1 1 THE EXCESSIVE WORK OF FEMINIST THEORY IN POLAND BETWEEN THE POLITICAL AND L ITERARY STUDIES All agree in recognizing the fact that females exist in the human species; today as always they make up about a half of humanity. And yet we are told that femininity is in danger; we are exhorted to be women, remain women, and become women. It would appear, then, that every female human being is not necessarily a woman; to be so considered she must share in that mysterious and threatened reality known as femininity. Simone de Beauvoir The Second Sex, 1949 For me, feminism is also a stupid word, an empty word like all big words that end in ism.. These are Susan Sontag s lines in one of her interviews. Whether we like the word or not it means something very important, however. [I]t means continued Sontag being aware of the situation of inequality between men and women, of the oppression of women, and wanting to do concrete things to change that situation (Sontag 1995, 158/159). Regardless of the place, whether it is the Great Britain, Finland, United States or Poland, feminism as a word (F - quote on quote - word) and as a movement, a political standpoint, reading and interpretative strategy it has never been popular and liked by the majority. Indeed, many of us, identifying ourselves with feminism, do not like this word. We know very well how often we are compelled to explain what it is. What we mean by it. Why it is important at all for the literary, sociological or anthropological studies. Finally we have to defend it as not a passé thing and to explain why it is not more ideological than any other (often so called objective) perspective. In this paper I would like to talk shortly about how feminism has been adopted in Polish literary studies. I will concentrate on the recent years, starting from the 1990s with short references to other periods of Polish literary history, namely to the appearance of de Simone de Beauvoir s writings in Poland. I shall present three main strategies in which the academic feminist research has been applied. Subsequently, I will try to identify the main reasons why feminism in Polish context met so much resistance. The latter point gives a lot of space for a comparative perspective between Poland and other post-communist as well as the Western countries. And I believe that many reasons, I intend to mention here, apply to other countries; I shall concentrate, however, on the specific dynamics between feminism and its adaptation in Polish academic scholarships.
2 2 Women as an oppressed group, or if we do not like this adjective the disadvantaged group, are made to believe that their situation of limited freedom is their destiny. Their destiny may even been shaped by the appearance that oppression is natural (Sally Scholz 2008, 6). This is a position of Simone de Beauvoir, the milestone of the feminist research, whose birth s centenary we celebrate this year. She clearly pointed out that A woman is a free being mystified into believing she is confined to particular roles, thus limited freedom (op. cit.). Women s oppression differs from other form of oppression insofar as there appears to be no historical starting-point for it and Women are oppressed as women, but separated from each other, and often have more in common with men of their class than they do with other women from different class (op. cit.). This important recognition of women s position was elaborated in 1949 Le Deuxième Sexe (The Second Sex). It was translated into Polish in Yet, the Polish translation was a curiosum of the publishing market during the communism, which was believed to be free from the capitalist oppressive structure, and thus from sexist, patriarchal arrangement. Beauvoir s book was, therefore, seen as a highly Western, bourgeois reflection that has nothing to do with the Polish reality. Elżbieta Pakszys in her article examines the reception of the 1972 Polish translation in the first year. She notes that the five thousand copies of the first edition of the book were aimed at snobbish Polish elites wanting to know what was trendy in the West. The reviews were mostly negative. The viewpoint of the book seemed out of date in the society, in which the uncompromised equality between the sexes was guaranteed at least in the light of the constitution 1. Today that emancipation is a reality, the arguments of both sides [the pro- and anti-equal rights advocates U.Ch.], seemed to be outdated argued Barbara Nowak in Constitution: Article 78: (1) Women in the Republic of Poland shall have equal rights with men in all fields of public, political economic, social and cultural life. (2) The equality of the rights of women shall be guaranteed by: 1. equal rights with men to work and to be paid according to the principle "equal pay for equal work", the right to rest and leisure, to social insurance, to education, to honors and decorations, and to hold public offices; 2. mother-and-child care, protection of expectant mothers, paid leave before and after confinement, the development of a network of maternity clinics, creches and nursery schools, the extension of a network of service establishments and canteens; 3. The Republic of Poland shall strengthen the position of women in society, especially of gainfully employed mothers and women. Poland Constitution Extracts: Konstytucja z 22 lipca 1952 roku uznawała równe prawa wszystkich obywateli bez względu na płeć, urodzenie, wykształcenie, zawód, narodowość, rasę, wyznanie oraz pochodzenie i położenie społeczne. Ponadto, ustawodawca nadawał kobietom i mężczyznom równe prawa we wszystkich dziedzinach życia państwowego, politycznego, społecznego i kulturalnego. Także zasada równej płacy za równą pracę, ochrona życia rodzinnego, macierzyństwa, prawo do wypoczynku, do ubezpieczenia społecznego, do zajmowania stanowisk publicznych i szereg innych gwarancji określało prawa kobiet (in:) Agata Zygmunt, Postulat różności płci w sferze zatrudnianie i pracy w krajach Unii Europejskiej i Polsce, Katowice, UŚ, 2006, p
3 3 the Tygodnik Kulturalny review. 2 Not surprisingly then, 1972 translation met the readership s void and had no actual impact on the scholarly interest. Similarly, 1982 first feminist collection of the articles Nikt nie rodzi się kobietą (One is not born as a woman 3 ), edited by Teresa Hołówka had no real effect on shaping the feminist consciousness among both the scholars and the activists. The vivid and open feminist debate was initiated only at the beginning the 1990s. 4 It was then that feminist publication in magazines and translations of books started to appear. The western feminist scholarship was believed to help in decomposing, re-reading, and re-inventing the women s tradition in literary as well as in the other spheres. 5 A Polish scholar and writer, Inga Iwasiów, recalls captivatingly the invention of her feminist approach to the literary studies in the 1990s: I started feminizing my own world at the beginning of the 1990s.. My own feminism emerged from the child-like reading style: I needed to identify with the characters of the fictional worlds. This identification led to the terrifying conclusions. Don t I, the she-reader of the texts that reproduce the patriarchal social model, flirt dangerously with the Fathers?... Speaking directly: women deserve their own tradition. They worked too hard for it, always having occupied the subordinate position. But not everything to the trash bin. Not a creation from a scratch. Rather the decomposition and mediation. 6 2 I quote after Pakszys 2000, 178.The quote comes from the Tygodnik Kulturalny 8 march The Simone de Beauvoir s book was translated into Polish by Gabryela Mycielska and Maria Leśniewska. The small first edition made the book almost unavailable in Polish for a long time apart from the main libraries. Second edition came out in 2003: Druga płeć / Simone de Beauvoir, transl. Gabriela Mycielska, Maria Leśniewska. Warszawa : Wydaw. Jacek Santorski & Co. 3 Needless to point out it s an allusion to Beauvoir s famous quote volume of The Second Sex: One is not born, but rather becomes, a woman. This sentence is seen as the introduction to the first deep elaboration of the distinction between seen and gender. See: Butler, Judith, Sex and Gender in Simone de Beauvoir's Second Sex in Yale French Studies, No. 72 (1986), pp [A]n important landmark was Volume 4-6 (1993) of the literary critical journal Teksty drugie, which included translations of key texts of western feminist criticism (Showalter s ; Cixous s. ); [ ] and. voices who have subsequently become important contributors to the field of feminist and later gender studies: Toril Moi, Beth Holmgren, Grażyna Borkowska, Ewa Kraskowska, Inga Iwasiów and Kinga Dunin (Chowaniec, Phillips, Rytkönen 2008, 19). 5 The impact of western feminism and its adoption in so called post-communist countries has been discussed and elaborated in various texts, which now would constitute quite a big library, e.g. Watson, Peggy Eastern Europe's Silent Revolution: Gender. Sociology, 27(3):471-87; Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, ed Women in the Politics of Postcommunist Eastern, Europe. London: M.E. Sharpe; Coyle, Andrea Fragmented Feminisms: Women s Organisations and Citizenship in Transition in Poland. Gender and Development 11(3):57-65; Joanna Z. Mishtal, The Challenges of Feminist Activism in Transition Politics: The Case of Poland in: 6 Feminizowanie swojego świata zaczęłam na początku lat dziewięćdziesiątych. Mój feminizm wziął się z dziecięcego stylu lektury: potrzebowałam utożsamienia się z postaciami fikcyjnego świata. To utożsamienie prowadziło do przerażających wniosków.czy ja, czytelniczka tekstów reprodukujących patriarchalny model społeczny, nie flirtuję zbyt niebezpiecznie z ojcami?. Mówiąc wprost: kobietom należy się spuścizna wieków. Pracowały na nią, zajmując podrzędne miejsce, bardzo ciężko. Więc nie wszystko do śmietnika. Nie nowe stworzenie świata. Raczej dekompozycja i mediacja, Iwasiów 2002, 9, 12, 13.
4 4 While inhabiting a feminist position, Iwasiów in her book Re-vindication: a woman reading today (Rewindykacje: kobieta czytająca dzisiaj) does not dismiss whole tradition of the literary research. She recognizes, however, the importance of mediating between the canonical reading (the Fathers) and the feminist revolutionary standpoint. Looking at the past 20 years, we can see various ways of these mediations and de-compositions of the literary tradition. I suggest to distinguish three general strategies, in which feminist methodologies and their devices have been present in the Polish studies (1) adapting of the Western feminist theories; (2) re-writing Polish women writers literary history; (3) finding our own feminist critical voices (a vindication of Polish feminist voice(s)). 1) Re-Reading and Adaptation of Western Theory: Still a bit intimidated by the huge western feminist tradition, Polish feminism searched for the canonical feminist texts and authors such as Elaine Showalter, Toril Moi, Luce Irigaray or Hélène Cixous. The 1993 translation of the Dictionary of Feminist Theory by Maggie Humm became the omnipresent, the most frequently quoted textbook ( podręcznik ) to feminism. The interests in western theory during the 1990s, and frequent translated pieces in the journals become visible in the separate publications as the full-length translations at the end of the 1990s, among them: Germaine Greer, Kobiecy eunuch, 2001 (The female eunuch, 1970); Adrienne Rich, Zrodzone z kobiety: macierzyństwo jako doświadczenie i instytucja, 2000 (Of Woman Born: Motherhood as Experience and Institution, 1976); Luce Irigaray, Ciało w ciało z matką, 2000; (Le corps- à- corps avec la mere, 1981); The need of clear elaboration of western feminist scholarship resulted also in the encyclopaedia-like book of Kazimierz Ślęczka: Feminizm: ideologie i koncepcje społeczne współczesnego feminizmu, 1999 (Feminizm: Idelologies and Social Concepts of the Modern Feminsim). 2) The next and the most vivid literary feminist strategy was Re-Reading and Re-Writing the Polish Women s History (so called Feminist Literary Archaeology). Academic scholars concentrated on the re-interpreting the literary history and the literary canon, taking into consideration the forgotten until now women writers. This strategy was also stimulated and inspired by the strong presence of the women s prose (feminist prose) in the 1990s (such as
5 5 Izabela Filipiak, Manuaela Gretkowska, Olga Tokarczuk, Zyta Rudzka, Natasza Goerke, Krytyna Kofta, Magdalena Tulli etc.) The feminist rereading of the women s history has been taken from various angles. One of them was writing about the forgotten authors like Maria Komornicka or Zuzana Ginczanka. Maria Janion Kobieta i duch inności (Woman and the Spirit of Otherness, 1996); Filipiak, Izabela. Obszary odmienności: Rzecz o Marii Komornickiej, Agata Araszkiewicz Wypowiadam wam moje życie: Melancholia Zuzanny Ginczanki (I am Expressing to You my Life: The Melancholy of Zuzanna Ginczanka 2001); The other angle was to investigate the patriarchal structure within the well known authors like Eliza Orzeszkowa, for instance. Among the work we have to mention: Grażyna Borkowska s Alienated Women: A Study on Polish Women s Fiction (Cudzoziemki: Studia o polskiej prozie kobiecej, 1996); Krystyna Kłosińska Ciało, pożądanie, ubranie: O wczesnych powieściach Gabrieli Zapolskiej (Body, Desire, Clothing: On the Early Novels of Gabriela Zapolska, 1999); The list here would be incomplete without the first Polish women s writing history which appeared in 2000 as a general guide or a supplement to the canonical history: Grażyna Borkowska, Ursula Phillips and Małgorzata Czermińska Pisarki polskie od średniowiecza do współczesności: Przewodnik a (Polish Women Writers from the Middle Ages to the Present Day: A Guide, 2000). Gender and Sexuality in Ethical Context: Ten Essays on Polish Prose, edited by Knut Andreas Grimstad and Ursula Phillips (2005) Using this strategy, the feminist scholarship tried to tell about the gaps, silences created by the classical, traditional and marginalizing women writers canon. 7 7 Polish Women Writers of Earlier Times (Pisarki polskie epok dawnych), edited by Krystyna Stasiewicz (1998); Joanna Partyka s Well-Trained Wife : The Writing Woman in 16 th- and 17 th -Centry Culture ( Żona wyćwiczona : Kobieta pisząca w kulturze XVI i XVII wieku, 2004); Alina Aleksandrowicz s Izabela Czartoryska: Polskość i europejskość (1998); Polish Savantes of the 17 th Century: The Intellectual Aspirations of Noble Women (Sawantki polskie XVII wieku: Aspiracje intelektualne kobiet ze środowisk dworskich, 1997); With a Nun s Pen: 17 th -century Polish Chroniclers of Their Orders and Times (Piórem zakonnicy: Kronikarki w Polsce XVII w. o swoich zakonach i swoich czasach, 2002); Women (Kobiety), edited by Anna Żarnowska and Andrzej Szwarc; Barbara Umińska s Figure with a Shadow: Portraits of Jewish Women in Polish Literature from the End of the Nineteenth Century to 1939 (Postać z cieniem: Portrety Żydówek w polskije literaturze od końca XIX wieku do 1939 roku, 2001); Kamila Budrowska s study, Women and Stereotypes: The Image of Women in Polish Prose after 1989 (Kobieta i stereotypy: Obraz kobiety w prozie polskiej po roku 1989, 2000); Halina Poświatowska Unthinking and Unromantic (Nierozważna i nieromantyczna, 2001); Sławomira Walczewska s Ladies, Knights and Feminists: Women s Discourse of Emancipation in Poland (Damy, rycerze i feministki: Kobiecy dykurs emancypacyjny w Polsce); Urszula Chowaniec, In Search of Woman (W poszukiwaniu kobiety. O wczesnych powieściach Ireny Krzywickiej, 2007); Ewa Kraskowska, By the Woman s Pen (Piórem niewieścim. Z problemów prozy kobiecej dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, 2003); Renata Ingrant, From Her Point of View: Woman s Anti-World in the Poetry of Anna Świerszczyńska (Stockholm, 2007).
6 6 The final strategy I would like to mention here is: 3) Developing new reading schemes (the vindication of one s own voice). Here, the authors bravely expose their (feminist) point of view and vindicate their individual position (as a woman, as a academic, and finally as a Pole). I wish to point out just a couple of books: Inga Iwasiów, Rewindykacje: Kobieta czytająca dzisiaj (Revindications: Woman Reading Today, Kraków, 2002) Kinga Dunin, Czytając Polskę : literatura polska po roku 1989 wobec dylematów nowoczesności (Reading Poland: Polish Literature After 1989 and the Dilemmas of Modernity, Kraków, 2004) Inga Iwasiów explained this strategy in the abovementioned book: It is a time to search for the Polish feminism beyond this what is known from other languages and cultures. But this is not a chauvinism, from which just in case I want to distance myself, since a chauvinism is possible wherever the nationalist note is heard, wherever one demands anything ours against the foreign. If I stand for the locality, I do so for the sake of variety/differences 8 I believe in this variety. 9 In her book, Inga Iwasiów, advocating the diversities of viewpoints, stands for the reading as a Polish woman with all the characteristics of her position in the name of other Polish women s readers, constituting a specific feminist identity reading pact 10. *** The purpose of this selective overview is to demonstrate that feminism has been strongly present in the Polish academic research for some time now. 11 However, it would be deceitful 8 In Polish różnorodność (eng. variety) has got the same roots as różnica (fr. and engl. difference), therefore can be associated with the Derridian różnia (fr. differance), therefore I left in my translation the other meaning: variety/differences. 9 ( nadszedł czas, żeby poszukać feminizmu po polsku, ponad tym, co przyswojone z obcych języków i kultur Ale to nie szowinizm, przed czym uciekam na wszelki wypadek, bo ten możliwy jest wszędzie, gdzie brzmi narodowa nuta, gdzie domagamy się naszego przeciw cudzemu więc kiedy opowiadam się za lokalnością robię to raczej w imię różnorodności. W tę różnorodność wierzę Iwasiów 2002, I would also like to mention a book by Kinga Dunin, in which the author exposes her own position as a woman-reader. She says: The place from where I read is a place of national sentiments, familiar habits ( ) The place, from where I read, is a particular space, close and open at the same time. It can be re-interpreted again and again (in:) Kinga Dunin, Czytając Polskę : literatura polska po roku 1989 wobec dylematów nowoczesności (Reading Poland: Polish Literature After 1989 and the Dilemmas of Conterpoinety, Kraków, 2004, p. 78); Other books of his strategy: Inga Iwasiów, Gender for the Averagely Advanced (Gender dla średnio zaawansowanych, Warsaw, 2004); Kazimiera Szczuka, Cinderella, Frankenstein and the others (Kopciuszek, Frankenstein i inne: feminizm wobec mitu Kraków, 2001; Ewa Kraskowska, The Reader as a Woman: Literature and the Theory (Czytelnik jako kobieta. Wokół literatury i teorii, Poznań, 2007).
7 7 not to mention the difficulty of adopting the feminist perspective in the academic research. Why feminism met its resistance (was badly-present 12 ) in the Polish academy as well as in the social and political spheres? I think there is possible to identify few of the most crucial reasons. One is the connection of feminism with politics. Feminism has its roots in the political movement and it is always associated with the ideological viewpoint, exposing the existence of an inequality between men and women and the privileged position of the male sex. Moreover, feminism immanently advocates the need for a change for a better society. Simone de Beauvoir, for instance, called for the liberation of women from the constrains of the social concepts of femininity. This ideological subtext of feminism puts it under criticism of being biased, and narrowing-down the perception of the problems, therefore being un-academic. Such a criticism assumes that some perspectives are more objective and even un-political. Surely, such criticism bears some simplicity, nevertheless, it is not a rare phenomenon. The feminist opponents often point out that the perspectives offered by cultural studies or even gender studies (with their clear anti-essentialist, constructivist postulations) are more objective (even politically correct). The ideological component of feminism made it especially surplus in the post-communist country where ideology was associated by the despised Marxist theory. The Marxist element of Beauvoir s 13 and of many other western feminists theories and philosophies (such as these of Juliet Mitchell, Kate Millet, Shulamith Firestone) were ostracized. 14 The connection between the feminism and Marxism was associated with the artificial and state-imposed emancipation as well as with the so called double or triple burden of women in society, who besides the traditional roles (as wives and child-carers) were supposed to be the equal economic support providers. Beside its ideological inclination, feminism was criticised for stressing the role of human s sexuality and the physicality of the body. The feminist literature was linked with the themes of sexuality (the over-sexualized body, physiological motifs etc.) used by feminists to discriminated old, traditional order, but by the critics, having failed to see political message of 11 Many other feminist valuable publications, I have no space to discuss, one can find at the feminist information service and bookstore: Feminoteka: One can also read the clear overview of the Polish feminist scholarship in literary studies prepared by Ursula Phillips in the book Masquerade and Femininity: Essays on Russian and Polish Women Writers, edited by Ursula Chowaniec, Ursula Phillips and Marja Rytkönen, Cambrige Scholar Publishing, Newcastle Źle-obecne, the term used by Polish scholar Przemysław Czapliński, 1997, For example in post-communist country suggested by Simone de Beauvoir s paths to women s liberation such as 1). work; 2). participation in intellectual activity, and 3). support of the socialist society (Scholz 2008, 7) were not very popular. 14 See: Urszula Chowaniec, W poszukiwaniu kobiety: o wczesnych powieściach Ireny Krzywickiej, Kraków: WUJ, 2007, subchapter Society and Work, Społeczeństwo i praca, pp
8 8 the themes, misread them as a scandal. This association was used by the antifeminist criticism very smartly, by creating, for example, the label of the menstruation writing and putting feminist authors into a pigeonhole of something shameless and disturbing. Krystyna Kłosińska explains the mechanism of such a backlash: There is the arrogance and disregard for the humbleness imposed on women throughout the centuries that appear in the women s writing. Through writing, a woman enters the public space of speaking and acting and emerges from silence. In this way, she disturbs the traditional distribution of the social roles and the sense of the stable hierarchy. In a nutshell, she disturbs the power-relations. 15 This feminist de-composition of hierarchy was attacked by re-inventing the category of normality which was opposed to the communist reality, and meant to describe the democracy of free production and free speech (Kornhauser1995; Nasiłowska 2006). However, the feminist texts of Izabela Filipiak, Manuela Gretkowska or Krystyna Kofta have been seen by the concerned readers such as a literary critic Julian Kornhauser as the evidence of the over-exercising this right to free-speech: Normality, but at what price? he asked. At the price of discounting all our tradition and laughing loudly at the sacred values, which will undisturbed continue to shape our identity?. 16 Kornhauser plays here on the traditionalist and the Catholic note discrediting feminism as being against any sanctified by Polish society values. Such an opinion was the result of the reservation towards the feminism; of many preconceptions against feminism and finally of misreading or not-reading the feminist texts at all. What s the role of feminism in Poland now? Feminism as a literary critical perspective still has to fight for its place at the Polish academy as much as any other walk of life. It has to fight for its place against the more democratic gender studies or the cultural studies. As a strategy based on the presumption that women as a group should be identified, feminists (in Poland, but also in other countries) have a lot to do in terms of co-operation, academic networking, sharing the experience and research results (as we do it here, I hope) in order to prevent the slowly melting of the women s concerns into the omnipresence of the postmodernist difference (advocating the anti-identity policy). To deny women their identity as a political, social and reading group is the easiest way to deprive them from the political and actual impact not only in the Parliament but also in the academic hierarchy. One should always remember the opinion of Susan Sontag (whose words I started and I wish to conclude 15 W pisaniu kobiety objawia się pycha, lekceważenie narzuconej od wieków pokory. Wchodząc przez pisanie w przestrzeń publicznego mówienia-działania, kobieta wydobywa się z milczenia i ciszy. Zakłóca więc tradycyjny rozdział ról społecznych, poczucie ustalonej hierarchii, słowem: relacje władzy. Kłosińska 2001 In. Ciało i tekst, ed. A. Nasiłowska, Normalność, ale za jaką cenę? Za cenę przekreślenia całej tradycji i śmiania się w głos uświęconym wartościom, które nieprzerwanie kształtować będą naszą tożsamość Kornhauser 1995, 13.
9 9 with): Anybody, man or woman, who says I am not a feminist is already a feminist in comparison to what that person was twenty or thirty years ago because the centre has changed. I think that the [feminist U.Ch.] groups, the demonstrators, are a tiny minority that did things that are called excessive, but which do a great service for the majority, because they change the centre. That which is normal, conventional, conservative, changes a bit (Sontag 1995, 159). I believe that this excessive yet great work has been done by the feminist literary criticism in Poland and it should be carrying on. Thank you, Bibliography: Beauvoir Simone, de Druga płeć (Le Deuxieme Sex), transl. Gabriela Mycielska, Maria Leśniewska. Warszawa : Wydaw. Jacek Santorski & Co. Iwasiów, Inga Rewindykacje: kobieta czytająca dzisiaj. Kraków: Universitas. Pakszys, Elżbieta Egzystencjalizm vs. esencjalizm albo Druga Płeć Simone de Beauvoir po 50 latach (in:) Krytyka feministyczna: siostra teorii i historii literatury, red. G. Borkowska, L. Sikorska. Warszawa: IBL. Schulz J. Sally, The Second Sex, Philosophy Now, Issue 69, September/October, Sontag, Susan Conversations with Susan Sontag, ed. by Leland A. Poague, Mississippi University Press. Kłosińska, Krystyna Kobieta autorka, Ciało i tekst. Feminizm w literaturoznawstwie antologia tekstów, Warszawa: IBL. Nasiłowska, Anna Ciało i tekst : feminizm w literaturoznawstwie - antologia szkiców. Warszawa: Instytut Badań Literackich. Nasiłowska, Anna Literatura okresu przejściowego Warszawa : Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. Dunin Kinga Czytając Polskę : literatura polska po roku 1989 wobec dylematów nowoczesności. Kraków: Universitas. Dunin, Kinga Czego chcecie ode mnie, Wysokie Obcasy? Warszawa: Sic! Hołówka, Teresa (ed.) Nikt nie rodzi się kobietą Warszawa: Czytelnik. Jaxa-Rożen, Hanna Kontestacja i banał : feminizm w kulturze współczesnej. Wrocław : Wydawnictwo Atla2. Jaxa-Rożen, Hanna Feministyczna krytyka literacka: krótkie wprowadzenie. Łask :Oficyna Wydawnicza Leksem. Kornhauser, Julian, Barbarzyńcy i wypełniacze (in:) Tygodnik Powszechny1995, nr 3, 13. Czapliński, Przemysław Ślady przełomu. O prozie polskiej Kraków: WL. Czapliński, Przemysław Literatura polska Przewodnik po prozie i poezji, Kraków:WL.
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