnowsza wersja małego Fiata dokonała "skoku jakościowego w wyposażeniu, technologii i bezpieczeństwie oraz posiada nowoczesny, harmonijny wygląd". Początkowo nowa Panda będzie oferowana z napędem na koła przednie, wersja 4x4 pojawi się nieco później. Do wyboru przewidziano następujące silniki: 2-cylindrowe TwinAir Turbo 85 KM oraz 0.9 TwinAir 65 KM; 1.2 Fire 69 KM. Dostępny będzie też silnik 1.3 Multijet diesel o mocy 75KM, wyposażony w technologię start-stop w standardzie. Kilka innych wariantów silnika zostanie dodanych do oferty w niedalekiej przyszłości, w tym dwie hybrydy: benzyna/cng (wersja turbo 0,9-l) i benzyna/lpg (wolnossąca jednostka 1,2-l). Rozważa się też topową odmianę Abarth, która z benzynowym silnikiem 875cc i turbodoładowaniem osiągałaby moc 105KM. Dodatkowo, Panda oferuje 3 wersje wyposażenia, 10 kolorów nadwozia, 4 wersje wykończenia wnętrza, 2 rodzaje kołpaków lub felgi aluminiowe w rozmiarach 14" i 15". W sumie auto będzie można dostosować do indywidualnych upodobań w ponad 600 kombinacjach. Nowość na liście wyposażenia to między innymi system nawigacyjno-rozrywkowy "Blue&Me TomTom LIVE". W pierwszym roku sprzedaży przewidziano także wprowadzenie nowego systemu automatycznego hamowania, który może zatrzymać samochód jadący z prędkością 30 km/h, jeżeli czujniki wykryją nagle pojawiającą się przeszkodę.

6 INFORMACJE Z RYNKU CNG / CNG MARKET INFO CNG market info ITALY Landi Renzo has developed for Ecoè (owned by Umbria Mobilità) a dual-fuel supply system (60% natural gas, 40% diesel) for the public bus fleet in the territory of Perugia. The system takes advantage of the widespread adoption of natural gas as a transportation fuel in the country, ensuring driving performance similar to full diesel operation while offering significant savings on fuel consumption. The initiative is part of a major awareness project that Landi Renzo is delivering to local governments of major Italian cities to promote increased sustainable mobility. Giovanni Moriconi, the president of Umbria Mobilità, explained that with ever fewer resources available to the local public transport, the Ecoè system represented an opportunity to reduce operating costs and at the same time reduce harmful emissions in our cities. The estimated economic benefit is equal to EUR (USD 0.22) per kilometer. If a bus was estimated at an annual mileage of 70,000 kilometers, the benefit to the company would be EUR 10,920 (USD 15,200) per vehicle. 12 buses are already using the dual-fuel system and 8 more will be added. NGV System Italia SPAIN Seat SA a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Volkswagen Group, will market a CNG version of the new Seat Mii next year. Seat Fan Club reports the head of Seat Product Development, Fermin Someira as saying the small utility vehicle will provide fuel cost savings of 20% and a range of 1000 kms. Seat is confident the introduction of the CNG model will stimulate refuelling infrastructure growth. Price EUR 8,700 (USD 11,830). Seat Fan Club SLOVAKIA Over recent months 2 new CNG stations have opened in Slovakia. The stations are located in the southern cities of Komarno and Nove Mesto nad Váhom, providing self-service refuelling 24 hours a day all year round. Operated by the country s major natural gas supplier SPP, refuelling requires an SPP access card which operates across all company refuelling sites. The CNG filling station in Komarno has a capacity of 160 m 3 /hr and CNG filling stations in Nove Mesto nad Vahom has a capacity of 350 m 3 /hr. The Komarno station was the first in Slovakia to be located at a service station, under agreement between SPP and fule refiner and supplier SLOVNAFT. SLOVNAFT operates 209 filling stations across the country and sees the potential for adding more CNG facilities. cng.auto.pl SWEDEN, CANADA Westport Innovations Inc., a supplier of alternative fuel, low-emissions technologies that allow engines to operate on clean-burning fuels such as natural gas, has acquired Alternative Fuel Vehicle Sweden AB (AFV) of Gothenburg, Sweden for approximately USD 7.6 million. AFV is the sole supplier of natural gas fuel systems to Volvo Car Company (VCC). Natural gas technology is playing an increasingly important role in European automotive markets, where there is a longstanding interest in cleaner, more economical transportation solutions, said Ian Scott, President of Westport Light Duty (LD). We have seen steadily growing demand in Sweden, particularly from corporate and fleet customers. As fuelling infrastructure continues to expand and more automakers offer natural gas options, we expect to see that trend to continue across Europe. Volvo dealers in Sweden have offered a bi-fuel 231-hp 2.5 litre turbocharged version of the popular V70 wagon, with the CNGsystem engineered and installed by AFV, since The Volvo V70 Bi-Fuel has been approved as a company car for Swedish businesses, and Swedish drivers can fuel up at more than one hundred public natural gas filling stations. In addition to emissions benefits, corporate and private customers are eligible for tax incentives that make natural gas an even more economical alternative. AFV now aims to expand into other European markets. USA DeKalb County, Ga. has ordered 24 Freightliner Business Class M2 112 CNG trucks which are planned to be used for sanitation and maintenance purposes. Delivery of its new M2 112 CNG trucks will be at the end of this year. The County will use its own methane gas-to-energy process to fuel the vehicles. The County s program, launched in 2011, converts landfill waste to natural gas. Freightliner said DeKalb County s program produces enough natural gas to run up to 600 trucks. The Freightliner M2 112 CNG is powered by the Cummins Westport ISL G 8.9L natural gas engine. It features a three-way catalyst, and doesn t require a particulate filter or regeneration, according to Freightliner. The 2,500 square-inch windshield provides additional visibility, and the truck s 55-degree wheel cut and set-back front axle helps improve maneuverability, according to the manufacturer. Westport Innovations Inc. the global leader in natural gas engines announced that the new CNG Westport WiNG Power System (WiNG ) will be available in the popular Ford F-250 and F-350 Super Duty pickup trucks sold and serviced through authorized Ford dealers. As part of the product launch with Ford Super Duty Pickup Trucks, Westport LD has unveiled the new WiNG system, an advanced, integrated, bi-fuel system for passenger and commercial vehicles targeting fleet customers. 06 czas na gaz 2011 no.49

7 "We're seeing strong customer interest across the spectrum from fleets of all shapes and sizes for a factory-validated product, as more and more owners understand the economic and operational benefits of a cleaner fuel that's sourced right here in North America," said Ian Scott, President of Westport LD. The F-250 and F-350 pickup trucks are expected to ship in the second quarter of Altech-Eco Corporation, a CNG conversion systems manufacturer, has obtained Certificates of Conformity (C.O.C.) from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for both their CNG bi-fuelled and dedicated conversion systems for the 2011 Ford 6.2L V8 F-250/350 pickups with Ford supplied CNG gaseous prepped engine. The dedicated version converts the vehicle to operate 100% on CNG. The bi-fuel version enables the vehicle to operate on either CNG or gasoline and allows users to take advantage of using CNG as a cleaner burning and more economical alternative fuel when available. From Altech-Eco Corporation press release Southern California Gas Co. (SoCalGas), has launched a field demonstration of NGV fueling technology that aims to significantly reduce costs and increase performance. The Microbox, developed by Argentina s Galileo Corp. and used extensively internationally, is being showcased for the first time in the United States at SoCalGas Riverside customer service base. The compact, self-contained fueling station provides CNG at about $2 per gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) to vehicles operated by the city and county of Riverside, AT&T, So- CalGas as well as regional school bus and taxi companies and consumer vehicles. NGV Global BELGIUM A new, landmark initiative was announced on 19th October to use 9.1 billion from the EU s budget to help upgrade Europe s energy infrastructures - electricity and natural gas. The development of bi-directional gas pipelines is envisioned to bring more renewable biomethane and LNG into the network. The Commission also is considering creating a separate legislative proposal on alternative fuel infrastructure requirements in order to facilitate and actively stimulate market development of alternative fuels. This is part of a new, comprehensive alternative transport fuel strategy, the Clean Transport Systems (CTS) initiative that is being prepared for launch in the first quarter of People wanting to know more about these issues first-hand can hear and meet European Commission policy makers who will be on the podium and in the audience at the upcoming workshop, Chickens and Eggs: Opportunities, Challenges and Strategies Building the NGV Infrastructure scheduled in Brussels on 7-8 December The program covers CNG, biogas, liquefied-to-compressed natural gas, and LNG for cars, trucks, ships and railway applications. With Sponsors as Dynetek, IMW (a Clean Energy Company) and Atlas Copco, Czas na gaz! as a Media Partner of the Chickens and Eggs: Opportunities, Challenges and Strategies Building the NGV Infrastructure scheduled in Brussels on 7-8 December 2011 would like to invite you for this workshop. More info on and INDIA Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is set to commission another 100 CNG buses. Responding to an Andhra Pradesh government directive issued early this year to expand the number of CNG buses in the fleet, APSRTC reportedly procured 150 buses in March and has plans to purchase a total of 350 CNG buses for the Greater Hyderabad transport zone. The directive called for at least one-third of the 6,000 buses planned to purchase over 36 months to operate on CNG. The Hindu INDIA ARAI, the Automotive Research Association of India, has developed a 6-cylinder methane/ diesel dual-fuel engine using injection technology. ARAI says a 6 cylinder engine was chosen due to its importance for intercity bus and truck applications. It says the benefits of dual-fuel technology include fuel flexibility, lower emissions, retaining diesel compression ratio, better efficiency and easy conversion of existing diesel engines without major hardware modifications. The dual fuel combustion technology demonstrated by ARAI uses a dual-fuel CNG injection kit, which facilitates CNG single point and multi-point injection with diesel replacement up to 60% for part load conditions. At idling and full load conditions the engine operates solely on diesel fuel. This ensures that there is no power drop as compared to neat diesel operation. This also prevents thermal overloading of the engine. It is observed that dual-fuel operation reduces smoke and PM emissions by approx %, CO is marginally reduced and NOx and HC are comparable with diesel operation. The dual-fuel engine has successfully met BS- III norms with sufficient margin using a suitable low loading oxidation catalyst. Given the continuing expansion of CNG infrastructure across India ARAI concludes this technology can be used for all generation of diesel engine technologies. ARAI Journal

8 INFORMACJE Z RYNKU CNG / CNG MARKET INFO CNG ИНФОРМАЦИЯ С РЫНКА СПГ Всемирный рынок СПГ к 2016 году На мировом уровне ежегодные продажи автомобилей, работающих на природном газе, увеличатся на 68%: от 1,9 миллионов в 2010 году до 3,2 миллионов автомобилей в 2016 году. Этот скачок в основном будет обусловлен стремлением автопарков сократить зависимость от бензина и сократить производственные расходы. В США ежегодные продажи автомобилей, работающих на природном газе, увеличатся практически в четыре раза до автомобилей в 2016 году по сравнению с прогнозируемыми в 2012 году. Рассматривая страны по отдельности, к 2016 году Индия опередит Иран, который в настоящее время является ведущим пользователем автомобилей, работающих на природном газе, в мире. Без сомнения, богатый нефтью Иран будет всё в большей степени переходить на природный газ в качестве топлива, поскольку использование бензина означает получение страной меньшей прибыли от продажи сырой нефти за границу. Даже если в США использование природного газа увеличится в четыре раза, то по сравнению с другими странами, там всё равно будет насчитываться практически незначительный процент автомобилей, работающих на природном газе. «Это обусловлено недостатком инфраструктуры», говорит Pike. По состоянию на 1 сентября, в США насчитывается 946 рабочих заправочных станций, работающих с природным газом. Это можно сравнить с открытыми для широкой публики точками для зарядки электромобилей и примерно бензозаправочными станциями. Помимо недостатка инфраструктуры, ограничивающим фактором также является тот факт, что только один серийный пассажирский автомобиль из продаваемых в США способен сжигать природный газ это Honda Civic Natural Gas модели 2012 года. Источник «Pike Research» ИСПАНИЯ Испанский производитель автомобилей «Seat SA», дочернее предприятие, полностью принадлежащее немецкой группе «Volkswagen», в следующем году представит на рынке новую версию автомобиля Seat Mii, работающего на природном газе. Seat Fan Club сообщает, что по словам главы департамента Seat по разработке продукции Фермина Сомейры, небольшой автомобиль-фургон обеспечит экономию затрат на топливо в размере 20% и диапазон 1000 км. Seat уверен, что выпуск модели, работающей на природном газе, будет стимулировать рост заправочной инфраструктуры. Цена модели Евро ( дол. США). Источник «Seat Fan Club» Индия В то время, когда цены на бензин подвержены частым колебаниям, недорогие автомобили, работающие на природном газе и дизельном топливе, начали своё восхождение в списках предпочитаемых видов топлива по всей Индии. Автомобили, работающие на природном газе, настолько популярны, что вскоре природный газ вытеснит бензин в качестве топлива, на котором работает большинство автомобилей в Индии. Всё большее количество владельцев автомобилей переделывают свои автомобили, работающие на бензине, в машины, сжигающие природный газ, из необходимости сэкономить пару долларов при каждой заправке. Автопроизводители заметили такую тенденцию в пользу природного газа и дизельного топлива в Индии и среагировали на неё, наполнив страну небольшими автомобилями, включая самый топливосберегающий седан Tata Indigo e-cs (54 мили на галлон), использующий дизельное топливо, который сжигает популярные в настоящее время альтернативные виды топлива. Источник «The Times of India» США В дополнение к своему тысячному грузовику для перевозки мусора с полным сгоранием компания «Waste Management» теперь может официально заявить, что она эксплуатирует самый большой парк автомобилей, работающих на природном газе, во всей Северной Америке. Превращая мусор в топливо, грузовики компании «Waste Management», работающие на природном газе, используют возобновляемое топливо со сверхнизким содержанием углерода, производимое благодаря разложению органических отходов на свалках компании. За один календарный год грузовиков WM, работающих на природном газе, устранят потребность в 8 миллионах галлонов бензина и снизят выбросы газов, вызывающих тепличный эффект, на тонн. Источник «Inhabitat» Россия Делегация ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (РЖД) посетила КАМАЗ, а также ООО «РариТЕК», который является сервисным центром и дистрибьютором КАМАЗа, производящего транспортные средства с газовыми двигателями. Гости осмотрели линейку грузовиков КАМАЗ и автобусов НЕФАЗ, работающих на газе. Железнодорожников волновали вопросы технического обслуживания, эксплуатации, а также три преимущества автомобилей, работающих на природном газе производительность, экологичность и безопасность. Визит способствовал дальнейшему развитию соглашения о сотрудничестве, заключённом Владимиром Якуниным, Президентом ОАО «РЖД», и Сергеем Когогиным, генеральным директором КАМАЗ. Железнодорожники активно используют различные типы оборудования на шасси КАМАЗ для путевых работ. Подписанное соглашение являлось первым шагом к организации профессионального и компетентного обслуживания таких транспортных средств. Соглашение подразумевает заключение договоров между ОАО «РЖД» и сервисными центрами КАМАЗ для выполнения технического обслуживания, ремонтных работ и капитального ремонта. Во время визита, представители РЖД также выразили интерес к компрессорной станции BI 100 для заправки транспортных средств, работающих на природном газе. Её эксплуатация может снизить стоимость метана, используемого в качестве топлива, в 2,5 раза. Из пресс-релиза компании «Камаз» Швеция, Канада Компания «Westport Innovations Inc.», поставщик альтернативных видов топлива и технологий с низким уровнем выбросов, которые позволяют двигателям работать на полностью сгорающих видах топлива, таких как природный газ, приобрела компанию «Alternative Fuel Vehicle Sweden AB» (AFV) из Готенбурга, Швеция, примерно за 7,6 миллионов долларов США. AFV является единственным поставщиком топливных систем для природного газа компании «Volvo Car Company» (VCC). «Технологии с использованием природного газа играют всё более значительную роль на европейских автомобильных рынках, где уже давно существует заинтересованность в более чистых, более экономичных транспортных решениях», говорит Ян Скотт, Президент компании «Westport Light Duty» (LD). «Мы наблюдаем постоянно растущий спрос в Швеции, в частности со стороны корпоративных клиентов и автопарков. Поскольку топливная инфраструктура продолжает расширяться и всё больше автопроизводителей предлагают возможность использования природного газа, мы ожидаем, что эта тенденция будет продолжаться во всей Европе». С 2009 г. дилеры Volvo в Швеции предлагают версию популярного легкового автомобиля V70 с турбонагнетателем, работающим на двух видах топлива, 231 л.с 2,5 литра, с системой работы на природном газе, разработанной и установленной AFV. Модель «Volvo V70 Bi-Fuel» была утверждена в качестве модели служебного автомобиля для шведских компаний и шведские водители могут заправляться более, чем на ста заправочных станциях общественного пользования с природным газом. 08 czas na gaz 2011 no.49

9 Setting the Standard JLM achieves World 1st TÜV standard for valve seat recession for LPG & CNG

10 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS Natural GAS Vehicles Joint Report of the IGU Study Group 5.3 and UN ECE International NGV Expert Group Compiled with the assistance of Eugene Pronin and Andrey Andreevsky, Gazprom/NGVRUS ESTONIA NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 General Data Population: Territory: km 2 Number of on-road vehicles: Number of NGVs: 130 Total number of NG filling stations in the country: 2 Number of NG filling stations operated by the company: 2 Major CNG filling station operator: AS Eesti Gaas Installed capacity of CNG filling stations: 400 m 3 /h January June 2011 sales of NG : m 3 Fuel Prices Average price of CNG in the country: 0,677 /kg Average price of oil RON95: 1,30 /l Average price of diesel: 1,30 /l Compiled with the assistance of Latvjas Gaze and Eugene Pronin, Andrey Andreevsky, Gazprom/NGVRUS LATVIA NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 General Data Population: Territory: km 2 Number of on-road vehicles: Number of NGVs: 18 Total number of NG filling stations in the country: 1 Number of NG filling stations operated by the company: 1 Major CNG filling station operator: Latvjas Gaze Installed capacity of CNG filling stations: 400 m 3 /h January June 2011 sales of NG : m 3 Fuel Prices Average price of CNG in the country: 0,38 /m 3 Average price of oil RON95: 1,32 /l Average price of diesel: 1,28 /l 10 czas na gaz 2011 no.49

11 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS ARMENIA NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 Compiled with the assistance of Mehak Gabrielian, Golden Field and Eugene Pronin, Gazprom/NGVRUS General Data Population: Territory: km 2. Paved roads: kilometers. Number of on-road vehicles: , including cars and trucks/buses vehicles presumably fall into "Other vehicles" category not explained by the source. Number of NGVs: cars (60%) and (65%) trucks/buses. All taxi cabs and light duty buses (minivans) use CNG. Many Armenian CNG filling stations violate the rules and fill vehicles to the pressure of 300 bar instead of 200 bars according to national law. Sales of CNG grow 5 to 8 percent annually. In 2010 Armenian NGVs consumed 318,3 Mcm of natural gas. Number of filling CNG stations: 345. Number of LPG filling stations: 61, but LPG is used very little. There are 50 shops to convert vehicles to run on CNG. The only company in the NGV industry in Armenia is 'Golden Field' LLC a company that manufactures CNG cylinders. No incentives are offered by the state. Fuel Prices Natural gas for CNG filling stations: 0,18 /ncm Natural gas for population: 0,25 /ncm Gasoline 98: 0,96 /l Gasoline 95: 0,91 /l Gasoline 91: 0,87 /l Diesel: 0,83 /l LPG: 0,51 /l LPG: 1,02 /kg CNG: 0,38 /ncm Belarus NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 Compiled with the assistance of Dmitry Anniuk, Alexander Holubau, Beltransgaz, Eugene Pronin and Andrey Andreevsky, Gazprom/NGVRUS General Data Population: Territory: km2. Number of on-road vehicles: Number of NGVs: Number of filling CNG stations: 26 Mother and 16 daughter stations. No incentives are offered by the state. In January June 2011 Beltransgaz sold Ncm to NGVs. Fuel Prices Gasoline grade 95: 0.66/l Gasoline grade 92: 0.61/l Diesel: 0.59/l LPG: 0.38/l CNG: 0.19/m 3 cont. on page 12 >>> czas na gaz 2011 no.49 11

12 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS cont. from page 11 Compiled with the assistance of Eugene Pronin and Andrey Andreevsky, Gazprom/NGVRUS LITHUANIA NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 General Data Population: Territory: km 2 Number of on-road vehicles: Number of NGVs: 195 Number of filling CNG stations: 3 No incentives are offered by the state Fuel Prices Gasoline 95: 1,32 /l Diesel: 1,24 /l CNG: 0,88 /ncm Compiled with the assistance of Ivan Garch, Moldovagas and Eugene Pronin, Andrey Andreevsky, Gazprom/NGVRUS MOLDOVA NGV COUNTRY PROFILE September 2011 General Data Population: 3,560,400 Territory: km 2 Number of on-road vehicles: Number of NGVs: unknown. The source provide for the aggregate number of CNG and LPG vehicles Number of filling CNG stations: 24 (including 8 in Moldovagas with installed capacity of 118 Mcm*year) In January June 2011 Moldovagas sold 2,41 Mcm of natural gas to vehicles No incentives are offered by the state Fuel Prices Gasoline 95: 1,047 /l Gasoline 91: 0,87 /l Diesel: 0,998 /l CNG: 0,45 /ncm On-road Vehicle Fleet Composition Gasoline Diesel LPG+CNG Total Buses Cars Trucks Motorcycles Trailers Semi-trailers Tractors Other Total czas na gaz 2011 no.49

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14 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS Gas use is growing all over the world. According to the report of U.S. Energy Information Administration IEO2011 Reference case, the natural gas is the world's fastest-growing fossil fuel, with consumption increasing at an average rate of 1.6 percent per year from 2008 to 2035 (fig. 1). The demand is even bigger in the developing countries where the supply is increased from unconventional sources such as shale gas. There are visible both differences, and similarities and even partnerships within two part of the developing world: non-oecd Asia and non-oecd Europe. If in non-oecd Asia, the reserves of natural gas are sufficient for more than 30 years and the production has risen all over the region, the non-oecd Europe (indeed all of Europe) is not self-sufficient in gas and oil and has to rely on imports. European gas consumption is reaching maximum production capacity. (fig. 2 vs. fig. 3/page 16) On the one hand, Indonesia is representative for the gas situation both in non-oecd Asia, and Pacific, much more as the country was in the spotlight during this period on the occasion of the 8th International Oil and Gas Exploration, Production and Refining Exhibition. Indonesia has 3.18 trillion cubic meters of proven gas reserves, making it the top ranking country in Asia for gas reserves, according to BP Company s Statistical Review of World Energy (fig. 4 /page 16 and fig. 5 /page 18). Indonesia is a key exporter of natural gas to the major demand markets of the world. Locally the demand is also likely to increase from local power plants. The popularity of natural gas as a source of energy has increased in non-oecd Asia over the years leading to increase in its consumption. Consumption of natural gas is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. Production of natural gas is expected to increase substantially from Africa and non-oecd Asia (excluding India and China). Natural gas production is expected to increase by 10 trillion cubic feet from 2004 levels from each of these two regions by the year The oil production is also encouraged. The Indonesian government aims to increase oil production to one million bpd in the coming years by offering new exploration rights and encouraging enhanced production from existing wells. Figure 1 World natural gas consumption, Figure 2 Non-OECD Asia natural gas production, (trillion cubic feet) (trillion cubic feet) 14 czas na gaz 2011 no.49 cont. on page 16 >>>

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16 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS cont. from page 14 Figure 3 Non-OECD Europe, natural gas production Figure 4 Indonesia in top Asia Pacific- Proved reserves - NATURAL GAS (trillion cubic feet) (trillion cubic feet) Efforts to improve the investment climate were illustrated by a reduction in the corporate income tax rate to 25% in 2010, the opening of a few more sectors to foreign investors, and new tax concessions for certain investments. The government launched a new system to reduce the time and costs of importing and exporting by allowing single submission, processing, and approval of import and export documents. On the other hand, non-oecd Europe is emerging as a major demand hub in its own right. European gas consumption is reaching maximum production capacity. Its 8% buffer of supply over demand is not sufficient to ensure continued security of supply, particularly given that demand will rise as post-recessionary economic growth gains ground. Non-OECD Europe is one of the largest sources of untapped natural gas in Europe. Natural gas is a key energy source for residential heating, industry and electricity generation. In non-oecd Europe and Eurasia, natural gas is the primary energy source and the share in the energy consumption is about 50 percent. Russia, the second largest natural gas consumer after the US, is the biggest contributor for consumption in the region. Gas pipeline investment is crucial in non-oecd Europe, if gas is to be brought to markets from increasingly remote producing regions. Intra-regional connections need to be strengthened to provide greater resilience, security and competition in gas supply. However, many European investments remain relatively weaker, and long-haul pipelines are subject to delay and cost escalation. Many proposals remain at the planning stage. One reason is that the infrastructure is often insufficient to exploit this potential. Within this context where weak infrastructure is the primary factor limiting further growth, the non-oecd European companies providers of equipment dedicated to the energy sector are seeing more opportunities across Asia. The policies in Indonesia are seen as key to encouraging suppliers of the advanced technologies that are required for the exploitation of ageing industrial units and enhancing production from marginal fields. However industrial works in Indonesia s gas and oil segment must address a number of issues stemming not only from the challenges of meeting the incremental gas and oil demand, but also from important regulatory initiatives and the need to maintain experienced staff. We are targeting countries like Indonesia, where we could implement many projects in gas and also in oil sector. We adapt of course our services to meet the regional requirements, but for systems integrators this could be easy, considering the complete solutions they could provide. The environmental safety becomes a more and more important aspect in this region, so we pay more attention in developing performing solutions that could reduce emissions in all the facets of gas and oil distribution and storage., explains Ion Andronache, the CEO of the Romanian company Syscom18, one of the national leaders on the process control and automation market, company that provides integrated solutions and complex installations for the gas and oil industry. Advances in technology have always served as major triggers for the development of natural gas markets as the technological progress is crucial both in accessing new gas resources and converting them into reserves, and in developing new means to bring the gas to markets. Technological innovation in the exploration and production sector has equipped the industry with the equipment and practices necessary to continually increase the production of natural gas to meet rising demand. These technologies serve to make the exploration and production of natural gas more efficient, safe, and environmentally friendly. The vapor recovery process in natural gas, for example, has significant environmental and economic benefits. The gas and oil facilities have seen thousands of euros of gas recovery. So the economics are good when the vapor recovery units are becoming commonly used in the gas industry as a means of recovering natural gas vapor and making it an usable and profitable product. At the tank farms and refineries level the security represents an essential aspect and there are required solutions and specialized services in order to comply with international standards such as EU Directive 94/63/EC and German TA-Luft. Vapor Recovery Systems, for example, which are important units within the gasoline loading/unloading operations, have to be designed to meet all current and expected gasoline emission specifications. For complex installations and large quantities of Gasoline loading/unloading in tanks, tank trucks and railcars, as well as small applications, a turnkey solutions provider should perform expertise in loading/unloading facilities, feasibility studies, the detailed engineering for vapor recovery installations, delivery of the equipment, dedicated software, installations and commissioning., says Ion Andronache. The vapor return process for gasoline supply requires the gases to be re-liquefied and thus, valuable product is recovered and the highest demands on air purity are met. As Indonesia will be one of the main drivers for growth in the gas and oil equipment market through the next years, more vapor recovery units are expected to be installed throughout the region. 16 czas na gaz 2011 no.49 cont. on page 18 >>>

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18 RYNKI GAZOWE / GAS MARKETS cont. from page 16 Figure 5 Proved reserves - NATURAL GAS Source: bp.com/statisticalreview 18 czas na gaz 2011 no.49

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20 RYNEK LNG / LNG MARKET The value of flexible gas supply infrastructure In their recent Golden Age of Gas report, the IEA predicts that global gas demand growth will be led by a surge in the construction of gas fired generation capacity. They forecast that annual gas consumption from gas fired power stations will increase by 800 bcm to over 2000 bcm by 2035, an increase of 65% from 2008 levels. This is equivalent to more than 1500 new 500 MW CCGTs running at 75% load factor. Gas fired generation is globally attractive for a number of reasons: it is a mature and low risk technology which can be delivered close to demand centres with relatively short lead times it offers comparatively short payback periods, which is important to investors faced with wide spread regulatory uncertainty it is well placed to facilitate the transition to decarbonisation, having a much lower emissions intensity than its thermal alternatives (gas produces less than half the emissions of an equivalent coal station) it is ideally placed to provide the flexibility required to manage renewables intermittency. In Europe policy makers have been slow to recognise the key role natural gas is likely to play in the transition to decarbonisation of the power sector. This is to a large extent because governments are promoting a much more aggressive path for development of renewable generation than that supported by policy mechanisms and transmission infrastructure. The European Gas Advocacy Forum recently published a interesting study which sets out how gas can play a more prominent role in meeting 2050 European emissions targets than that presented in similar studies by the European Climate Foundation and the UK Committee for Climate Change. In Asia and North America the case for gas fired power generation is clear. A pollution driven transition from coal to gas plant in China and a reduction in Japanese nuclear capacity will support Asian demand growth. Gas fired generation also looks attractive in North America given the scale of domestic shale gas resource and a policy shift towards lower carbon emissions. Globally the growth in gas fired generation capacity will drive a greater requirement for imports of LNG. This is particularly the case in Europe where declining domestic reserves will need to be replaced with imports and in Asia where demand growth is set to outpace supply as illustrated in Chart1. Chart 1: Growth in European and Asian LNG imports (source WoodMac/Statoil) Increasing need for Increasing need for imports in Europe (bcm) imports in Asia (bcm) Domestic production Domestic production Supply from Russia Supply from Central Asia Required LNG import Required LNG import to meet demand to meet demand Supply from Norway Supply from North Africa Some important implications of growth in power sector gas demand The growth in gas demand from the power sector will increase the requirement for gas supply flexibility. Almost universally, either through central dispatch or market mechanisms, generation dispatch decisions are based on the relative short run marginal cost of power plants. As a result the running patterns and gas demand of gas fired plant can vary significantly as a function of gas prices relative to other fuels (primarily coal). The resulting swings in power sector gas demand may be seasonal (as a result of winter/summer gas price differentials) or more structural as global commodity price movements impact the competitiveness of gas-fired generation. Growth in intermittent renewable capacity will also drive an increase in the requirement for short term gas supply flexibility. Gas power stations will play a prominent role in providing flexibility to compensate for fluctuations in must run wind and solar generation output. The extent to which this gas flexibility is required from one year to the next will in turn depend on variations in alternative sources of short term flexibility such as hydro storage levels. Another important consequence of growth in gas demand for power generation will be an increasingly strong relationship between gas and power prices in many regional power markets. An expansion of gas capacity combined with the flexibility demands of must run renewable capacity is likely to result in an increase in the influence of gas plant in setting marginal power prices. This will manifest itself both in an increased correlation of gas and power prices and in a convergence of the shape of prices. 20 czas na gaz 2011 no.49

21 RYNEK LNG / LNG MARKET The need for greater gas infrastructure flexibility An increased requirement for gas supply flexibility from the power sector is set to coincide with the increased dependence of Europe and Asia on LNG imports. The dynamics of LNG supply are very different to traditional contracted pipeline supply. Incentives to economically optimise the destination of LNG cargoes are a well established feature of LNG supply contracts. As a result the delivery of LNG to meet demand will depend on market price signals and the location of suitable cargoes. The continued development of global LNG spot trading and arbitrage combined with greater sources of supply diversity will lead to less predictable production to market routes which will require greater transportation and storage infrastructure flexibility. This infrastructure flexibility will need to support the fluctuations in regional power sector gas demand from changing wind patterns, hydro levels and gas plant competitiveness. It will also need to support the dynamic re-optimisation of global LNG portfolio flows in response to complex interactions between regional spot gas and contract prices. Chart 2: Global gas trade and transportation utilisation (source IEA) % % % % % % % % % The IEA provide an insight into how global LNG capacity utilisation may tighten by 2015 in their recently published Golden Age of Gas Scenario. Chart 2 shows the historic and forecast global pipeline and LNG trade and transportation infrastructure utilisation capacity. Value from investing in flexible supply infrastructure The IEA project global gas demand this decade will be driven strongly by Asia meaning that unutilised LNG capacity will fall quicker than that of pipelines. As capacity becomes more constrained towards the middle of the decade it is questionable whether the global gas supply chain will have the inherent flexibility required to manage the uncertainty in global and regional supply and demand balances. This is both over a medium term (seasonal and forward curve) horizon and a short term (within month) horizon. In this environment there is an interesting investment case for emerging technologies that can add flexibility to the gas supply chain. In addition to existing floating regasification facilities these include floating liquefaction, CNG and small scale LNG transportation. There is still time for investors to deliver new supply chain flexibility although investors have been wary of commiting capital. There is a risk that policy and regulatory uncertainty will provide siginficant impediments to investors seeking to finance investments in flexible infrastructure. For example the lack of clarity in Europe as to policy support for new gas infrastructure and the role gas will play in the decarbonisation agenda. Flexibility development may be further hindered by the fact that asset margins are a complex function of market spreads and price relationships. These can be difficult for investors and asset managers to quantify and to hedge. However if investment in flexibility is constrained it will likely result in greater gas price volatility and an increase in the returns and asset value of existing flexible gas infrastructure. timera-energy.com Unutilised capacity LNG trade Pipeline trade Capacity utilisation rate (right axis)

22 RYNEK ngv / ngv MARKET September 2011 CNG public refuelling stations, gas companies CNG public refuelling stations, non-gas companies The concept of CNG development in the Czech Republic was drawn up by the Czech Gas Association in 2004 as the Government s policy paper on The Programme of Support for Alternative Fuels in Transport Natural Gas. The Government of the Czech Republic approved this programme in its resolution of 2005 and it was then formulated in more detail in an Agreement between the Government of the Czech Republic and Gas Companies. The Agreement was signed in 2006 and among other things guaranteed zero excise duty on CNG between 2007 and CNG sales in the Czech Republic continuously increase every year. It can be expected that the gradually rising excise duty imposed on CNG starting in 2012 will not affect this development and that CNG will continue to be the least expensive and most advantageous motor fuel in the Czech Republic. For the development of the excise duty see Chart 5. Companies operating in the CNG business: Gas companies: RWE, E.ON Energie, a.s., Pražská plynárenská, a.s., Vemex, s.r.o. Non-gas companies: Bonett Gas Investment, a.s., Gascontrol spol. s r.o., Tvaja CNG, s.r.o., Aquacentrum, s.r.o., Motor Jikov, a.s., NEAT, a.s., CNG Company, s.r.o. CNG vehicle manufacturers: Buses: Iveco Czech Republic, a.s., Tedom, a.s., SOR Libchavy spol. s r.o. Forklifts: Linde Material Handling CR, s.r.o. Importers of CNG vehicles into the CR: VW, Mercedes Benz, Fiat, Opel, Iveco Ice resurfacers: Zamboni The table and chart show CNG development in the Czech Republic between 2004 and For example, CNG sales increase by more than 24% annually, NGV sales increase by 45% and the number of public CNG refuelling stations rises by 23%. Table 1 NGV development between 2004 and 2010 Public CNG refuelling stations Total number of vehicles Passenger cars Buses CNG sales million m³ % increase in CNG sales , ,800 1, ,500 2, czas na gaz 2011 no.49

23 RYNEK ngv / ngv MARKET Developments over the past five years clearly indicate that in the Czech Republic, a favourable business environment has been created for the infrastructure, i.e., the rollout of a network of CNG refuelling stations, and for the related industries, as well as a good market environment for the sales of all categories of CNG vehicles (passenger cars, delivery vans, buses and municipal vehicles). Part of this successful development in CNG is the existence of technical legislation, technical standards and other legislative documents related to CNG. Taxes and subsidies CNG excise duty The subsidy scheme of the Czech Ministry of Transport for the replacement of vehicles in public bus transport in 2011 has been cancelled, which also means the cancellation of subsidies from the Czech Ministry of Transport for CNG buses. Although governmental support has been withdrawn, gas companies continue to contribute CZK 200,000 to the purchase of every new CNG bus. This involves marketing support, for example, the buses carry advertising posters of the respective gas company (RWE, Pražská plynárenská, a.s., E-ON) provided that the bus operator also takes CNG from the gas company. There is also an opportunity to transfer funds for CNG bus procurement from the budgets of regional operational programmes. However, it is up to each city to decide on the way in which it will allocate the funds and on how it justifies this transfer; for example, the municipality can declare low-emission zones allowing access to clean vehicles. In the Czech Republic, it is now possible to buy CNG buses cheaper than diesel buses. However, it is up to each operator to decide which fuel it will use. Road Tax Under Section 3 of Act No 16/1993 on the Road Tax, since 1 January 2009, under 12-tonne vehicles with an electrical, hybrid or gas drive have been exempt from the road tax in the Czech Republic. Chart 1 Public CNG refuelling stations between 2004 and 2010 Chart 2 CNG vehicles between 2004 and 2010 Chart 3 CNG sales between 2004 and 2010 Chart 4 Expected CNG development until 2020 Chart 1 32 Chart 2 23 Total vehicles Passenger cars Buses Chart 3 10,058 Chart 4 CNG sale (mil.m 3 /y) Number od CNG FS CNG cars (x 1000) 8,082 in million m 3 2,773 3,01 3,584 5,79 6, ,9 5, cont. on page 24 >>> czas na gaz 2011 no.49 23

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