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1 CONSERVATION OF THE GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE Proceedings of the International Workshop Goniądz, Poland 25-27th January 2012 ЗАЩИТА БОЛЬШОГО ПОДОРЛИКА Материалы Международного Семинара, Польша января 2012 OCHRONA ORLIKA GRUBODZIOBEGO Materiały z Warsztatów Międzynarodowych Goniądz, Polska stycznia 2012

2 CONSERVATION OF THE GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE/ OCHRONA ORLIKA GRUBODZIOBEGO/ ЗАЩИТА БОЛЬШОГО ПОДОРЛИКА

3 CONSERVATION OF THE GREATER SPOTTED EAGLE Proceedings of the International Workshop Goniądz, Poland 25 27th January 2012

4 CONTENTS 7 Numbers, trends, reproductive success, hybrydization and monitoring of the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga in Poland Grzegorz Maciorowski 8 Tagging, autumn migration and wintering of the Biebrza Aquila clanga and Aquila pomarina population Grzegorz Maciorowski 9 Results of diet analysis basing on CCTV observation of the Aquila clanga nests Grzegorz Maciorowski 10 The Greater Spotted Eagle population in Estonia: actual numbers, degree of hybridization and monitoring conducted Urmas Sellis 11 Tracking of the Greater Spotted Eagles: preliminary results about migration and wintering of Estonian individuals Urmas Sellis 12 Breeding history of the Greater Spotted Eagle and hybrids with the Lesser Spotted Eagle in Latvia Uģis Bergmanis 13 Current status of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the Ukraine Sergey Domashevsky + INTERVIEWS 81 Urmas Sellis The Eagle Club Estonia Jan Lontkowski Eagle Conservation Committee Poland The Greater Spotted Eagle in European part of Russia: main nesting areas, size dynamics and threats to the population Alexander L. Mischenko, Vladimir N. Melnikov The Greater Spotted Eagle population in Belarus: actual numbers, trends, habitats and occurrence of hybridization with the Lesser Spotted Eagle Valery Dombrovski Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus Valery Dombrovski Phenology and colour ringing of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus Valery Dombrovski Valery Dombrovsky Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences Minsk, Belarus Siergiej Domashevsky Ukrainian Birds of Prey Research Center Kiev, Ukraine Aleksander Mischenko M.A Mienzbira Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study Moscow, Russia Igor Karyakin Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network Nizhny Novogród, Russia The Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in Lithuania: Past and present status Rimgaudas Treinys Active conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Biebrza Valley Paweł Mirski, Agata Choynowska Habitat preferences, territory sizes and feeding habitats usage by the Greater Spotted Eagles in Biebrza Valley Paweł Mirski European Greater Spotted Eagle Species Action Plan and the need for an update Paweł Mirski The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga in the regions of Volga Ural, Western Siberia and Altai Sayan Karyakin I., Bachtin R., Biekmansurow R., Nikolenko E., Ważow S.

5 Numbers, trends, reproductive success, hybrydization and monitoring of the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga in Poland Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences First references to the existence of a Greater Spotted Eagle (AQC) in Biebrza Valley date back to the years At that time A. Dyrcz along with a team have been observing the species in 1 3 territories. Since the year 1973 in the valley of Biebrza a German team lead by B.U. Meyburg had worked and confirmed the fact of the Greater Spotted Eagle nesting in southern basin of Biebrza (though further observation of that pair indicated the occurrence of Aquila pomarina male). In the year 1982 W. Łapiński localised the nest of AQC in the middle basin (in the territory existing to this day). Not until the year 1990 were the Polish ornithologists (E. Pugacewicz, G. Maciorowski) to start intensive inventory the population of AQC in Biebrza Valley. In that period no less than 12 nesting territories of this species have been found. Because of the size of Biebrza Valley, the first complete inventory of the Greater Spotted Eagle nesting territories was finished in the second half of that decade. Inventory was done with help of over 30 volunteers (most of them were students of Agricultural Academy in Poznań). Numbers of Greater Spotted Eagle territories in particular pentads changed slightly and estimated in years : 14 to 16, in years : 12 to 13, in years : It should be noted that in Biebrza Valley, in these periods, there were also mixed pairs of the Lesser and the Greater Spotted Eagles or those in which at least one eagle was a mature interspecies hybrid. Their numbers in the same periods were as follows: 3 to 5, 5 to 6 and 8 to 13 pairs in the lest period, that is in the years Most of the Greater Spotted Eagle terrirories were stable for over 15 years. Most unstable terrirories are those on terrains heavily altered by humans (drained peat bogs and sedge wetlands changed into any type of grasslands). Outside the Biebrza Valley a brood of a mixed pair were observed in 2008 on the borders of Bialowieza Forest (E. Pugacewicz, oral information) and in 2011 nearby Siemianowka reserve by the Narew River (P. Mirski oral information), also a breeding pair has been seen for several years in Lublin Province (S. Aftyka oral information). Lack of proper biotopes in the rest of the country rules out the possibility for the creation of a larger Greater Spotted Eagle population outside the Biebrza Valley. Sadly, situation of Polish AQC population is very poor. In most territories breeding is very irregular theoretically in 16 years, during which all the nesting places have been monitored, there should be 304 attempts to breed, which occurred only in about 30% cases, in 70% cases birds have not even built nests. Only 5 pairs (26,3% of the total population) raised 56 nestlings (66,7 all nestlings from last 16 years). Until now, the number of breeding pairs has remained stable, although deep habitat changes (draining, changes in plant life structure in the valley, intensified crop production, raising human impact on the wild parts of Biebrza Valley) can effect in slow decline of the species. In the future, raising number of White-tailed Eagles forcing out AQC from best nest terrirories can also have negative impact on the number of this species. A phenomenon of raising hybridization level of the species on the whole territory of the valley is being observed. Hybridization between Aquila clanga and pomarina has taken place in the Biebrza Valley for a long time. The first brood of AQC found by the German team in 1979 was probably a mixed pair. Extent of this phenomenon is not entirely not entirely recognized in the Biebrza Valley mixed pair were noted on 10 different sites so far (in no less than 4 of them exist mature interspecies hybrids breeding regularly). Possibly, the extent of this phenomenon will grow in the near future (as a result of landscape changes in the valley, which are favourable to AQP. The exact extent of hybridization in the spotted eagles population will be soon discovered as a result of the current genetic research on about 180 birds conducted in cooperation with Ülo Väli. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 7

6 Tagging, autumn migration and wintering of the Biebrza Aquila clanga and Aquila pomarina population. Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences Tagging of the Spotted Eagles population nesting in Bierza Valley has been started at the beginning of the 90's. In years , a total number of 141 the Spotted Eagles have been tagged with steel rings. Since the year 2000 two coloured rings have been in use: in 2004 only yellow, and since 2005 two coloured numerical or alphanumerical rings have been put on bird s tarsus (yellow, red, white and blue). The Greater Spotted Eagles (AQC) and hybrids (AQX) are equipped with alphanumerical rings on their left tarsus, the Lesser Spotted Eagles (AQP) with numerical rings on their right tarsus. Since the system of combining two colours with individual codes has been implemented, a total number of 110 birds has been ringed, before yellow alphanumerical rings was put on 7 AQC. In the years AQC, 24 AQX and 57 AQP were tagged with coloured rings. The mentioned system was supposed to facilitate identification of individual birds in the field and enable getting return information from AQC migration routes. Until now, 8 return messages from abroad have been acquired: about AQC from Greece and France have been found dead, and alive AQC and AQX from Germany, juvenile AQC from Israel and Spain and of juvenile AQP from Egypt. Moreover, thanks to the coloured rings, the presence of 12 earlier ringed Spotted Eagles has been observed (some of them regularly). In two cases an adult male of AQC and an adult AQX, both ringed as nestlings, have been observed on the breeding ground. The second way of marking utilised in the Valley is using telemetry transmitters. Satellite telemetry was used by the Polish German group of ornithologists under B.U. Meyburg s leadership in years , equipping 15 Spotted Eagles with transmitters. In 2011 the team working within the confines of LIFE + Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga conservation project in Poland returned to this method. Their aim is to equip at least 12 AQC with GPS transmitters. These were financed by LIFE and National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water and placed on 8 birds (4 adult males and 4 young AQC), acquiring a lot of data concerning the birds localisation on the breeding ground and during the migration. It has been confirmed that four adult males of AQC equipped in such transmitters, which started migration between 25th August and 4th October, travelled along the known route through Strait of Bosfor and Middle East heading to the north eastern part of Africa. All the males marked in the Biebrza Valley chose the area between Sudan and South Sudan as their wintering quarters, flying the distance of 5620 to 6100 km during their autumn migration. One of the juvenile Greater Spotted Eagles flew to the vicinity of Aswan Dam. There, the signal from his transmitter faded. We cannot rule out the possibility of the bird s death. Another juvenile flew out of the Valley around 20th October heading towards France and Spain but was found weakened, about 100 km southwest of Berlin. In the spring, as the bird will finish rehabilitation, he will be set loose around the Biebrza Valley. Third juvenile bird is a female from lower Biebrza river basin, who departed in August headed towards Balkans and then along Adriatic Sea, has arrived to the wintering quarters on Crete. Malfunction of fourth transmitter made tracking the last juvenile eagle impossible. The only mature AQP marked with a data logger started travelling in the second half of August, flying through Bosfor, Middle East, Suez, and central Africa all the way through the Republic of South Africa, weaving his way the entire time and visiting different distant areas. He did not choose one exact place for wintering. Results of diet analysis basing on CCTV observation of the Aquila clanga nests Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences In 2010 and 2011 by the nests of Greater Spotted Eagles (AQC) two cameras have been placed in order to monitor the birds during their nesting season. The aim of this activity is to study breeding biology of the species emphasizing the composition of food brought to the nest. Monitored were as follows: in the year 2010, a nest of a mixed pair and AQC pair, in the year 2011, two ACQ nests. Solar powered cameras (bought from AQUILA company) allowed filming the nests from dawn to dusk. Gathered material is currently under analysis by the workers of the Eagle Conservation Committee engaged in the LIFE project. Presentation shows initial, partial analysis results of nourishment brought for nestlings from June to their departure. In the case of the Greater Spotted Eagle pair monitored in the year 2010, percentage weight of particular systematic group of animals was as follows (in brackets percentage of prey specimens): amphibians Amphibia 12% (37%), fish Pisces 9% (1%), mammals Mammalia 39% (36%) and birds Aves 40% (26%). Worth noting is a large percentage of birds among which most common were those affiliated to wetlands as spotted crake, corn crake, common snipe. Another pair of Greater Spotted Eagles monitored in 2011 brought to the nest larger number of amphibians 34% total biomass (68% of prey specimens), 16% mammals (12% of prey specimens) and as much as 50% birds (20% of prey specimens). In comparison in case of a mixed pair, where the male was AQP (who was delivering food in over 90% of cases) and AQC female (who was rarely delivering food to the nest), the percentage of prey animals was different: amphibians 24% (42%), mammals 64% (46%) and birds 12% (12%). Worth noting is a large number of mammals brought to the nest (mostly small species of vole). The migration of the Greater Spotted Eagles is possible to follow on the website: Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 9

7 The Greater Spotted Eagle population in Estonia: actual numbers, degree of hybridization and monitoring conducted Urmas Sellis Eagle Club There is no confirmed evidence, but we assume that the Greater Spotted Eagle (GSE) has inhabited Estonian landscapes from ancient times, probably even earlier than the Lesser Spotted Eagle (LSE). Though data about GSE population numbers before the 90 s are very difficult to use because of determination errors between GSE and LSE. Therefore we have more or less accurate numbers since 1997 (20 30 breeding pairs of GSE), when Ülo Väli and Asko Lõhmus prepared their first scientific analyses about population numbers in Estonia, based on a few years monitoring activity with GSE and LSE. According to the survey conducted by the state, in 2010 only less than 10 pairs breed in Estonia. In the years , 26 different breeding territories have been confirmed, with at least a possibility of breeding. In 2011 only one pure pair of GSE and four mixed pairs were found. Whereas the other birds were LSE. At the same time, the LSE population was stable with breeding pairs (Väli 2011). Hybridisation between GSE and LSE has been estimated as one of the major threats of GSE population in Estonia (there are certainly other issues, like drainage, degradation of foraging areas, etc.). It is probable that hybridisation took place previously, but during there were only three confirmed cases (maybe because of little knowledge of this topic initially). In 2003, 10 mixed pairs were found to breed in Estonia, and in 2011 just four. Successively, the mixed pairs usually are replaced with LSE pairs. Into mixed pairs we include cases when at least one of the adults is a hybrid or the other Spotted Eagle species. Large area overlapping of the Spotted Eagle breeding area has resulted in different grade hybrids between GSE and LSE in Estonia and Eastern Europe (Väli et al. 2010). Monitoring has been implemented by Eagle Club since 1994 when the state monitoring scheme was started in Estonia. Monitoring of the breeding population was carried out after nearly every five years (together with LSE) but during the intervening years the monitoring was performed by Eagle Club using a project based approach. So almost every year we have data about the monitored population. Since 2011 the state monitoring scheme has changed to an annual survey of the full population in Estonia. We conclude that the small population in Estonia is very vulnerable and could easily suffer as a result of random events. Also, we do not see realistic sources from neighbouring countries to replace the lost individuals. The most remarkable natural problem (may be indirectly caused also by human activity) seems to be hybridisation between GSE and LSE. The much less numerous GSE will dissolve into the numerous LSE population in the not so distant future (Väli et al. 2010). Tracking of the Greater Spotted Eagles: preliminary results about migration and wintering of Estonian individuals Urmas Sellis Eagle Club The Greater Spotted Eagle (GSE) inhabits Estonian landscapes as a very rare breeding bird, whose numbers are diminishing. So we probably have no time to wait for a supply of sufficient amounts of ordinary data (ringing, observations, etc.) to decide the following appropriate conservation measures. We do not know the hierarchy of reasons for diminishment, therefore GPS tagging as a tool to observe individual's life cycles and possible threats throughout different periods in life, was chosen. For sure, that approach appeared to be slightly idealistic not all aspects of tagging work perfectly. There are several opinions that tags could be an additional threat to the individual bird. In general, it is correct. We have very little evidence that the transmitter has improved the survival of the individual but logically there could appear problems with turbulences on flight, disturbed thermoregulation, parasites between tag and body, the misinterpretation of a tagged bird as a spy in some countries, etc. Some problems are possible to diminish. Within production and especially within the process of tagging (more ergonomic shapes of the tags, a non visible antenna, better materials used and the correct placing of the tag on a bird). There are several technical problems with practical usage of transmitters on GSEs. Trapping requires a careful approach (plus luck) to diminish the stress levels to the trapped bird. Tags should be placed in correct position and with a moderately tight harness. No feathers should shade over the solar panel ( the shortage of energy is a frequent problem with tags, even a long incubation period in the shade stops the transmitter). Solar powered tags do not work well after some years, the rechargeable batteries inside wear in time. Furthermore, problems appear with radio interferences in some regions of Europe (Mediterranean) and high costs of Argos service lead researchers to make more economic programmes (with less data) and finally data flow suffers. The possibility of recovery depends on the exposition of the tag's solar panel to light. In Estonia we started the tagging of GSE in Up to 2011 we tagged 9 Spotted Eagles (5 GSE, 2 LSE, 2 hybrids). Of those 7 adults (2 still working) and 2 juveniles (both working). There are used 45gram and 30gram transmitters of Microwave production and Ground Track (GT) option is used to easily find birds on the landscape or after death. The life span of those nine transmitters varies from 2 to 44 months. The probable main failing case is death of the bird. GSEs from Estonia are wintering in different areas compared to data from Poland (other nearby populations are not studied for wintering and migration) Estonian GSEs prefer to stay for winter in Europe or Turkey, but Polish GSEs prefer the Sub Saharan region. Maybe, there are new and safer wintering areas for GSEs developing in Spain and South France but also in the Balkan region there needs to be more attention to save suitable wintering sites (e.g. Sava river region). One of the most important wintering sites is situated in the southern coastal area of Turkey, Göksü delta and surroundings. GSEs from Estonia could stay for winter even in Poland. Italy (and especially Sicily) are dangerous sites for wintering. There is urgently needed education of local hunters about the avoidance of illegal shooting. The migration and wintering of Estonian GSEs is possible to follow at online bird migration map: Väli Ü., Dombrovski V., Treinys R., Bergmanis U., Daróczi S., Dravecky M., Ivanovsky V., Lontkowski J., Maciorowski G., Meyburg B.U., Mizera T., Zeitz R., Ellegren H Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe. Biol J Linnean Soc 100: Väli Ü Numbers and hybridization of Spotted Eagles in Estonia as revealed by country wide field observations and genetic analysis. Est J Eco 60: Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 11

8 Breeding history of the Greater Spotted Eagle and hybrids with the Lesser Spotted Eagle in Latvia Uģis Bergmanis Joint Stock Company, Latvia s State Forests It is at the beginning of the 19th century already, ornithologists found the discrimination between both Spotted Eagle species difficult and the possibility of hybridization was mentioned. In 1881 two adult birds were shot at their nesting site, the female being GSE and the male LSE (Löwis 1898). Towards the end of the 19th century, at a different place in Livland, again, both adults were shot at their nesting site, one of them was a typical LSE, the other one was undoubtedly GSE (Transehe 1942). A paper on the geographical distribution of sites with supposed breeding of GSE in the 2nd half of the 20th century was published (Petriņš et al. 1997). The area with the latest established proof of GSE breeding in Latvia is positioned in Lubana Wetland. In 1983 a pair of GSE was noted in the Pededze region, one of the historic breeding areas. In 1986 a forester found a big GSE aerie in this Pededze area. Inspections of this aerie provided evidence of the successful breeding of GSE in 1987, 1989 and in Adult birds were still noticed in the nesting area in 1991, 1992 and 1995 but breeding activities were not observed. Since 1996 adult GSEs haven t been noticed in that nesting area. Although the nest had fallen down towards the end of 1990 the annual monitoring of the breeding area was kept on until 2001 with particular regard to (breeding) activities of GSE but no such birds were seen. However, in 1999, at a distance of 6 km from that former aerie, a GSE was observed sitting on a tree trunk, which had fallen across the River Pededze. Since 1994 research activities on LSE have been carried out in Eastern Latvia in the vicinity of Madona. The inspection of the aeries showed only LSE and mixed pairs LSE/GSE, some of the results of these inspections have been published (Bergmanis et al. 2001, Bergmanis, & Strazds 2001). From blood samples of juvenile LSE (n = 34) in Eastern Latvia were analysed. In two cases (6%) we found that one of the parents was a hybrid, F1 A.pom. and A.pom./F1 A.pom (Väli et al. 2010). The results of other authors were similar (Helbig et al. 2005) five of the 61 phenotypically pure Lesser Spotted Eagles (5%) originating from NE Germany, E Poland (Biebrza) and E Latvia (Murmastiene) carried the clanga type cluster. Phenotypical examinations of 237 juvenile LSE from Eastern Latvia between resulted in 6 juvenile eagles showing (different) attributes of GSE: ferruginous head instead of the compact nape patch atypical of LSE: rather big and numerous spots on medium coverts. Phenotypical examinations of 37 captive adult LSE from Eastern Latvia between resulted in 9 birds (24%) showing attributes of GSE: a dark brown iris. Conclusions GSE is a very rare species in Latvia. You can t speak about a stable GSE population, only a few pairs may be breeding in Latvia. Bergmanis U., Petrins A., Strazds M., Krams I Probable case of hybridization of Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina in eastern Latvia. Acta ornithoecol. 4: Bergmanis U., Strazds M Another possible hybridization case of lesser and Greater Spotted Eagle in Latvia (in Latvian, summary in English). Putni daba 11: 6 7 Helbig A. J., Seibold I., Kocum A., Liebers D., Irvin J., Bergmanis U., Meyburg B. U., Scheller W., Stubbe M., Bensch S Genetic differentation and hybridization between greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquila clanga, A. pomarina). J ornithol 146: Löwis O Diebe und räuber in der baltischen vögelwelt. Riga, 158 Petrins A., Strazds M., Bergmanis U The Greater Spotted Eagle in Latvia a historical reviev (in latvian, summary in english). Putni Daba 6: 7 14 Transehe N Das vögelleben des angernschen sees. Koresp. Bl. Naturf. Riga. Bd. 64: Väli Ü., Dombrovski V., Treinys R., Bergmanis U., Daroczi S.J., Dravecky M., Ivanovski V., Lontkowski J., Maciorowski G., Meyburg B.U., Mizera T., Zeitz R. and Ellegren H Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe. Biol J Linn Soc 100: Current status of the Greater Spotted Eagle in the Ukraine Sergey Domashevsky Ukrainian Birds of Prey Research Center The Greater Spotted Eagle is classified to the 3rd category rare in the third edition of the Ukrainian Red List (Domashevsky 2009). In the year 2010 a National Programme for Protection of The Greater Spotted Eagle has been developed (Domashevsky 2000). Historically in Ukraine the Greater Spotted Eagle was a common, though small in number, species in the eastern part of the country, while on the western part its numbers were decreasing. Nesting of the Greater Spotted Eagle has been documented in mid 19th century In the Lviv oblast (Gorban 1996). In the southern part of the country nesting places of the Greater Spotted Eagle were known at the beginning of the 20th century in the northern part of the Odessa Oblast (Dombrovski i Panchenko 2009). The eagle existed also in the flood forests of Transnistria. Currently, the Greater Spotted Eagle has commonly become a rare and regionally extinct species. Breeding population of the Greater Spotted Eagle is estimated to be pairs but this data is possibly exaggerated. The current number of the nesting Greater Spotted Eagles is most probably pairs (Domashevsky 2009). Currently, the nesting of the Greater Spotted Eagle has been also confirmed on the western part of Ukraine. All the 4 pairs found were remaining on the regions bordering with Belorussia (Dombrovski 2007). This part of the Ukrainian territory is the most promising for the identification of new nesting pairs of the Greater Spotted Eagle. In the year 2007, in the north of the Ukraine, a mixed pair of Spotted Eagles, were being observed, where the female was a Greater Spotted Eagle. During the following research, in the year 2009 in the northern part of the Chernihiv Oblast (river valleys, peat workings, large drainage systems) this species have not been observed. In 2010 it has not been observed also in the area of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Most probably, the Greater Spotted Eagle does not occur or is very rare on the central and left bank part of the forests. During the migration season, the Greater Spotted Eagle is being encountered on the whole territory of Ukraine but in small numbers. During that time, most of the birds are registered in the north of the country, where a well known migratory route of predatory birds is (Domashevsky 2005), also on the Crimean peninsula. For example, during late August and early October 2002 on the Baydar Gate pass, 20 individuals of this species have been observed. In some years, usually on the south of the country, it was possible to observe a small number of birds wintering. Individuals were encountered in winter 1928/29 in the Poltava Oblast, where on the 30th December 1928 a female was caught (collection of N.I. Gawrilenko). According to the data of L.F. Nazarenko, on bogs of Belyayevo and Liman in Transnistria a number of birds have been wintering every year. This species is very rarely wintering on the Crimean peninsula. One individual was observed in December Means to be taken to protect the Greater Spotted Eagle in Ukraine: Appoint a protected status for territories on which the species is breeding. Preventing transformations and devastation of habitats. Protect the refuges of the species from disturbance during the breeding season. Prepare and execute of recommendations concerning balanced agriculture, taking into consideration the protection of the Greater Spotted Eagle. Improve the legislation concerning protection of the Greater Spotted Eagle and its habitats. Indicate and protect of intensive passage areas of Greater Spotted Eagle, on the territory of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (passes), where the birds are migrating at low altitudes and can be subject to poaching. Broadening knowledge about the species by the use of telemetry research of Ukrainian breeding population. Domashevsky С.В Національний план дій зі збереження підорлика великого (Aquila clanga) та підорлика малого (A. pomarina) в Україні. Національні плани дій зі збереження глобально вразливих видів птахів. О. Микитюк. Київ: СофтАРТ: Domashevsky С.В К экологии большого и малого подорликов на севере Украины. Berkut 14: Domashevsky С.В Большой подорлик. Червона книга України. Тваринний світ / за ред. І.А. Акімова К.: Глобалконсалтинг pp Dombrovski V.C About breeding of Greater Spotted Eagle in Western and Southern Ukraine. Berkut 16: Dombrovski V.C., Panchenko P.S К вопросу о гнездовании большого подорлика на юго западе Украины. Berkut 18: Gorban I Lesser and Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina and A. clanga in Ukraine. Eagle Studies. Berlin London Paris, pp Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 13

9 The Greater Spotted Eagle in European part of Russia: main nesting areas, size dynamics and threats to the population Alexander L. Mischenko Vladimir N.Melnikov M.A Mienzbira Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study In Russia, nesting range of Greater Spotted Eagle extends in a wide belt from country s western border eastwards to north eastern China. Main breeding populations in the European part of the country are placed in central and southern part of the forest zone: from the central taiga subzone to the forest steppe. The structure of Greater Spotted Eagle breeding habitats, revealed by I.V. Karyakin s research in Volga Ural region (Karyakin 2008) entirely corresponds with the one from forest zones in the rest of the European part of Russia. Main habitats of the species in this region are swamp forests (98%), above all dominated by black alder Alnus gluttinosa (71%). Only a little over 5% of the pairs nests in dry forests on the slopes of river valleys. Moreover, even if the eagles are nesting in dry biotopes, their hunting grounds are open and swampy terrains, mainly fens or floodplain meadows. It seems that in the last decade, northern border of the area moved slightly southwards. In 1990s the species were not observed in Komi Republic. In Arkhangelsk Oblast, during the first decade of 21st century, the eagle was observed only once. The decrease in the occupied area can also be noticed on its southern border. Around the end of 20th and at the beginning of 21st century, the Greater Spotted Eagle completely resigned from nesting east of Saratov s Volga. Greater Spotted Eagle s positioning within the borders of breeding area is dispersed: a few pairs limit themselves to a rather small territory of flooded forests, of course separated one from another with the large areas of watershed. Such restructuring of the territory, which previously was mostly regular, took place in the second half of 20th century. Currently, there are separate nesting groups, restricting themselves to large swamp forest complexes of (pic. 1): Dnieper Desna (1), Meshchera (2), Klyazma Lukh (3), Dubna (4), Zavidovo (5) and others. Besides these, Greater Spotted Eagle is rarely encountered. The largest of currently known groups are these of: Dubna and Dnieper Desna, having and 6 16 nesting pairs. The Greater Spotted Eagle population density in Moscow and Novgorod Oblast estimates about 0,07 pairs per 100 km 2 (Mischenko 2008; Mischenko in press). One of the main factors having negative impact upon the species in last 20 years has been cessation of traditional agriculture on flooded areas, which resulted in them being grown over with trees and bushes. Observed falling number of eagles in Darwin Nature Reserve, in Rybinsk Reservoir from 1949 to 2006 was caused by this phenomenon (Babushkin, Kuznetsov 2008). An important negative factor is also the hybridation with Lesser Spotted Eagle (Melnikov et al. 2008). The Greater Spotted Eagle remains a poorly known species in Russia. The lack of financing from governmental finances does not allow implementing regular control and establishing effective conservation means. This is why, an international cooperation, above all joint projects for identification and protection of key nesting groups and researching the size of the species populations and their dynamics. Figure 1. Distribution of Greater Spotted Eagle within the borders of the nesting territory: Nesting territory borders in the first half of 20th century (Dementjev 1951) Nesting territory borders in the first half of 20th century Nesting groups Population of Volga-Ural (Karyakin 2008) Бабушкин М.В., Кузнецов А.В Тенденции изменения численности и некоторые особенности экологии большого и малого подорлика в Дарвинском заповеднике. В: Мельников В.Н. (отв. ред.), Изучение и охрана большого малого подорликов в Северной Евразии. Иваново, Изд во Ивановского гос. ун та: Дементьев Г.П., Отряд хищные птицы Accipitres или Falconiformes. В: Дементьев Г.П., Гладков Н.А. (ред.), Птицы Советского Союза. М.: Сов. Наука. Т. 1. С Карякин И.В Особенности экологии большого подорлика в Волго Уральском регионе. В: Мельников В.Н. (отв. ред.), Изучение и охрана большого малого подорликов в Северной Евразии. Иваново, Изд во Ивановского гос. ун та: Мельников В.Н., Дмитренок М.А., Иванов М.Н., Киселев Р.Ю., Киселева С. В., Домбровский В. Ч Результаты экспедиции 2005 г. по изучению подорликов Европейского центра России. В: Мельников В.Н. (отв. ред.), Изучение и охрана большого малого подорликов в Северной Евразии. Иваново, Изд во Ивановского гос. ун та: Мищенко А.Л Большой подорлик. В: Зубакин В.А., Варлыгина Т.И., Соболев Н.А. (отв. ред.), Красная книга Московской области. Издание второе. Москва, КМК: 61. Мищенко А.Л. Большой подорлик. Красная книга Новгородской области. В печати. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 15

10 The Greater Spotted Eagle population in Belarus: actual numbers, trends, habitats and occurrence of hybridization with the Lesser Spotted Eagle Valery Dombrovski net.by Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences The Greater Spotted Eagle s presence on the territory of the republic is irregular. At the beginning of the first decade of 20th century total number of Greater Spotted Eagles in Belarus was estimated to be pairs (15% of European population), among which pairs settled Polesia, while remaining 50 the rest of the territory. Outside Polesia the only larger Greater Spotted Eagle population (8 12 pairs) has been found in the southern part of Berezinsky Biosphere Reserve and in Berezina river flood plains on the terrains adjacent to the reserve. The highest density of nesting Greater Spotted Eagles (4,4 ± 0,95 pairs/100 km 2 ) has been observed on areas characterised by large number of flooded terrains. On territories dominated by terrains altered by human activity (mainly drained agricultural grounds adjacent to flooded forests), average the Greater Spotted Eagle nesting density has been almost three times lower (1,6 ± 0,38 pairs/100 km 2 ). Nevertheless, almost half of the Spotted Eagle pairs have been registered on these areas, due to large size of these habitats on Belarusian Polesia. On highly reshaped areas Greater Spotted Eagles have been observed only sporadically, usually as mixed pairs with the Lesser Spotted Eagles, due to lack of flooded deciduous forests. Similarly in cases of dry natural habitats lacking low peat bogs or other flooded terrains, the presence has been sporadic. Nesting density in a group of researched areas with such biotopes were 0,1 ± 0,23 pairs/100 km 2. Analysis of received results leads to a conclusion that the Greater Spotted Eagle nesting density is dependent on two factors: size of open flooded areas (hunting grounds) and level of anthropogenic alterations of eagles habitats. For the Greater Spotted Eagle the most important are: presence of open feeding terrains and lack of factors disturbing birds on their breeding grounds. Minimal hunting grounds surface for a the Greater Spotted Eagle in the conditions of Belarusian Prypiat is 15 km 2. Most suitable hunting grounds for the Greater Spotted Eagles are low and intermediate peat bogs, heavily flooded (open associations of sedges and those covered with reed and willows) and with stable water level. The Spotted Eagle can also exist on drained low peat bogs used for haymaking and pasturage, on vast flooded clearcuts, and on reflooded areas (bog harvest areas, abandoned drained constructions etc.) The bird is nesting on trees in inaccessible swamp areas. In case of large swamps lacking any disturbing factors, all those eagles need to start breeding on small forest islands or even single trees. On the opposite, a presence of vast flooded forest complex is a necessary factor for breeding in case of habitats changed significantly by humans. Flooded forests seem to be a mean of protection, restricting human access to the nest. For nesting, the birds chose deciduous forests, mainly black alder. Monitoring the actual numbers of the Greater Spotted Eagles in regular intervals in four fixed locations started in pairs of the Greater Spotted Eagle have been inspected, a number insufficient for picturing the population dynamics of this species in the whole country. Nevertheless, in 5 years ( ) on two areas covering altered by human activity territory of the Greater Spotted Eagle, the population almost halved (a drop from 7 to 4 pairs). In the year 2009, a project has been launched in order to create conservation areas around the Greater Spotted Eagles breeding grounds threatened with logging. Within the confines of this project, in the years , 75 endangered breeding grounds known from years were inspected. The eagles were found only on 50 of those grounds, while the remaining 25 turned out to be abandoned. Thus, on altered areas in the last ten years a 33% drop in species actual numbers can be confirmed. This concerns chiefly individual pairs living in isolation from the main Polesian Greater Spotted Eagle population. Actual numbers of the Greater Spotted Eagles in natural habitats according to the data of NPC NAN bioresources of Belarus (National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Scientific and Practical Centre) are stable so far. Nevertheless, to acquire complete information, it is necessary to inspect all the Greater Spotted Eagle breeding grounds observed in the year 2000 in this type of habitats (around 40 couples). The Greater Spotted Eagle nesting success changes every year, more or less synchronically, in different types of habitats. On average, the long term breeding success in Belarus approximates 57%. During this long term and considering this parameter of the Belarusian Greater Spotted Eagle breeding, a distinct negative tendency can be observed. Basing on research from years , one can conclude that fluctuation of the Greater Spotted Eagle breeding success is directly dependent on the number of Microtus and Arvicola voles available. Particularly disturbing is the fact of frequent loss of nestlings due to malnutrition, indicating generally unfavourable ecological conditions on Polesia, connected with noted by a number of specialist decline in the region s biodiversity, present for the last 10 years. In Belarus, 96 cases of mixed Spotted Eagle pairs nesting have been noted. These were 37% of the total number of pairs with at least one Greater Spotted Eagle. In biotopes heavily altered by human, up to 100% couples were mixed. Further reduction of low peat bogs may result in hybridisation of the remaining rest Greater Spotted Eagles. In such case we will be forced to note the disappearance of the Greater Spotted Eagle as a species on the Belarusian territory. On large and slightly altered forest and marshy complexes, presence of mixed couples is minimal. In example, in Olmansk Bogs Nature Reserve among pairs of the Greater Spotted Eagle not one mixed pair has been noted. Lesser Spotted Eagles also do not exist there. These examples clearly point out that in appropriate conditions it is possible to entirely prevent establishing of mixed Spotted Eagle couples. The question of which parameters contributes for such effect should be the subject of thorough investigation in the nearest future. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 17

11 Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus Valery Dombrovski net.by Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences The condition of the species population nesting in the western part of the nesting area depends on the core of the regional population that reside in Belarusian Polesia, The Greater Spotted Eagle was added to The Red Book of the Republic of Belarus in 1981 and belongs to the 1st category species that is to those on the brink of extinction. The protection of these species is one of the priorities of National strategy and action plan on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity passed by the Belarusian government in the year In the latest edition of the Belarusian Red Book (2004), the species was ascribed to the 1st conservation category. 10 out of 18 main habitats of the Greater Spotted Eagle on the Belarusian territory has already had a conservation status. Another area was included to the Programme for Rational Distribution of Specially Protected Areas on 1st January However, remaining 7 areas were not included as protected and can be subject to drainage. Moreover, often the marshes are under protection but not the adjacent forests. For example, in the Sporowski reserve low peat bogs are protected but there is not a single breeding pair of the Greater Spotted Eagle. Next to the reserve lays a territory important to the birds (Khovanshchina), which was not included into the Programme, though two pairs of Greater Spotted Eagle nests there (in the past it were 4 5 pairs). One of the largest clusters of nesting Greater Spotted Eagles in the vicinity of the Red Lake (9 10 pairs) that has been included into IBA (Important Bird Area) with international mark red in 2005, has also not been included in the Programme. Thus today, about 1/3 of Belarusian population of Greater Spotted Eagle is nesting on areas not under legal protection. Within the confines of АПБ Project (Protection of Native Birds) Implementation of globally endangered Greater Spotted Eagles conservation in years , 42 Greater Spotted Eagle nesting places have been found (mainly on Prypiat s Polesia), 40 evidences for protection breeding places of the eagle have been prepared and presented for local natural resources inspections. Every third year the data should be updated. The Larges Belarusian Greater Spotted Eagle breeding population (18 20 pairs) breeds in Olman Bog Reserve. It is unique and the largest in Europe model forested swamp complex, remaining almost intact thanks to the local military training area existing here for a long time. Land development is practically unfeasible there, due to problems with access to proper technology on almost entire reserve territory. Most acceptable protection means of this model forested swamp complex and creating conditions for conservation of natural processes and protection of breeding groups is to designate this area a biosphere reserve status. Factors having negative impact on population condition: Direct destruction of natural habitats through drainage. Habitats destruction through altering the hydrological regime. Decline in numbers of nesting places through excessive forest exploitation. Business activity inconsistent with requirements of environment. Poaching. Disturbing birds during breeding season. Decline of pure Greater Spotted Eagle genotype as a result of hybridation with Lesser Spotted Eagle. Lack of conservation status for Greater Spotted Eagle habitats. Lack of awareness among locals about the importance of low peat bogs for preservation of internationally important biodiversity. Actions to be taken towards species preservation: Controlling habitats condition Preparing information materials, carrying out information campaigns to explain locals and hunters the value of Greater Spotted Eagle and the necessity of its conservation. Actions to be taken towards preserving key habitats: Awarding proper national conservation status for breeding places of the species. Active protection. Optimising the forest economy for key bird breeding places. Optimising the agriculture for key species nesting places. Operate technical works to reflood the drained terrains. Implementing actions aimed at hydrological regime optimisation of key breeding places. Preparing and implementation of management plans for key breeding places. Actions towards learning about the state of the population. Monitoring the state of the population. Continuing studies on ecology and spread of Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus. Studying the frequency of hybridisation between greater and smaller Spotted Eagles. Phenology and colour ringing of the Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus Valery Dombrovski net.by Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences The arrival of Greater Spotted Eagles to Prypiat on Polesia takes place between 20th and 30th March (depending on weather conditions). According to the data from years , the first specimen of the Greater Spotted Eagle appeared on the territory soon after snow retention disappears and averagely after 4 days (0 7 days) after first spring raises of average daily air temperatures to + 6 С (middle of February March). The positive dynamics of air temperature in the period before the half of February has no impact on time of the birds arrival. In comparison to other regions, similar to Belarus in terms of climate (Poland, Baltic states, central Russia) the arrival of the Greater Spotted Eagles to the Belarusian Polesia takes place almost a month earlier. One characteristic of Polesian group of eagles connected to this phenomenon is a long period (often over a month) between the arrival of the birds and the beginning of the breeding. Whereby the breeding period of the Greater Spotted Eagle on the Belarusian Polesia does not differ from those described in other parts of the world. Average date for the beginning of breeding by the Greater Spotted Eagle in Belarus is ( ; n = 49). Correlations between the date for start of clutching and weather conditions during spring season or dates of arrival have not been established. Average date of nestling flight is 6.08 ( ; n = 52). Migrations towards wintering quarters are observed on Belarus from to The largest number or registered birds migrate between 22nd and 26th of September. Over a hundred pairs of Greater Spotted Eagles are nesting in Belarus. This is the largest breeding population in the western part of the range, whose condition has impact on the status of this species in the whole region. Most poorly investigated aspect of this species biology in Belarus is migration routes and their wintering quarters. In the year 2007 Belarus joined the programme for colour ringing of eagles (SECR). This programme has been initiated after a number of international meetings of the 3B + B group (three Baltic states and Belarus). Financial help for buying the rings has been granted by the Eagle Life project ran by the Estonian Ornitological Society. In Belarus, dark blue rings are used. Research and ringing of young eagles is being conducted mainly on Polesia (Southern Belarus). In years Greater Spotted Eagles and 10 interspecies hybrids were tagged. The first return message came on 23rd November 2007 from Northern Israel (north of Haifa). The bird was probably poisoned and had to undergo treatment in the Israeli Wildlife Hospital. It was ringed on 28th July on the age of 50 days in a nest near Bialooziersk (Brest Oblast, South western Belarus). Next read eagle has been observed in the Bzura Valley (Central Poland) on 4th 16th August That bird was ringed on 10th July in a nest in the Zvanets bird refuge (Drohiczyn commune, Brest Oblast). Since the year 2010, in cooperation with Iberian Bird Research Centre (Spain) another project for tagging eagles has started. Green wing tags with two white signs on upper and lower part of the mark (one letter and digit each) have been used. In years young eagles were not tagged this way. The first tagged eagle was observed on 1st October 2010 in the northern Israel near Tel Aviv. The bird had been ringed on 27th July in a nest in Prypiat National Park (Zhytkavichy commune, Gomel region, southern Belarus) as a 50 days old nestling. As of yet return messages has been received about 3% of birds with coloured rings and about 5% of birds with wing tags. During the autumn migration 2 birds from Belarus were observed in Israel. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 19

12 Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) in Lithuania: Past and present status Rimgaudas Treinys Nature Research Centre Suspicions about the overlooking of the Greater Spotted Eagle (GSE) pairs in Lithuania are supported by several factors. The country is within the distribution range of the species and there is an ecological similarity with the abundant Lesser Spotted Eagle (Aquila pomarina). The identification of these species under field conditions is difficult and the fact that there were similar cases of underestimation of the GSE populations in the neighbouring countries, I aimed to review the status of the GSE in Lithuania during Concerning species identification and the complexity induced by the widespread hybridization, overlapping in measurements and plumage characters and sexual dimorphism two assumptions were made:»» GSE an eagle superficially resembling Aquila clanga based on the contemporary species specific characteristics.»» Aquila clanga were correctly identified by observers during the target period. I selected three periods for which different methods were used to review the status of the species: , analysis of previously published sources , analysis of published sources combined with the target field works. And finally , analysis of records approved by the Lithuanian Ornithofaunistic Committee. In the past ( ) Greater Spotted Eagle was very rare but possibly a breeding species. Recently ( ) in the country only solitary birds were observed and few mixed pairs raising hybrids were found. The present status of the GSE in the Lithuania is: migrant, vagrant and occasionally mixed pairs with the Lesser Spotted Eagle forming species. Active conservation of Greater Spotted Eagle in Biebrza Valley Paweł Mirski Eagle Conservation Committee, University of Białystok Agata Choynowska Biebrza National Park Population monitoring and active conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagles have been underway in the Biebrza Valley since the year 2010 within the confines of LIFE project Securing the population of Aquila clanga in Poland: preparation of the National Action Plan and primary site conservation. Primary actions for conservation are conducted on two fields: direct protection of nests and broods, improvement of feeding habitats. Territories and nests of the Greater Spotted Eagles are inspected at least twice a year. Under observation are the primarily Biebrza Valley territories but also existing and potential territories outside this area. Terrains surrounding the Greater Spotted Eagles nests are secured with protection zones; with the exception of private forests, as in their case introducing protection zones is practically impossible. To enable the Greater Spotted Eagles nesting in young stands surrounded by favourable biotopes, artificial platforms are being constructed. These are also build interventionally, when old nests are in bad condition. In the years a total number of 30 such platforms were constructed. Others were assembled before that within the confines of other conservation initiatives. 4 pairs of Greater Spotted Eagles (or mixed) used these constructions, which is 30% of current species population in the Biebrza Valley. In order to secure nests against attacks on broods by European pine marten, a repellents like balsamic turpentine are used. Trunk of nest tree and surrounding trees are covered with turpentine twice a season. First time in early spring, before arrival of the birds, second time at the turn of July, when the nestling starts to be very active and can bring predator s attention. In the years only one loss of nestlings have been noted, caused most probably by pine marten. Moreover, nest stands endangered with human presence have been marked with plates with Warning! Wildlife refuge. No entry. Area monitored on them. Feeding habitats conservation is realised mainly through improving water hydrographic conditions and mowing down and removing excessive shrubs from overgrown reeds and meadows. Within the confines of the AQC project, a number of small dams will be erected in the drainage of a feeding habitat used by 3 pairs of Greater Spotted Eagles. Moreover, up to date 275 ha of lost Greater Spotted Eagle feeding habitats have been cleared of excessive shrubs. In the following years these territories will be mowed to prevent renewed overgrowth. Planned earlier mowing of meadow bogs is currently conducted by socman farming on open areas of Biebrza National Park. This is a reason for resigning from mechanical mowing of large areas in favour of scything small parts of feeding habitats close to nesting grounds. A completely new task is to buy out nest stands located in private forests, outside of National Park border. So far we have been able to buy 6,59 ha of forest, including the area with a Greater Spotted Eagle nest currently occupied by a white tailed eagle. Surrounding forests are extremely important refuge for the species, with two pure Greater Spotted Eagle pairs nesting within. Almost all the forests in this are private property, what makes introducing zone protection impossible here. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 21

13 Habitat preferences, territory sizes and feeding habitats usage by Greater Spotted Eagles in Biebrza Valley Paweł Mirski Eagle Conservation Committee, University of Białystok Effective conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagles (GSE) requires good understanding of the species' biology, including its habitat preferences and special ecology. The key issue concerning these is recognising types of natural habitats most often used by GSE, optimal ways of their utilisation and estimating hunting grounds sizes. Analogical research should focus on lesser spotted eagle (LSE) in the Biebrza Valley. Comparing special ecology of these species can help in understanding the differences in their requirements. Such knowledge will help shaping the habitats in a manner favourable mainly to the GSE and counteracting against mixing of these two species. GSE habitat preferences research was carried out in GIS environment basing on GSE, LSE and mixed pairs nests localisation registered in years (Maciorowski, not published). Nest stand age and distance between nests and scenery objects like the edge of the forest, closest river, human settlements and types of land cover in the range of 2 km from the territory centre basing on Corine Land Cover programme maps. Then, the detailed habitat analyses were made on 40 squares, 25 ha of surface each, in the habitats of GSE and LSE. Hunting grounds size was initially estimated basing on the telemetric data gathered on 4 GSE males and 1 LSE male equipped with transmitters in July A number of factors have made habitats of GSE and LSE in the Biebrza Valley different. GSE were nesting farther away from human settlements and closer to the rivers than it would result from a random placing of the nests. On GSE territories there were noticeably less built up areas than in the rest of Biebrza Valley, while the other types of land on these territories were common to the region. The LSE territories have in turn included more areas altered by humans, as meadows, pastures, agricultural mosaics and less natural ones like bogs and shrub covered terrains. Mixed pairs were nesting in habitats intermediate to those of GSE and LSE, especially considering factors like distance from settlements, participation of shrub covered terrains, bogs, meadows, arable fields and agricultural mosaics. Detailed analysis of eagle habitats confirmed GSE favour for wetlands and terrains rarely used by men, also a strong connection between LSE and extensively utilised agricultural landscape. Hunting grounds sizes, measured using minimum convex polygon method were considerably larger in case of GSE males (average size 1760 ha) than in case of LSE males (887 ha). Territory sizes differed largely depending on the method used and estimated from 550 to 2660 ha. The data are incomplete, as it bases on half of the breeding season. Most probably the actual sizes of hunting grounds are larger. European Greater Spotted Eagle Species Action Plan and the need for an update Paweł Mirski Eagle Conservation Committee, University of Białystok European Species Action Plans are tools used to estimate the endangerment level and needs for protection of rare bird species. They have been prepared in order to be the confines within which National Species Action Plans should be established. The Greater Spotted Eagle Species Action Plan (GSE SAP) was created in 1997 and published in According to guidelines written in this document, it should be evaluated and updated every 4 years. Unfortunately, to this day GSE SAP has not been validated. Since that time knowledge about placement, actual numbers and biology of this species have significantly risen. Much more is known about the most important populations in Russia and Belarus, whereas not much is known about the GSE existence in Asian part of his range (apart from Russia). An increased interest in the GSE conservation resulted in creation of a few National GSE Action Plans that may help in updating the current dangers to the species and suggestions on conservation means, which are included into the annex to the GSE SAP. Such plans were created in Estonia, Belarus and Ukraine. Polish GSE Action Plan is in preparation. Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 23

14 The Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga in the regions of Volga Ural, Western Siberia and Altai Sayan Karyakin I. Bachtin R., Biekmansurow R., Nikolenko E., Ważow S. Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network Since 2011 Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network database has contained information about 496 identified Greater Spotted Eagle breeding quarters on the area from Oka river basin in Volga region to the Yenisei river basin in central Siberia. The investigated area includes three largest regions Volga Ural, Western Siberia and Altai Sayan. In the Volga Ural region there are currently 166 known Greater Spotted Eagle breeding quarters, in Western Siberia 285 and in Altai Sayan region 45. The largest Greater Spotted Eagle breeding group in the European part of Russia (over 100 pairs) concentrates in Volga Ural region in the Belaya river basin (on the territory of Bashkortostan Republic). In the whole Volga and Kama river basins, within the border of forest steppe zone, mixed forests zone, also the zone of southern and central taiga, the Greater Spotted Eagle inhabits all of the large river basin wetlands. The population, though, is not large in number due to too small areas and isolated nesting quarters, which are mainly alders. In the western Syberia large groups of nesting the Greater Spotted Eagles (over 100 pairs) live in Tobol river basin, Ishim river basin, Baraba steppe and forests of Altai. In the Altai Sayan region the only largest group of nesting Greater Spotted Eagles can be found in Chulym on the border of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Republic of Khakassia and Kemerovo Oblast. Greater Spotted Eagle nests on flooded forested bog territories in all steppe valleys of Altai Sayan region, but otherwise never forms populations larger than 10 pairs. In the mountains, apart from steppe valleys, he does not breed at all. Numbers of Greater Spotted Eagles in the forest steppe zone, mixed forests zone and taiga on the area from Oka river basin on Volga Region to Yenisei river basin in Central Siberia (in the regions of Volga Ural, Western Siberia and Altai Sayan) is estimated at couples on the area of 22,5 thousand km2. These estimations were made only for those habitats in which nesting of the species has been confirmed and which were on the area encompassed by research. Outside the researched territories there are at least 897,4 thousand km2 of habitats suitable for nesting of the Greater Spotted Eagles. (Vasyugan swamps, central Ob river basin, Irtysh river basin and others). These places are similar to those on researched areas, yet they have not been checked by ornithologists, thus, there is no data about their population. Similar size of habitats, which could be classified as potentially suitable for Greater Spotted Eagle nesting can be also found in unexplored areas, mainly in western Siberia. Because of this the population of Greater Spotted Eagle on considered territories can be treated as a minimal value and with intensified research it can raise at least 3 5 times. 1. Rimgaudas Treinys, Institute of Ecology, Nature Research Center, Lithuania Uģis Bergmanis, Latvia s State Forests, Joint Stock Company Grzegorz Maciorowski, Eagle Conservation Committee, Poland Conservation of the Greater Spotted Eagle 25

15 2 3 ЗАЩИТА БОЛЬШОГО ПОДОРЛИКА 4 Материалы Международного Семинара, Польша января , 4, 6. Participants of the International Workshop 3. Michał Jankowski, Michał Białek, Eagle Conservation Committee, Poland 5. Michał Jankowski, Eagle Conservation Committee, Poland 6

16 СПИСОК 31 Численность, успех гнездования, динамика численности, гибридизация и мониторинг большого подорлика Aquila clanga в Польше Grzegorz Maciorowski 32 Маркировка, осенняя миграция и зимовки бебжанской популяции Aquila clanga и Aquila pomarina Grzegorz Maciorowski 33 Результаты видеомониторинга гнезд Aquila clanga Grzegorz Maciorowski 34 Популяция большого подорлика в Эстонии: актуальная численность, степень гибридизации и мониторинг Urmas Sellis 35 Телеметрия большого подорлика: предварительные результаты миграции и зимовки птиц из Эстонии Urmas Sellis 36 История гнездования большого подорлика и смешанных пар с малым подорликом в Латвии Uģis Bergmanis 37 Современный статус большого подорлика в Украине Sergey Domashevsky 38 Большой подорлик в европейской части России: ключевые гнездовые территории, динамика численности и угрозы для популяции Alexander L. Mischenko, Vladimir N. Melnikov + ИНТЕРВЬИ 40 Большой подорлик в Беларуси: современное состояние, динамика численности и гибридизация с малым подорликом Валерий Домбровский Urmas Sellis The Eagle Club Estonia Jan Lontkowski Eagle Conservation Committee Poland Valery Dombrovsky Institute of Zoology, National Academy of Sciences Minsk, Belarus Сохранение большого подорлика в Беларуси Валерий Домбровский Фенология гнездования и цветное мечение большого подорлика в Беларуси Валерий Домбровский Большой подорлик в Литве: актуальный и прежний статусы вида Rimgaudas Treinys Активная защита большого подорлика в долине р.бебжи Paweł Mirski, Agata Choynowska Siergiej Domashevsky Ukrainian Birds of Prey Research Center Kiev, Ukraine 47 Предпочитаемые места обитания, размер территорий и использование охотничьих угодий большими подорликами в долине Бебжи Paweł Mirski Aleksander Mischenko M.A Mienzbira Russian Society for Bird Conservation and Study Moscow, Russia Igor Karyakin Russian Raptor Research and Conservation Network Nizhny Novogród, Russia Европейский план действий по сохранению большого подорлика и необходимость его актуализации Paweł Mirski Большой подорлик Aquila clanga в Волго Уральском регионе, Западной Сибири и Алтае Саянском регионе Карякин И., Бахтин Р., Бекмансуров Р., Николенко Э., Важов С.

17 Численность, успех гнездования, динамика численности, гибридизация и мониторинг большого подорлика Aquila clanga в Польше Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences Первые сообщения о появлении большого подорлика (AQC) в бассейне Бебжи были получены в период с 1966 по 1970 гг в это время А.Дрыч и его группа наблюдали этот вид в 1 3 районах. С 1974 года в долине Бебжи работала немецкая группа орнитологов под руководством Б.У.Мейбурга, который в 1979 году подтвердил факт гнездования большого подорлика в Нижнем Бассейне Бебжи (дальнейшие наблюдения этой пары однако указывали на присудствие самца Aquila pomarina). В 1982 году В.Лапиньски нашёл гнездо AQC в центральном бассейне Бебжи ( ареал до сих пор существует). И только с начала 90 х годов польские орнитологи (Е.Пугацевич, Г.Мацёровски) начали интенсивную инвентаризацию популяции AQC в бассейне Бебжи. В течение этого периода, найдено не менее 12 гнездовых участков этого вида. В связи с обширностью бассейна Бебжи первую полную инвентаризацию гнездовых участков подорликов завершено в конце 90 х годов. В этих работах, в разные периоды, прининало участие более 30 добровольцев (главным образом студенты Познаньского Аграрного Университета). Количество гнездовых участков больших подорликов в отдельных пентадах незначительно менялось и было соответственно с 1996 по 2000: 14 до 16, с 2001 по 2006: 12 до 13, с 2006 по 2010: 12 до 17. Необходимо отметить, что в бассейне Бебжи в этот период гнездились также смешанные пары подорликов малых с большими или такие, в которых один из взрослых являлся межвидовым гибридом. Их числительность в перечисленных периодах соответственно составляла: от 3 до 5 пар,от 5 до 6 и от 8 до 13 пар в последний период, то есть с 2006 по 2011 г. Большинство гнездовых участков больших подорликов остаются стабильными в течение последних 15 лет. Самыми неустойчивыми участками являются те, которые были наиболее трансформированы человеческой деятельностью (осушение торфяных болот, преобразование болотистый территорий в луга и пастбища). За пределами бассейна Бебжи была найдена в 2008 году гнездящаяся смешанная пара на окраине Беловежской пущи (Е.Пугацевич устная инф.), в 2011 году возле водоема Семяновка (бассейн р. Нарев) (П.Мирски устная инф.) и гнездящаяся на протяжении нескольких лет пара в районе Люблина (С.Афтика устная инф.). Отсутствие пригодных для обитания мест в остальной части страны исключает возможность возникновения значительной популяции большого подорлика кроме как в бассейне Бебжи. К сожалению, ситуация польской популяции AQC является очень неблагополучной. Большинство пар нерегулярно приступают к размножению. Теоретически в течении 16 лет, при контроле всех гнездовых участков, должно было бы произойти 304 попытки размножения а было их только 30%. 70% пар даже не достроили своих гнезд. Только 5 пар (то есть 26,3% от общей численности популяции) вывело 56 птенцев (66,7% всех молодых за последние 16 лет). До сих пор, число гнездящихся пар оставалось стабильным, но происходящие сейчас значительные изменения среды обитания (мелиорация, изменение структуры растительности в долине, интенсификация сельскохозяйственного производства, увеличение вмешательства человека в дикие районы Бебжи) может вскоре повлиять на постепенное исчезновение видa. На численность подорлика может также, в будущем, негативно повлиять резкое повышение численности орлана белохвоста, вытесняющего AQC из лучших гнездопригодных биотопов. Наблюдается заметное увеличение уровня гибридизации вида на территории всего бассейна. Явление гибридизации между Aquila clanga и pomarina отмечается в бассейне Бебжи уже длительное время. Уже первая, обнаруженная немецкой группой в 1979 году, кладка AQC, вероятно, принадлежала смешанной паре. Масштаб этого явления до конца неизвестен. В бассейне Бебжи существует более 10 смешанных пар (минимум в 4 из них находятся взрослые межвидовые гибриды регулярно приступающие к гнездованию). Надо полагать, что распространенность этого явления в ближайшие годы будет увеличиваться (в связи с изменением ландшафта в бассейне, который более благоприятен для AQP). Точный уровень гибридизации в популяции подорликов скоро будет определен в результате продолжающихся в настоящее время, в сотрудничестве с Уло Вали (Ülo Väli), генетических обсследованиях около 180 особей. Защита Большого Подорлика 31

18 Маркировка, осенняя миграция и зимовки бебжанской популяции Aquila clanga и Aquila pomarina Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences Маркировка популяции подорликов, гнездящихся в бассейне Бебжи началась с 90 х годов. С 1992 по 2011 гг стальными кольцами Орнитологической станции в Гданьске окольцовано 141 подорликов. С 2000 года начато применять цветные кольца: с 2004 года жёлтые, а с 2005 года на плюсны подорликов помещают уже два цветных кольца с цифровым илибуквенно цифровым кодом (жёлтые, красные, белые и синие). Большим подорликам (AQC) и гибридам (AQX) надевают буквенно цифровые кольца на левую плюсну, малым подорликам (AQP) цифровые кольца на правую плюсну. Всего с 1992 по 2011 гг окольцовано 141 подорликов, в том числе: 56 AQС, 26 AQХ и 59 AQP. С начала использования комбинации двух цветов с индивидуальным кодом, окольцовано 110 птиц, ранее помечено жёлтыми буквенно цифровыми кольцами 7 AQС. С 2005 по 2011 гг помечено цветными кольцами 29 AQС, 24 AQХ и 57 AQР. Система эта была разработана для облегчения идентификации птиц в полевых условиях, а также для получения возвратных сообщений с миграционных путей AQС в долине Бебжи. До настоящего времени получено 8 возвратных сообщений из за рубежа: о найденных мертвых AQС из Греции и Франции, а также о живых AQС и AQХ из Германии, о молодой особи AQС из Израиля и Испании и еще одной молодой особи AQР из Египта. Кроме того, благодаря цветным кольцам, вновь обнаружено в бассейне Бебжи 12 ранее окольцованных подорликов (некоторые из них были замечены несколько раз). В двух случаях обнаружено на гнездовании взрослого самца AQС и взрослого AQХ, которые были окольцованы еще птенцами. Вторым способом маркировки птиц в бассейне Бебжи является использование телеметрических датчиков. С 1992 по 2006 год под руководством проф. Б.У. Мейбурга, спутниковую телеметрию использовала польско немецкая группа орнитологов, которые прикрепили радиопередатчики15 подорликам. В 2011 году к применению этого метода вернулась команда, работающая над проектом LIFE+ Защита большого подорлика Aquila сlanga в Польше. Целью проекта является помещение на особей AQC как минимум 12 датчиков GPS. Финансированными из средств LIFE и Государственного Фонда Защиты Окружующей Среды датчиками помечено в 2010 году 8 птиц (4 взрослых самца и 4 молодые AQC). Благодаря датчикам получено большое количество данных о расположении птиц на гнездовании и во время миграции. Было установлено, что четыре взрослых самца AQC с датчиками, начавшие миграцию с 25 сентября по 4 октября, отправились известным миграционным путём через Босфор и Ближний Восток к северо восточной части Африки. Все самцы, помеченные в бассейне Бебжи, выбрали для зимовки район, расположенный на границе Судана с Южным Суданом, пролетев во время осенней миграции расстояние от 5620 до 6100 км. Среди молодых больших подорликов 1 птица долетела до Асуанской плотины. На данном этапе сигнал его датчика исчез. Не исключено, что птица была убита. Вторая птица вылетела из бассейна Бебжи около 20 октября и отправилась во Францию, за тем Испанию, но через несколько дней была обнаружена в ослабленном состоянии около 100 км на юго запад от Берлина. Весной, после реабилитации, эту птицу выпустят на свободу в долине Бебжи. Третья молодая птица, это самка из нижнего бассейна Бебжи, которая вылетела в сентябре в сторону Балканского полуострова и, пролетая вдоль Адриатического моря, остановилась на зимовку на острове Крит. Авария четвёртого датчика надетого на молодую птицу не позволила отслеживать ее судьбу. Единственный помеченный до сих пор датчиком типа data loger взрослый AQP, совершил путешествие во второй половине сентября, пролетев через Босфор, Ближний Восток, Суэцкий канал, центральную Африку до Южно Африканской Республики, всё время кружил, посещая различные отдалённые районы. Нигде не выбрал конкретного места на зимовку. Результаты видеомониторинга гнезд Aquila clanga Grzegorz Maciorowski Eagle Conservation Committee, Poznań University of Life Sciences В 2010 и 2011 гг. около гнезд больших подорликов (AQC) размещено 2 камеры, которые были использованы для мониторинга птиц в период гнездования. Целью этого мероприятия было изучение гнездовой биологии вида, с особым акцентом на состав пищи, приносимой в гнездо. Под наблюдением находились в 2010 году гнездо смешанной пары и пары AQC, в 2011 году 2 гнезда AQC. Камеры, питающиеся от солнечных батарей (приобретённые в фирме AQUILA), позволили снимать гнезда от рассвета до заката. Собранные на дисках материалы в настоящее время изучают участвующие в проекте LIFE сотрудники Комитета По Охране Орлов. Презентация показывает предварительные частичные результаты анализов состава пищи, приносимой птенцам с июня до вылета их из гнезда. У пар больших подорликов, наблюдаемых в 2010 году, процент по весу отдельных систематических групп животных в составе пищи, был следующий (в скобках % от общего числа жертв): земноводные Amphibia 12 % (37 %), рыбы Pisces 9 % (1 %), млекопитающие Mammalia 39% (36%) и птицы Aves 40% (26%). Внимания заслуживает высокий процент птиц, среди которых преобладали виды, связанные с водно болотными угодьями, такие как погоныш, коростель, бекас. Вторая пара больших подорликов, находящихся под наблюдением в 2011 году, приносила в гнездо большое количество земноводных 34 % общей биомассы (68 % от количества добычи), 16 % млекопитающих (12 % от общего количества добычи) и 50 % птиц (20 % от количества добычи). Для сравнения, у смешанной пары подорликов, где самцом был AQP ( в более 90% случаев он приносил еду), а самкой AQC (очень редко приносящая пищу в гнездо), процентное соотношение различалось: земноводные 24 % (42 %), млекопитающие 64 % (46 %) и птицы 12 % (12 %). Стоит обратить внимание на большое количество млекопитающих, приношенных в гнездо (в основном мелкие виды полевок). Защита Большого Подорлика 33

19 Популяция большого подорлика в Эстонии: актуальная численность, степень гибридизации и мониторинг Urmas Sellis Eagle Club Несмотря на отсутствие подтверждённых свидетельств, мы считаем, что большой подорлик (AQC) обитает в ландшафте Эстонии с древних времён, вероятно, даже раньше чем малый подорлик (AQP). Из за ошибок в идентификации AQC и AQP данными, собранными до 90 х годов, невозможно пользоваться. По этой причине, мы имеем более или менее точные данные с 1997 года (20 30 пар AQC), когда Уло Вали и Аско Лохмус подготовили первый научный анализ численности популяции подорликов в Эстонии, основанный на нескольких годах наблюдений за этими птицами. Согласно анкете, проведенной государством, в 2010 году в Эстонии гнездилось менее 10 пар. В период с1991 по 2010 гг подтверждено было 26 различных районов с вероятными местами гнездования. В 2011 году только одна чистая пара AQC и четыре смешанные пары гнездилось в стране. В то же время популяция AQP была стабильной ( гнездящихся пар) (Väli 2011). Гибридизация между AQC и AQP была признана одной из главных угроз для эстонской популяции AQC, хотя, конечно, существуют и другие опасности (мелиорация, уничтожение охотничьих угодий и т.п.). Вероятно, проблема гибридизации уже ранее существовала, но в гг. было всего 3 подтверждённых случая этого явления (возможно, из за плохого знания проблемы в начале исследований). В 2003 году в Эстонии было отмечено10 смешанных пар, а в 2011 уже только 4. Постепенно пары AQP заменяют смешанные пары. В смешанные пары включаем те случаи, в которых одна из птиц является гибридом или другим видом подорлика. Большая количество накладывающихся на себя территорий гнездования обоих видов вызвала появление в Эстонии и восточной Европе гибридов разной степени (Väli et al. 2010). Мониторинг подорликов был введен Eagle Club с 1994 года, когда были внедрены национальные программы мониторинга в Эстонии. Мониторинг гнездящейся популяции проводится каждые 5 лет (вместе с AQP), но в период между этими пятью годами Eagle Club ведёт свой мониторинг по тем же принципам, поэтому наблюдение ведется ежегодно. С 2011 года национальный мониторинг проводится каждый год для всей популяции вида в Эстонии. Подводя итог, следует сказать, что небольшая популяция AQC в Эстонии находится под большой угрозой и может не пережить даже случайных ситуаций. Мы не имеем также возможостей, чтобы подкрепить популяцию птицами из соседних стран. Наиболее заметной проблемой (которая может быть вызвана деятельностью человека) является гибридизация AQC и AQP, так как гораздо реже встречаемый AQC вскоре станет генетически растворяться в популяции AQP (Väli et al. 2010). Телеметрия большого подорлика: предварительные результаты миграции и зимовки птиц из Эстонии Urmas Sellis Eagle Club В Эстонии большой подорлик (AQC) является очень редко гнездящейся птицей, численность которой постоянно уменьшается. Вероятно, у нас не остается уже больше времени, чтобы расширить наши знания с целью сохранения вида традиционными методами, такими как наблюдение и кольцевание птиц. Будучи не в состоянии определить иерархию факторов, отвечающих за сокращение численности популяции, мы выбрали датчики GPS в качестве инструмента для наблюдения за жизненными циклами птиц и отслеживания потенциальных угроз в этот период. Конечно, стратегия эта несколько идеалистична, так как не все аспекты телеметрии работают отлично. Существует мнение, что датчики могут быть дополнительной угрозой для птиц. Возможно, это правда. У нас очень мало свидетельств о том, что датчик увеличил шансы на выживание птицы. С другой стороны у птицы с датчиком во время полета могут возникнуть проблемы с турбулентностью, нарушением терморегуляции, паразитами на теле или в некоторых странах птицу с датчиком могут принять за шпиона и т.д. Некоторые проблемы можно преодолеть в процессе производства или при использовании датчиков (повышение эргономичности, маскировка антенн, улучшение материалов и крепления устройств). Возникают некоторые проблемы с практическим применением датчиков на AQC. Чтобы уменьшить стресс у пойманных птиц, ловля их требует особой осторожности (и удачи). Датчики должны быть закреплены на правильном месте,на умеренно жёстких подтяжках, а оперение не должно затенять солнечные панели (дефицит энергии является частой проблемой датчиков; в течение длительных периодов затенения, во время инкубации, устройства могут перестать передавать сигнал). Даже устройства с солярным питанием могут не работать достаточно хорошо спустя несколько лет, так как батарея со временем изнашивается. В некоторых странах существуют дополнительные радиопомехи (страны Средиземноморья), а расходы на техническое обслуживание Argos заставляют исследователей использовать более экономные программые для устройств (меньшее количество данных), что затрудняет обмен данными. Телеметрия AQC была введена в Эстонии в 2005 году. К 2011 году датчики надето на 9 подорликов (5 AQC, 2 AQP и 2 гибрида). Среди них 7 это взрослые птицы ( 2 всё ещё работают) и 2 молодые особи (оба работают). Использовались 45 и 50 граммовые датчики производства фирмы Microwave с возможностью отслеживания (Ground Track), для удобного поиска птиц в природе или после смерти. Длительность работы датчиков колебалась от 2 до 44 месяцев. Причиной потери сигнала была, вероятно, смерть птицы. По сравнению с данными из Польши, AQC из Эстонии зимуют в разных районах (другие соседние популяции не были проверены в этом отношении). Эстонские птицы предпочитают зимовки в Европе или в Турции, в то время как польские выбирают суб сахарский регион Африки. Возможно, появился новый, более безопасный район для зимовки AQC в Испании и Южной Франции, также Балканский полуостров является областью, которая требует большого внимания, чтобы сохранить пригодные для AQC места зимовки (напр. долина реки Савы). Одним из самых важных районов зимовок является, расположена в южной части побережья Турции, дельта реки Гёксу и ее окрестности. AQC из Эстонии могут зимовать, однако, даже в Польше. Опасным районом является Италия, особенно Сицилия, где для того чтобы остановить незаконное отстреливание хищных птиц, необходимыми являются просветительские мероприятия среди местных охотников. Миграцию и зимовки эстонских подорликов можно отслеживать на карте миграции онлайн: Väli Ü., Dombrovski V., Treinys R., Bergmanis U., Daróczi S., Dravecky M., Ivanovsky V., Lontkowski J., Maciorowski G., Meyburg B.U., Mizera T., Zeitz R., Ellegren H Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe. Biol J Linnean Soc 100: Väli Ü Numbers and hybridization of Spotted Eagles in Estonia as revealed by country wide field observations and genetic analysis. Est J Eco 60: Защита Большого Подорлика 35

20 История гнездования большого подорлика и смешанных пар с малым подорликом в Латвии Угис Бергманис Joint Stock Company, Latvia s State Forests Уже в начале XX века орнитологи обнаружили, что оба вида подорликов весьма похожи и гибридизация между ними не исключена. В 1881 году пара подорликов была застрелена, а затем идентифицирована. Оказалось, что самка была большим подорликом (AQC), а самец малым подорликом (AQP) (Löwis 1898). В конце XIX века вновь пара птиц была застрелена в другом районе Лифляндии. В результате идентификации самец был обозначен как AQP, а самка была, несомненно, AQC (Transehe 1942). Во второй половине XX века было опубликовано распределение территорий пригодных для гнездования AQC (Petrinš и др. 1997). Область, где последний раз подтверждено гнездование AQC Лубанские топи. В 1983 году была отмечена пара в долине реки Педедзе в последнем районе гнездования в стране. В 1986 году один из лесников нашёл в этом районе большое гнездо. Проверки этого участка подтвердили успешное гнездование AQC в 1987, 1989 и 1990 годах. Взрослых птиц постоянно наблюдали в этом ареале в 1991, 1992 и 1995 годах, но гнездования не отмечено. С 1996 года в этом районе взрослых птиц AQC не регистрировалось. Несмотря на то, что гнездо разрушилось в конце 90 х годов, мониторинг ареала продолжался до 2001 года, но безрезультатно. Однако в 1999 году на расстоянии 6 км от старого гнезда, замечено AQC на стволе дерева, поваленного через реку Педедзе. С 1994 года в восточной части Латвии, недалеко от города Мадоны, ведутся исследования популяции AQP. Проверка гнезд выявила только особей AQP и смешанные пары AQC и AQP (Bergmanis и др. 2001, Bergmanis и Strazds 2001). В период с 2003 по 2007 гг. проводились генетические исследования образцов крови птенцев AQP (n=34). В двух случаях (6%) одним из родителей был гибрид: F1 LSE и LSE F1/LSE (Väli и др. 2010). Результаты анализов других авторов оказались похожими (Helbig и др. 2005) 5 из 61 были фенотипически чистые LSE (5%), происходящие из северо восточной Германии, восточной Польши (долина Бебжи) и восточной Латвии (Murmastiene) имело примесь признаков AQC. Морфологические исследования 237 молодых особей AQP из восточной Латвии в гг. обнаружили 6 птенцев с различными признаками AQC: рыжая голова вместо пятна на затылке, нетипичные для AQP большие и многочисленные пятна на средних кроющих. Кроме того, анализ фенотипа 37 пойманных взрослых птиц AQP из восточной Латвии в гг. доказал, что 9 птиц (24%) имеет черты AQC (нпр. тёмный глаз). Подводя итог, следует подчеркнуть, что AQC является очень редким видом в Латвии. Нельзя говорить об устойчивой популяции этого вида. В Латвии может гнездиться только несколько пар. Bergmanis U., Petrins A., Strazds M., Krams I Probable case of hybridization of Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and Lesser Spotted Eagle A. pomarina in eastern Latvia. Acta ornithoecol. 4: Bergmanis U., Strazds M Another possible hybridization case of lesser and Greater Spotted Eagle in Latvia (in Latvian, summary in English). Putni daba 11: 6 7 Helbig A. J., Seibold I., Kocum A., Liebers D., Irvin J., Bergmanis U., Meyburg B. U., Scheller W., Stubbe M., Bensch S Genetic differentation and hybridization between greater and Lesser Spotted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquila clanga, A. pomarina). J ornithol 146: Löwis O Diebe und räuber in der baltischen vögelwelt. Riga, 158 Petrins A., Strazds M., Bergmanis U The Greater Spotted Eagle in Latvia a historical reviev (in latvian, summary in english). Putni Daba 6: 7 14 Transehe N Das vögelleben des angernschen sees. Koresp. Bl. Naturf. Riga. Bd. 64: Väli Ü., Dombrovski V., Treinys R., Bergmanis U., Daroczi S.J., Dravecky M., Ivanovski V., Lontkowski J., Maciorowski G., Meyburg B.U., Mizera T., Zeitz R. and Ellegren H Widespread hybridization between the Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga and the Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina (Aves: Accipitriformes) in Europe. Biol J Linn Soc 100: Современный статус большого подорлика в Украине Domashevsky С.В Національний план дій зі збереження підорлика великого (Aquila clanga) та підорлика малого (A. pomarina) в Україні. Національні плани дій зі збереження глобально вразливих видів птахів. О. Микитюк. Київ: СофтАРТ: Domashevsky С.В К экологии большого и малого подорликов на севере Украины. Berkut 14: Domashevsky С.В Большой подорлик. Червона книга України. Тваринний світ / за ред. І.А. Акімова К.: Глобалконсалтинг pp Dombrovski V.C About breeding of Greater Spotted Eagle in Western and Southern Ukraine. Berkut 16: Sergey Domashevsky Украинский центр исследований хищных птиц Вид относится к категории III Редкий в третьем издании Красной Книги Украины (Домашевський 2009). В 2000 г. Был Разработан Национальный План Действий По Сохранению Большого Подорлика (Домашевський 2000). Исторически в Украине большой подорлик (БП) был вполне обычным, но не многочисленным на востоке страны. На запад численность БП уменьшалась. Было доказано гнездование БП в середине XIX века в Львовской области (Gorban, 1996). Южные точка гнездования были известны в начале ХХ века на севере Одесской области (Домбровский & Панченко 2009). Обитал БП и в пойменных лесах Приднестровья. В настоящее время повсюду стал редким, в некоторых районах исчез полностью. Гнездовая популяция БП оценивается в пар. Такая численность, вероятно, является завышенной. Настоящее же количество гнездящихся БП, скорее всего, составляет пар (Домашевский 2009). В настоящее время гнездование БП доказано для северо запада Украины. Все 4 найденные пары придерживались приграничных с Беларусью районов (Домбровский 2007). Данная часть территории Украины является наиболее перспективной для выявления новых гнездовых пар БП. В 2007 г. наблюдалась гибридная пара подорликов на севере Украины, где самка относилась к БП. Исследуя в 2009 г. север Черниговской области (долины рек, заброшенные торфяные карьеры, большие мелиорированные системы), этот вид не отмечался. Не отмечен он и в 2010 г. в зоне отчуждения Чернобыльской атомной станции. Вероятно, левобережная и центральная часть лесной зоны БП не населяет, или здесь он очень редок. Во время миграций БП встречается на всей территории Украины, но повсюду он редок. Наибольшее число птиц в этот период регистрируется на севере Украины, где известен миграционный путь хищных птиц (Домашевский 2005), а также на Крымском полуострове. Здесь, к примеру, в конце сентября начале октября 2002 г. на горном перевале Байдарские ворота было учтено 20 птиц. В некоторые годы, обычно в южных областях, небольшое количество птиц остается на зимовку. Одиночные экземпляры встречались зимой 1928/29 г. в Полтавской области, где г. была добыта самка. (коллекция Н.И. Гавриленко). По данным Л.Ф. Назаренко, в Беляевских и Прилиманских плавнях Приднестровья часть птиц зимовала ежегодно: г. там ежедневно наблюдали несколько птиц. На Крымском полуострове это редкий зимующий вид, где одна особь нами наблюдалась в декабре 1998 г. Меры, которые необходимо принять для сохранения вида Присвоить природоохранный статус территориям, где вид гнездиться, предотвратить трансформацию и разрушение биотопов. Предотвратить причины распугивания птиц людьми во время гнездования. Содействовать подготовке и внедрению рекомендаций относительно сбалансированного ведения сельского хозяйства с учетом вопросов сохранения БП. Усовершенствование законодательной базы относительно сохранения Greater Spotted Eagle и мест его обитания. Выявить новые места интенсивного пролета БП, которые были найдены на территории АР Крым (горные перевалы), где птицы мигрируют на малой высоте и могут служить объектами незаконного отстрела охотниками. Для прослеживания миграции птиц украинской гнездовой популяции провести мечение птиц спутниковыми передатчиками. Dombrovski V.C., Panchenko P.S К вопросу о гнездовании большого подорлика на юго западе Украины. Berkut 18: Gorban I Lesser and Greater Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina and A. clanga in Ukraine. Eagle Studies. Berlin London Paris, pp Защита Большого Подорлика 37

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