Culture of Trust in ICT-aided Educational Interactions Report 1. (english & polish)

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1 Maria Czerepaniak-Walczak Elżbieta Perzycka Culture of Trust in ICT-aided Educational Interactions Report 1 (english & polish) Szczecin 2013

2 Maria Czerepaniak Walczak & Elżbieta Perzycka Culture of Trust in ICT-aided Educational Interactions Report 1 (english & polish) Szczecin 2013

3 Edit by Maria Czerepaniak Walczak & Elżbieta Perzycka Reviewer Prof. Dr. Harald Nilsen This paper has been financed from funds for science in the years granted for the international project co-financed by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education No. 2923/7.PR/2013/2 The project Stimulators and Inhibitors of Culture of Trust in Educational Interactions Assisted by Modern Information and Communication Technology is implemented under the 7th Framework Programme Marie Curie Action, People No , in the years Project website: Printed by: PPH ZAPOL ISBN Published by: ZAPOL Dmochowski, Sobczyk Sp.j. al. Piastów 42, Szczecin tel , 2

4 Table of content Introduction Chapter 1 Theoretical considerations Chapter 2 Research methodology Chapter 3 ICT application in educational interactions 3.1.Types of digital devices used in educational interactions 3.2.Using ICT to communicate with the participants of educational interactions 3.3.Learning in and with the network 3.4.Social network as an education environment, and part of a culture of trust 3.5.Conclusions Chapter 4 Personal elements of a culture of trust in educational interactions 4.1. Trust in people in problematic situations of ICT use 4.2. Trust in personal digital resources 4.3. Trust of people in digital devices in problem situations 4.4. Personal dimension of the digital information educational usefulness 4.5. Conclusions Chapter 5 Understanding trust by the participants in educational interactions 5.1. Trust as a personality disposition 5.2. The experience of trust in social relations 5.3. People/objects that are trusted 5.4. Trust is a value but it is also a risk - about the dangers of trust 5.5. Conclusions Summary 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 3

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6 INTRODUCTION Dynamics of changes in the conditions of the individual and collective life leaves its mark on value systems. Furthermore, it changes the nature and structure of human relationships in formal and informal interactions. There are new factors and patterns of social cohesion. The traditional values that are bonding the community take on a new meaning and their realization takes on a new form. Some of them become common truths governing human relationships with the social and material surrounding. And such a value is trust. It is a factor regulating relationships between people but also between people, things and phenomena that they encounter. It promotes coping with uncertainty and risk. As stated by Piotr Sztompka, it has a close relationship with the post material values, including the subjective sense of the quality of life. Moreover it is a component of civilization competence. It is a prerequisite for political participation, entrepreneurship and willingness to use new technology", (Piotr Sztompka, Zaufanie. Fundament społeczeństwa, Published by ZNAK, Krakow, 2007, pp ). And dissemination of trust, especially its multiplicity, diversity and the pace of the amendment, makes human face new challenges and choices. Dealing with them is extremely difficult, as there is a strong decrease in the chances of generational transmission and use of habitus resources. This creates new conditions of social relations and the development of new patterns of culture of trust. Understanding the unique nature of culture of trust is of particular importance in a globalized and globalizing society, where such phenomena as: social migration, multicultural working and learning environment, open access to information through the rapidly developing digital media, and taking worldwide actions and initiatives to protect universal values are extremely common. These changes are made in exponential time in the conditions of living in the "flat world" 1 and the era of G(oogle). Therefore, it was important in this research project, because it involves education environments from five distinct cultures (SIT - the project reference number). The research was conducted in educational institutions in Poland, Italy, Norway, Russia and India. 1 The term derives from the book by Thomas.L.Friedman, The World is Flat. A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 5

7 Getting familiar with the specifics of culture of trust and its determinants in different social and cultural circles serves as a collection of arguments explaining the opportunities and barriers for development of open space research on a global scale. International research programs, the European Research Area (ERA) can be implemented only in culture of trust. This applies also to the possibility of real internationalization of education, mobility of learners and educators. Therefore, the basic milieu of shaping the trust and habitus are educational interactions. 1. Theoretical considerations For the purposes of this study, it has been assumed that culture of trust is a system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours and artefacts. It is the basis of coping in the relation with the social and material surrounding. These common, beliefs, values, customs, and artefacts shared by individuals and communities are passed down from generation to generation through formal, yet mostly through natural, learning. This means that they are acquired in the process of socialization. They are inherent elements of habitus, the source of identification of group members and a sense of community. Culture of trust is a complex and dynamic phenomenon. It is also a product and an agent of social relations. It is specific to each population. This applies also to culture of trust in educational interactions. Trust as the foundation of the sense of security is a prerequisite for effective educational interaction. It is the basis of tolerance and understanding in the discussion, exchange of information and the courage to reach for new knowledge and skills. It is, therefore, the foundation of learning, which results in changes in the cognitive, moral, spiritual and physical field. Such changes, realized through educational entities, namely students and organizers of a safe learning environment (educators, teachers, authors of network information, etc.) are both the result and the agent for shaping culture of trust in educational interactions. Culture of trust in educational interactions is an integral part of school culture (Kochanek 2005, p. 6). Each school creates and sustains the culture that is specific for that particular school, including culture of trust. It is the process of creating special conditions for enabling and accelerating the experience of trust in people, the standards governing the operation of the school (regulations, statutes, rules for the use of equipment and devices, etc.) 6

8 and the content of education. This process shapes the climate of respect and trust based on open and positive relationships in the school community. As every culture, a culture of trust has its own structure. Operationalization of this variable enables the separation of the following components: personal, normative and of content-based. Personal components of culture of trust are participants in educational interactions, both direct (face to face) and indirect ones, through the media. These are the learners and teachers. Normative components of culture of trust include rules and regulations applicable in the educational interactions that define the behaviour of participants in the learning process, and the use of means and media information sources. Content-based components include information used by participants in educational interactions and the tasks they perform. These three elements form a synergy. Culture of trust in educational interactions is the most complex and important phenomenon in education. It can be seen in at least two dimensions, namely: a) formal, which consists of norms and rules governing social relations at school, in the classroom, formal positioning of the status and content of educational messages that can be easily observed, b) informal, consisting of the behaviour of participants in educational interaction with their roots in other sources and circumstances of experience. Although these two dimensions are complementary, it must be remembered that each of them has its own characteristics, mainly due to the content and structure of the elements constituting its nature. Culture of trust in educational interactions understood in this way is both process as well as the result of interactions between people at school. It is also a major factor in the development of people (pupils and teachers) and changes in education and society. What should be emphasized is the importance of culture of trust in the process of team work and in everyday communication and collaboration of teachers and pupils. It has a close relationship with extracurricular experiences of participants in educational interactions. This means that it is related to the culture of trust in the society. The richness and diversity of relationships, in which people learn and develop their dispositions, varies exponentially. It results in widening of contacts, sources of information and knowledge. A critical attitude towards them and the assessment of their value is the condition for the effectiveness in learning and human development. Searching for the 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 7

9 development of culture of trust characterized by critical approach becomes of particular importance because of the nature of the relationship in an open, post-industrial society, where formal mechanisms of surveillance and social control are limited, and opportunities of beyond-personal informing through new media are widespread. However, learning is still the process of collecting and updating the experience in relations with direct or indirect social environment, both material and immaterial one. These relationships may take the form of interaction, which is the mutual influence of the elements of the system of people, objects and phenomena, resulting in the possible change of all the elements in the system. Interaction is like a meeting that changes each participant. Interactions understood in that way can be a source of subjective experience of cooperation, trust, sense of security and social cohesion, but they can also be a source of conflict and mutual distrust. It should be emphasized that the roles of participants in educational interactions are dynamic and interchangeable. This means that any of the participants can be the one who initiates the interaction, gives it form and content, and assesses its effects - regardless of the participant s formal positions in education - teacher and pupil. It could be even claimed that the more often students initiate mutual relationships, give it a form and content and assess the effects and the more often teachers learn in these interactions, the richer the culture of trust gets. New resources and tools of communication, with their new opportunities for broadening the spectrum of sources of learning and new educational unprecedented educational interactions, direct our attention to their potential for the creation and development of culture of trust. And there are two conditions that form the basis for our interest, namely: a) the results of studies on individual and generalized trust indicating that people trust the closest ones and b) the common use of digital resources in the acquisition of new information, knowledge and skills. In order to be educationally interesting, digital media should provide high-quality resources, which are in line with the curriculum, are interactive and immersive, have multimedia format and allow for the use of various pedagogical approaches. Such media should contain moving images, documents, maps, posters, line charts and audio files from e.g. cultural institutions. The schools, however, use a variety of teaching aids with greater or lesser success. For several years, interactive whiteboards have become popular in Polish schools. There are also tablets, but this is not as frequent. The intended purpose of introducing digital means to the classroom is primarily the improvement of the quality of education. It is a joint effort of both 8

10 the teacher, pupil, and in some cases also parents. If the lesson is interesting, requiring special attention, teachers will apply digital equipment, such as a laptop, interactive whiteboard, smartphone or tablet, to motivate students to learn. Why ICT tools should be used? This part of the report includes advantages of interactive whiteboard and tablet. The characteristics of a desktop computer and laptop were not included as this digital equipment has already been analysed in many studies. The report Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, , states that the number of mobile devices at the end of 2012 exceeded the number of inhabitants of the globe, and in 2016 there will be 1.4 mobile device per capita. In 2016, 25 % of mobile users will have more than one device, and 9% will have three or more such devices (operators will offer access to the network packets for multiple devices). Although smartphones now represent 12% of the phones, they already generate 82 % of the total network traffic. Interactive Whiteboard At first glance interactive whiteboard looks like an ordinary dry-erase whiteboard. However, it includes a possibility of combining the activities of the teacher and pupil. It can serve as a platform for writing, as a magnetic surface, but primarily as a space for interaction. It facilitates the visualization of issues discussed in class - by configuring the whiteboard with the computer via a multimedia projector it can present images, animations, videos, drawings, charts, etc. It can serve as a computer mouse to operate programs and applications. With this device teachers can control the level of understanding of the content in the classroom. For this purpose they need remote controls handed out to pupils who use them to answer the questions appearing on the board. Thanks to them, teachers can customize the classes, because a single click gives the answer to question displayed on the board. In Poland, interactive whiteboards in schools are still rarity, due to their price. However, there is a growing number of people who see their capabilities during various trainings and begin to dream about it or reject the idea of its implementation during the lesson. Tablet Every year more and more people around the world use the device which has emerged in its present form only a few years ago. At the beginning, the success was not so obvious, but today it successfully replaces other digital devices, such as mobile phones, netbooks or 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 9

11 laptops. This device is tablet, which is now widely used, among others, to browse the web, send s, browse photos and audio-visual materials, play or read books and newspapers in electronic format 2. Thanks to its built-in features like camcorder or camera, users can take pictures anywhere and record important events. Some of the tablets have handwriting recognition and its conversion to the printed version, conversion of recorded conversation, speech sounds to written form, so they are also useful for taking notes in lectures or writing essays in school. Following this path, the tablet becomes a valuable means of teaching in education. It can replace traditional textbooks, and thanks to its many useful applications it can simplify the process of learning and acquiring the necessary information 3. Smartphone In recent years, there has been a rapid development of smartphone technology, and contemporary models with their over 4-inch screens complement the range of computer mobile devices, which include notebooks, tablets, PDAs or portable game consoles. The smartphone can perform many activities carried out on a desktop computer, but it is particularly predisposed to: 1) communicate using various methods, 2) run specialized applications taking into account the features of smartphones, 3) display pictures, movies and presentations, 4) listen to audio files, 5) video calling, 6) use local databases. In contrast to the United States, in Poland the use of smartphones in education is not popular yet. In this regard, we can observe the gap between pupils, students - being digitized recipients, and teachers being novices in digital technology. There are many possibilities of applying smartphone in education, which have been highlighted by A.Sygiela in Scheme 1. 2 D. Niedzielewski, Z tabletem nad morze, ze smartfonem w góry, Networld, Warsaw 2010, No. 7-8, p A. Pająk, Dziesięć funkcji, które pomogą tabletom zawojować rynek, Chip, Warsaw 2010, No. 6, p

12 Scheme 1. Personal smartphone learning environment. Source: A.Sygiela, Smartfon jako narzedzie w procesie edukacji w szkole wyższej mozliwości i perspektywy zastosowań. E edukacja [Smartphone as a tool in the educational process in higher education - possibilities and perspectives of application. E - education] IT cloud/cloud computing The cloud is a server space that provides its memory resources. On the cloud, user stores his or her data and information that he or she can use at any time after connecting to it via computer, tablet, smartphone or other data reader. Cloud can be both personalized and open to the group of resources. In the private cloud, it provides services to internal customers and in commercial to external ones. It is a great convenience for the user, because it is a kind of disk with the data available in the network. We do not have to carry it with us and we have access to it at any place and any time. 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 11

13 Fig Features of cloud computing/it cloud Source: 12

14 IT cloud can and should raise some concerns about security, data management, trust, control and performance. This remark applies to the entire spectrum of Internet network resources. One can ask question on how secure is my data and information? How can I trust that it is safe? Cloud computing is a new and rapidly growing concept of interacting data and information with its user. In order to increase its understanding it is necessary to know how the cloud is defined, and how it will evolve. This will allow to understand when, where, how and why use it. The analysis of the market cycles, suppliers, interested companies and people lead to the questions: what kind of person is hidden behind the clouds and its activity? Can we entrust to them our data and information? Can we trust them? One thing is certain. An active market technologies and development of their capabilities to personalized digital communication devices make the situation, in which education cannot function without modern tools and digital resources. In a certain sense, ITC technology, including cloud computing, released education. It gave conditions for the multidimensional space of learning based on a dynamic and infinite exchange of information. It provided alternative channels of interaction for learners and contributed to a personalized form of learning. Learners have a choice, when to learn alone or with someone else, and he or she can adjust learning style to the conditions provided by a digital device and the network space. 2. Research methodology At the beginning of the twenty-first century, as a result of the expansion of digital media to education, there have been created a number of scenarios for the development of the education system 4 and there are still new scenarios being prepared. Each of them is possible to implement, however, they differ among themselves, for example, by demographic conditions, educational policies, financial policies, development of educational resources, the Internet or technology introduced to education. In every school there are more or less similar scenarios of technological development, which create an image and a culture of the school. This research has been interested in conditions of that culture, in particular, personal, normative and instrumental ones. Therefore, the cognitive objective of SIT project is to describe, interpret and explain the characteristics of 4 OECD, Center for Educational, Research and Innovation (CERI) the OECD Schooling Scenarios in Brief. 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 13

15 culture of trust in educational interactions with examples taken from schools in the countries participating in the project. In the first stage of the project, the research was conducted in educational institutions in Poland. The place of research included schools and universities, which use ICT. These were primary schools (according to ISCED 5 and EQF 6 classification: the first and second level of education), lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools (third and fourth level of education) and universities (fifth - eighth level of education). The research, the results of which are presented in this report, was carried out in six primary schools in Poland. Table 1 presents the number of schools/universities in the research. Table 1. Number of schools/universities in the research Source: own study. Type of a school/level Elementary school I-II Lower secondary school III Upper secondary school IV Universities V-VIII Number of schools/universities The respondents in the surveys were teachers and pupils/students. Tables 2 and 3 present their number in relation to the level of education. Table 2. Number of teachers in the research Source: own study. Type of a school/level Elementary school I-II Lower secondary school III Upper secondary school IV Universities V-VIII Number of teachers International Standard Classification of Education ISCED 2011, en.pdf (access: ), p. 25 and the following. 6 The European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong Learning, (access: ) 14

16 Table 3. Number of pupils/students in the research Source: own study. Type of a school/level Elementary school I-II Lower secondary school III Upper secondary school IV Universities V-VIII Number of pupils/students Understanding the use of ICT in educational interactions due to its participation (stimulating/facilitating or hindering) in shaping culture of trust in the process of learning, personal development and social change, is interesting in the context of the scale of its use in everyday life and in the perspective of the concept of the learning society. As written in the report Survey of Schools: ICT In Education. Benchmarking Access and Use and Attitudes this technology in Europe s Schools (2013 p 16): "the use of ICT by students during the lesson is still much smaller than its use outside of school (2013 p 16). It provokes students to experience life in parallel worlds: the world of everyday life in a natural environment, where they can enter into relationships with certain aspects, people, places and issues, and abstracted one, detached from the natural world of school education, in artificial reality, which is dominated by the principle of learning not for the life but for the school. Case study method applied in the project allowed for the purposeful selection of schools, where it was possible to carry out the research on the structure of culture of trust in educational interactions. The research have been conducted in schools that are highly equipped with digital devices, which means that pupils/students and teachers have access to the equipment and multimedia tools (computer, interactive whiteboards), there is a broadband connection and a virtual social environment (web page, electronic log, network communication with parents, etc.). The research included the cumulative quantity and quality approach. The collection of quantitative data included the use of questionnaires, the content of which has been developed with the participation of all partners in the SIT project. The survey participants included pupils, students and teachers from schools and universities. Qualitative 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 15

17 Culture of of trust trust in ICT-aided in ICT-aided educational educational interactions interactions - report 1 - report 1 research has been conducted by partner teams - participants in SIT project and with the use of research has been conducted by partner teams - participants in SIT project and with the use of research observation has been techniques conducted according by partner to teams the - participants previously in settled SIT project scheduled. and with Table the use 4 of presents observation institutional observation techniques and techniques personal according according set-up of to the the to SIT the previously project previously participants. settled settled scheduled. scheduled. Table Table 4 presents 4 presents institutional institutional and and personal personal set-up set-up of the of the SIT SIT project project participants. participants. Tab. 4 The list of institutions and people involved in the project. Tab. 4 The list of and people involved in the project. Function 4 The list of of the institutions and people involved the project. Abbreviation of Institution and person Country Function participant of of the the Abbreviation Abbreviation institution of of Institution and and person person Country Country participant University of Szczecin institution institution University Prof. Maria of Szczecin of Czerepaniak Szczecin Walczak Prof. Prof. Prof. Maria Maria Elżbieta Czerepaniak Perzycka Walczak Walczak 1Beneficiary 1 Prof. Dr Prof. Elżbieta Aneta Elżbieta Makowska Perzycka Perzycka US Poland Dr Dr Dr Aneta Lidia Aneta Makowska Marek 1Beneficiary 1Beneficiary 1 Makowska 1 US US Poland Dr Dr Mgr Lidia Lidia Radosław Marek Marek Falkiewicz Szult Poland Mgr Mgr Mgr Radosław Jowita Radosław Krajewska Falkiewicz Szult Falkiewicz Szult Mgr Mgr Maciej Jowita Jowita Sokołowski Krajewska Krajewska - Zgid Maciej Sokołowski - Zgid Maciej Nesna University Sokołowski College 2 Beneficiary 2 - Zgid Nesna Prof. University Nesna Harald University Nilsen College HiNe Norway 2 Beneficiary 2 College HiNe Norway 2 Beneficiary 2 Prof. Harald Nilsen University Prof. Harald of Nilsen Macerata HiNe Norway University University Prof. Pier of Giuseppe Macerata of Macerata Rossi Prof. Pier Giuseppe Rossi Prof. Prof. Pier Flavia Giuseppe Stara Prof. Flavia Stara Rossi 3 Beneficiary 3 Prof. Prof. Flavia Raffaele Stara Tumino UNIMC Italy 3 Beneficiary 3 Prof. Raffaele Tumino UNIMC Italy 3 Beneficiary 3 Prof. Prof. Prof. Stefano Stefano Raffaele Polenta Polenta Tumino UNIMC Italy Dr Dr Prof. Luca Luca Stefano Girotti Girotti Polenta Dr Dr Dr Rosita Luca Rosita Deluigi Girotti Deluigi The Dr The Immanuel Rosita Immanuel Deluigi Kant Kant Baltic Baltic Kant Kant Federal Federal University The Immanuel Kant Baltic Kant Federal Prof. University Prof. Tatyana Grebenyuk 44 Partner 1 1 IKBKFU IKBKFU Russia Russia Prof. Prof. Konyushenko Prof. Svetlana Tatyana Grebenyuk Svetlana 4 Partner 1 Dr Prof. Dr Tatyana Shkapenko Konyushenko IKBKFU Russia Svetlana Dr Dr Dr Katherine Tatyana Nechaeva Shkapenko Nechaeva Institute Dr Institute of Kashmir Katherine of Kashmir Studies Nechaeva Studies Society Society University Institute University of Kashmir of of Kashmir Kashmir 5 Studies Society 5 Partner Partner 2 2 Prof. University Prof. Nisar Nisar Ali Ali UOK of Kashmir UOK India India Prof. 5 Partner 2 Prof. Ghulam Prof. Ghulam Mustafa Nisar Ali Mustafa Khawaja Khawaja Dr Muhammad Maroof Shah UOK India Prof. Dr Muhammad Ghulam Mustafa Maroof Khawaja Shah Source: own study Source: own study Dr Muhammad Maroof Shah This is the first report containing the results of the analysis of the research results Source: This own study is the first report containing the results of the analysis of the research results carried out in Poland. Based on observations carried out on the basis of the schedule, carried This out in is the Poland. first report Based containing observations the results carried of the out analysis on the basis of the of research the schedule, results photographic documentation, interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in selected photographic carried out in documentation, Poland. Based interviews on observations and questionnaire carried out surveys on the basis conducted of the in schedule, selected schools, this report presents ICT application in educational interactions, the structure of schools, photographic this report documentation, presents ICT interviews application and questionnaire in educational surveys interactions, conducted the structure in selected of personal items of culture of trust at various levels of education and understanding of trust by personal schools, items this report of culture presents of trust ICT at application various levels in of educational interactions, and understanding the structure of trust by of the participants in educational interaction. In the summary, it was indicated what are the the personal participants items of in culture educational of trust interaction. at various levels In the of summary, education it and was understanding indicated what of trust are the by specific standards of the educational interactions, which use digital resources, and the most specific the participants standards in of educational the educational interaction. interactions, In the which summary, use digital it was resources, indicated and what the are most the International specific 7FP Marie standards Research Staff Curie Action, of People the Exchange educational Scheme interactions, which use digital resources, and the most 16

18 typical tasks performed by the participants in these interactions as a source of trust and security experience. 3. ICT application in educational interactions New measures and communication technologies are irreversibly incorporated into everyday life of people and communities. This is reflected in the acquisition of information, learning and working. Their use generates new paths and patterns of communication, socialization and cooperation. They also carry new, previously unknown threats for individual development and social change. There are new factors of marginalization and social exclusion, which cause changes to the environment of daily life, customs and organization of social relations. It also changes the pedagogical concepts of the organization of the learning environment and development, and educational interactions. This causes the need for description, analysis and interpretation of their presence in intentionally organized educational interactions. This will allow to know and understand the importance of ICT in basic digital literacy of the information society members and in formal, beyond-formal and informal lifelong education, because ICT has a chance to change the nature of the educational interactions. In the context of the purposes of the research on culture of trust in the interactions, of particular importance is to get to know the digital media as components and factors of the learning environment and the development of trust in people, standards and educational content. Authors of this research were interested to which extend their use in the learning process is a source of experience in relationships based on trust and what is this kind of trust: the patriarchal or critical one. Dissemination of new means and tools of communication, their multiplicity and diversity, and the pace of the amendment may result (and often results) in the increase in the sense of uncertainty and distrust to the veracity of the content, and its actual and potential influence in the educational processes. In this regard, an interesting fact is the experience of education entities, i.e. pupils/students and teachers involved in every day interactions in which an integral part (both informally [often] and formally [less often]) are the new digital media, that is, devices and applications. 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 17

19 For the purposes of this part of the report, the analysis was based on data from the research in Polish schools and universities divided into the education of children and young people (treated as compulsory, as in Poland, compulsory education lasts until the age of 18) and tertiary education. Therefore, the analysis is based on the answers of respondents, the number of which is presented in Table 5. Table 5. The number of participants in the survey Levels Pupils/students Teachers I-IV V-VIII Source: own study The second group of data presented and discussed in this section are the results of the observations in classrooms and university lecture halls. These results were documented in notes from field studies prepared by members of the research team and in the photographs. For the purposes of this section of the report the material used included these notes and photographs that illustrate space development with the educational digital media: what are these devices and how they are arranged in the classroom/lecture hall Types of digital devices used in educational interactions Below are presented types of devices (Figure 1) used in the learning process in the environments that were subject to the research. 18

20 Fig. 1. The equipment used by students while learning (by level of education) , ,41 24,32 62,5 25,66 8,19 43,42 22,33 9,05 16,28 3,72 4,22 I-IV V-VIII 0 Source: own study. The list of devices included in Figure 1 has been drawn up on the basis of observations in classrooms and lecture halls of the university. The frequency of use of each digital media has been established on the basis of responses to surveys. The survey did not include such media as interactive whiteboard, because it is a device placed in certain rooms and it is not commonly used. This is not the specificity of a Polish school. According to the report Survey of Schools: ICT In Education (p. 33) in schools of the European Union there is, on average, one interactive whiteboard for over 100 learners. They are placed in classrooms/lecture halls and libraries, which is of particular importance. Frequency of use of PCs (desktops) may be a consequence of equipping schools and universities in these devices. According to the UNESCO report ((David Souter: Towards Inclusive Knowledge Societies : a review of UNESCO 's Action In Implementing the WSIS outcomes, UNESCO, Paris 2010, p. 57) in Polish schools there is an average number of 17 computers per educational institution, while in Finland it is 55. Along with modernization and miniaturization of devices, laptops become a visible part of the digital media used in the performance of tasks by students. Especially in high schools these portable devices are used in everyday learning. Although being more common, other portable digital media (tablets, mp3/mp4) are not as significant in acquiring new information in formal learning. And this is not only Polish phenomenon. The very rare use of mobile phones and smartphones is also indicated by the data contained in the Survey of Schools: ICT in Education (February 2013, p. 41). It means that the mobile devices, despite the fact that they provide modern and fast 7FP Project Marie SIT Curie Action, People 19

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