Rola informatyki w naukach ekonomicznych i społecznych Innowacje i implikacje interdyscyplinarne. redakcja ZBIGNIEW E. ZIELIŃSKI

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1 Rola informatyki w naukach ekonomicznych i społecznych Innowacje i implikacje interdyscyplinarne redakcja ZBIGNIEW E. ZIELIŃSKI Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Handlowej Kielce 2011

2 Publikacja wydrukowana została zgodnie z materiałem dostarczonym przez Autorów. Wydawca nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za treść, formę i styl artykułów. Komitet Naukowy prof. dr hab. Janusz Lewandowski prof. dr hab. Krzysztof Grysa dr hab. Wiesław Dziubdziela, prof. WSH Redaktor Naczelny prof. zw. dr hab. Tadeusz Grabiński Redaktor Recenzji prof. zw. dr hab. Tadeusz Grabiński Recenzenci prof. zw. dr hab. Tadeusz Grabiński prof. nadzw. dr hab. inż. Wacław Gierulski prof. nadzw. dr hab. Agnieszka Baruk dr hab. Dariusz Adamczyk, prof. UJK prof. dr hab. Mieczysław Muraszkiewicz dr hab. Ewa Grzegorzewska Ramocka, prof. WSEiP dr hab. Grzegorz Kończak, prof. AE prof. dr hab. Krzysztof Grysa dr hab. Artur Maciąg, prof. WSH doc. dr inż. Zbigniew Lis dr Janusz Myszczyszyn dr Dariusz Żak Redakcja dr Zbigniew E. Zieliński mgr inż. Jarosław Kościelecki mgr Katarzyna Baziuk mgr inż. Artur Janus mgr Anna Kukla mgr Piotr Sidor mgr Tatiana Konopka Wydawca publikacji Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa im. B. Markowskiego w Kielcach Projekt PITWIN Portal Innowacyjnego Transferu Wiedzy w Nauce ul. Peryferyjna Kielce Copyright by Wyższa Szkoła Handlowa, Kielce 2011 ISBN Nakład 150 egz. Publikacja została wydana w ramach realizacji projektu PITWIN Portal Innowacyjnego Transferu Wiedzy w Nauce. Publikacja jest współfinansowana przez Unię Europejską w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego. Publikacja jest dystrybuowana bezpłatnie, dla osób które zarejestrują się na stronie internetowej projektu (dostępna także w wersji elektronicznej).

3 Spis treści... 3 Wstęp... 5 Introduction... 6 I. INFORMATYKA JAKO CZYNNIK ROZWOJU SPOŁECZNO GOSPODARCZEGO Bruno Jacobfeuerborn Towards an Informational Model of Innovation... 9 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn ICT to Advance a New Generation of Entrepreneurs Maciej Jagódka Rola organizacji opartych na wiedzy w rozwoju społeczno gospodarczym Agnieszka Janas Próba klasyfikacji programów konwersacyjnych Ewa Kopeć Rola Internetu w kształtowaniu przeobrażeń strukturalnych gospodarek państw Unii Europejskiej Leszek Michalczyk Telepraca wybrane aspekty zarządzania i jakością pracy Natalia Michałek, Bartłomiej Gałek Virtualization and web 2.0 as key components of cloud computing model development Marek Osowski Internet: twórca i niszczyciel. Internet jako jeden z dominatorów czasu wolnego Polaków Grzegorz Sobiecki Zasada wpływu Technologii Informacyjnych i Komunikacyjnych (ICT) na sektor usług w Indiach Mariusz Wasiak Filar informatyczny w modelu gospodarki opartej na wiedzy analiza porównawcza gospodarki polskiej Kamil Wiśniewski Rola narzędzi informatycznych w zarządzaniu wiedzą Marek Ziemba Braki odpowiedzi w ankietach internetowych przyczyny i zapobieganie Bogusława Ziółkowska Wpływ nowoczesnych technologii informatyczno komunikacyjnych na funkcjonowanie współczesnych organizacji II. INFORMATYZACJA I HUMANIZACJA: POJĘCIA SPRZECZNE CZY KOMPLEMENTARNE? Gabriela Gurgul, Paweł Sztuczka Rola informacji kredytowej i gospodarczej w dobie nowych warunków na rynku finansowym Joanna Kubarek Burkat Systemy elektronicznej płatności klasyfikacja i kierunki rozwoju Wojciech Pokojski, Paulina Pokojska Budowa interaktywnej mapy cyfrowej za pomocą wybranych aplikacji i serwisów internetowych Agata Szczukocka Rola e government w rozwoju społeczno gospodarczym Arkadiusz Wąsiński, Łukasz Tomczyk Aktywność młodzieży oraz rola rodziców w przestrzeni mediów sieciowych w perspektywie zagrożeń netoholizmem na przykładzie badań własnych

4 Grzegorz Wilk Jakubowski Wpływ technologii informatyczno komunikacyjnych na bezpieczeństwo współczesnych społeczeństw Dariusz Grzegorz Żak Rozwój elektronicznej administracji publicznej w Polsce III. NARZĘDZIA INFORMATYCZNE A EFEKTYWNOŚĆ ZARZĄDZANIA ORGANIZACJĄ Witold Biały, Teresa Żukowska Przekroczenia hałasu na terenie zakładu przeróbki mechanicznej węgla Barbara Buzowska Wykorzystanie narzędzi informatycznych w komunikacji kierowniczej: szansa i zagrożenie Magdalena Chmielińska Plany Dodge'a i Romiga a koszty jakości kontroli odbiorczej Jakub Guzek Hurtownia danych w ujęciu systemowym Rafał Guzowski Zarządzanie sytuacją kryzysową z wykorzystaniem nowych technologii studium przypadku Krzysztof Kocurek Zarządzanie strategiczne w procesie rozwoju współczesnego przedsiębiorstwa Natalia Michałek Całkowity koszt posiadania wirtualnej infrastruktury IT Natalia Michałek, Rafał Michałek Wykorzystanie technologii informacyjno telekomunikacyjnej w polskich przedsiębiorstwach w 2010 r Anna Pobrotyn Efektywność organizacji a jej systemy informatyczne Małgorzata Smolska Wdrażanie strategicznej karty wyników w przedsiębiorstwie Sylwia Wiśniewska Sieci informacyjne jako czynnik wzrostu innowacyjności przedsiębiorstw Michał Zasadzień Wpływ segmentacji klientów na postrzeganą jakość usług na przykładzie Call Center firm telekomunikacyjnych IV. INFORMATYZACJA A ROZWÓJ MARKETINGU Agnieszka Baruk Lojalność emocjonalna jako fundament długookresowej współpracy oferentów z nabywcami finalnymi Kamil Lul Satysfakcja klientów bankowości elektronicznej Małgorzata Paszkowska E handel produktami leczniczymi Justyna Schabek Analiza regulacji prawa polskiego służączch ochronie uprawnionych do znaków towarowych Jarosław Smolski Budowanie wizerunku firmy w Internecie Radosław Wolniak, Bożena Skotnicka Zasadzień Postawy klientów w województwie śląskim wobec e commerce

5 Wstęp Dynamiczne zmiany jakie następują w gospodarce, edukacji i komunikacji społeczeństwa wskazują siłę narzędzi i technologii informatycznych. Media społecznościowe spowodowały zupełnie inny sposób informowania swoich znajomych (i ogół osób korzystających z danego serwisu) o wydarzeniach związanych ze swoją osobą czy reklamowanym przedsiębiorstwem. Możliwości obecnych telefonów komórkowych (coraz częściej zwanych smartfonami), pozwalają swobodnie pracować i korzystać z usług internetu, cieszyć się rozszerzoną rzeczywistością i mnóstwem aplikacji czy interaktywnych gier. Specjaliści wróżą koniec ery komputerów osobistych i przeniesienie wszystkich zasobów lokalnych firm do tzw. chmury danych, która spowoduje iż nasze dokumenty będą dostępne w dowolnym miejscu na świecie, a nie tylko na twardym dysku komputera. Coraz więcej powstaje start upów, czyli przedsiębiorstw działających w internecie, funkcjonujących w dowolnej branży, jednak najczęściej związanych z nowymi technologiami. Niskie koszty rozpoczęcia działalności, ale także duże ryzyko jak i ewentualne wysokie zwroty z inwestycji powodują, iż coraz więcej osób próbuje urzeczywistnić swój pomysł na firmę działającą w internecie. Reasumując, technologie teleinformatyczne stały się siłą napędową rozwoju wielu gałęzi gospodarki, należy jednak traktować je jako środek do osiągnięcia celu, nie zapominając o wymiarze społecznym, w którym liczą się postawy oraz umiejętności obywateli korzystających z nowych technologii. Dwutomowa publikacja podzielona jest na siedem działów tematycznych, w których łącznie opublikowano 78 artykułów autorskich nadesłanych na III Ogólnopolską Konferencję Naukową pt.: Rola informatyki w naukach ekonomicznych i społecznych. Innowacje i implikacje interdyscyplinarne. Konferencja odbyła się 15 września 2011 roku w siedzibie Wyższej Szkoły Handlowej im. Bolesława Markowskiego w Kielcach w ramach realizowanego projektu PITWIN Portal Innowacyjnego Transferu Wiedzy w Nauce. Zakres tematyczny nadesłanych i zrecenzowanych referatów obejmuje następujące zagadnienia: 1. Informatyka jako czynnik rozwoju społeczno gospodarczego zawierający 13 artykułów, 2. Informatyzacja i humanizacja: pojęcia sprzeczne czy komplementarne? z 7 pracami, 3. Narzędzia informatyczne a efektywność zarządzania organizacją do którego zakwalifikowało się 12 artykułów, 4. Informatyzacja a rozwój marketingu z 6 artykułami, 5. Wykorzystanie internetu w nowoczesnym nauczaniu z 13 artykułami, 6. Analizy ilościowe w naukach ekonomicznych i społecznych zawierający 15 referatów, 7. Analizy społeczno ekonomiczne na który nadesłano 12 artykułów. Książka przeznaczona jest dla wszystkich, których interesują zagadnienia związane z aspektami wykorzystania informatyki i narzędzi teleinformatycznych w szerokim zakresie dziedzin wiedzy i nauki. Polecam lekturę niniejszej publikacji w przekonaniu, iż różnorodność tematyczna i spojrzeń na wykorzystanie technologii informatycznej staną się inspiracją do własnych poszukiwań czy badań naukowych. Koordynator Projektu Kierownik Portalu dr Zbigniew E. Zieliński

6 Introduction Dynamic changes that occur in economy, education and society communication reveal the strength of information tools and technologies. Social media created a completely different way of informing friends (and the people using the particular service) about the events connected with ourselves or our company. The possibilities of modern mobile phones, more often called smartphones, let us work freely, use the Internet, enjoy the broaden reality and a lot of applications as well as interactive games. Experts predict the end of PC era and transferring of all the companies data into so called cloud database, thanks to which our documents will be accessible from any place in the world, not only from the computer s hard drive. Nowadays, one can notice more and more start ups, i.e. companies that operate on the Internet, in any business, however, most often associated with new technologies. Low start up costs but also high risk and high investment return encourage more and more people to realize their idea for a company on the Internet. To sum up, Information and Communication Technologies became the driving force of the development of many economy branches. Nevertheless, they ought to be treated as the means of achieving the goal, not forgetting about the social dimension, in which citizens attitudes and their ICT skills come into play. The following two volume publication is divided into seven thematic sections which enclose 78 articles sent for the 3 rd All Poland Scientific Conference on The Role of Informatics in Economic and Social Sciences. Innovations and Interdisciplinary Implications. The conference took place on 15 th September 2011 at the Bolesław Markowski University of Trade in Kielce as a part of the PITWIN Portal of Innovative Knowledge Transfer in Science. The thematic scope of the admitted and reviewed articles contains the following issues: 1. Informatics as a factor of the social economic development containing 13 articles, 2. Informatisation and humanisation: contradictory or complementary terms? with 7 papers, 3. Informatics tools and effectiveness of organisation management 12 articles were admitted, 4. Utilization of the Internet in modern education with 13 reports, 5. Informatisation and marketing development including 5 papers, 6. Quantitative analyses in economic and social sciences containing 16 articles, 7. Social economic analyses 12 papers admitted. The book is for everybody who is interested in issues connected with the aspects of informatics and ICT tools utilization in a broad scope of the fields of knowledge and science. I recommend the following book in conviction that its thematic variety and different views on the exploitation of information technology will become the inspiration for your own research or scientific studies. Project Coordinator Portal Director Dr Zbigniew E. Zieliński

7 I. INFORMATYKA JAKO CZYNNIK ROZWOJU SPOŁECZNO GOSPODARCZEGO

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9 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn Bruno Jacobfeuerborn Towards an Informational Model of Innovation Abstract: One of the major lessons drawn from resolving a number of problems and challenges the economy and society were faced with over the last few decades is that innovation and innovativeness are particularly effective instruments to cope with predicaments, boost progress and achieve comparative and competitive advantage. Innovation has become a chief growth factor also outside industry and economy. It is important in health, education, environment protection, and crisis management, to mention just a few domains. Today we understand that innovation is not only related to technology and its new applications. It may be new social setups, too. In this paper we argue that technology based innovations in order to succeed have to take into account a social factor and in many cases just go hand in hand with social innovations. Both types of innovations have a common denominator, namely they are intrinsically and inextricably relative to information, knowledge, creativity, and ability and readiness to take risks, without which they could not have happened. The paper aims at outlining an informational model of innovation that is applicable to innovativeness in the fields of technology and social matters. The model includes, inter alia, an array of ICT facilities for information and knowledge acquisition, data mining and knowledge discovery techniques, and deep semantic analysis. It assumes an involvement and contributions of prospective customers and users in the process of generating and developing innovative solutions. Moreover, it borrows from H. Chesbrough s open innovation concept. We place in our model academic laboratories and expertise as well as NGOs in innovation loops, and last but not least we take into account a risk factor involved in pursuing innovativeness. An application of the proposed model in the field of advanced mobile technologies is mentioned at the end of the paper. Keywords: innovation, social innovation, informational model, ICT Introduction Today, no one needs to be convinced of the importance of innovation intense competition, along with fast changing markets and technologies, has made sure of that. How to innovate is the key question (Harvard, 1998). These are the words of the editors of Harvard Business Review wrote as an introduction to a reprint of Professor P. F. Drucker s influential paper The Discipline of Innovation published in the year of We adopt them as a motto of this paper as the question of how to innovate remains valid and important, even more vital today than yesterday. Professor Drucker partly answered this question by saying: What all the successful entrepreneurs I have met have in common is not a certain kind of personality but a commitment to the systematic practice of innovation (Drucker, 2002). We entirely share this view. We argue that a particularly efficient way to encourage and support this commitment is to provide entrepreneurs and to be innovators with a modern pro innovative knowledge framework architectured and implemented by means of the ICT facilities and mobile technologies. The contemporary world is a complex system whose complexity grows as we add brand new facilities to it, upgrade the existing ones and get rid of or replace the dysfunctional ones. This continuous development process is a reaction to challenges, crises and our desire to make life safer, more comfortable and interesting, and richer in terms of public infrastructure and individual material consumption goods. At the core of this process has always been innovation, even though this term was not used in the past. Recently innovation has even been crowned the decisive agent of change and growth factor. 9

10 Towards an Informational Model of Innovation Indeed, one of the major lessons drawn from resolving a number of problems and challenges the economy and society were faced with over the last few decades is that innovation and innovativeness are particularly effective instruments to cope with predicaments, boost progress and achieve comparative and competitive advantage. Innovation has become a chief growth factor also outside industry and economy. It is important in health, education, environment protection, and crisis management, to mention just a few domains. Today, we understand that innovation is not only related to technology and its new applications. It may be new social setups, too. In this paper we argue that technology based innovations in order to succeed have to take into account a social factor and in many cases just go hand in hand with social innovations. Both types of innovations have a common denominator, namely they are intrinsically and inextricably relative to information, knowledge, creativity, and ability and readiness to take risks, without which they could not have happened. The paper aims at outlining an informational model of innovation that is applicable to innovativeness in the fields of technology and social matters. The model includes, inter alia, an array of ICT facilities for information and knowledge acquisition, deep semantic analysis and data mining techniques. It assumes an involvement and contributions of prospective customers and users in the process of generating and developing innovative solutions. Moreover, it borrows from H. Chesbrough s open innovation concept. We place in our model academic laboratories and expertise as well as NGOs in innovation loops, and last but not least we take into account a risk factor involved in pursuing innovativeness. The structure of the papers is as follows. In the next chapter we shall provide a short note on innovation models, including a critique of a conventional approach to innovation, and then we shall propose a Knowledge Framework that is part of an informational model of innovation. This framework focuses on sources of information and knowledge, and their acquisition mechanism. The paper is concluded with a note on application of the informational model of innovation in the field of advanced mobile technologies, which has been developed by T Mobile Polska (formerly Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa) and the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology. A Note on Innovation Models While discussing and working on models of real life systems or phenomena it is good to realize that this work always includes a modicum of subjectivity coming from the model architect. There are hardly objective models of reality. Professors S. Hawking and L. Mlodinow call it model dependent realism and define it as follows: It is based on the idea that our brains interpret the input from our sensory organs by making a model of the world. When such a model is successful at explaining events, we tend to attribute to it, and to the elements and concepts that constitute it, the quality of reality or absolute truth. But there may be different ways in which one could model the same physical situation, with each employing different fundamental elements and concepts (Hawking, 2010). Also our model that we present below qualifies for the modeldependent realism principle. It is based on the analysis of innovation models surveyed among others in (Dubberly Design Office, 2006) and (Tidd, 2006) and discussed in the book by (Allen, 2007), it takes into account the critique of these models we provided in (Jacobfeuerborn, 2010a), and it resorts to author s own experience acquired as a result of co operation with the BRAMA laboratory that carries out mobile technology research placed at the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology (Jacobfeuerborn, 2010b). Let us recall the headlines of our critique of the conventional model of innovation. Organizationally, the main obstructing fact is when the company top executives decide to be directly involved, understand and control the innovation process from its outset to its end, and often intervene without taking into account the context and logics of the process. Moreover, the critique includes the observation that typically innovation within companies is organized as a closed shop in a dedicated unit, i.e. the process of setting up an innovative solution is disconnected from the production lines; furthermore, the company does not collaborate with the 10

11 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn external world unless it hires experts and consultants on the non disclosure basis, purchase licenses, etc. The next weak point of the conventionally organized innovation process is that it is a semi linear stringently controlled flow of actions from ideas to R&D to innovation and market although such an approach is hardly compatible with the very nature of innovation dynamics. In large enterprises often the emphasis is put and evaluation criteria that are based on tangibles components such as codified knowledge represented in scientific papers, patents, standards, and market analysis. Last but not least, too much focus is placed on the prestige made on R&D, on deadlines and money, and relatively less attention is paid to assembling the pieces of this R&D in a form of an innovative product. In (Rooney, 2003) it was noticed that technological and managerial know how and skills were not enough for successful innovation. Something more idiosyncratic that is part of firm s operation culture, its ability to learn and absorb information is necessary. The indispensable elements are a broad and profound knowledge framework, a new approach to R&D relaying on openness and conditions encouraging creativeness of those who innovate. A Knowledge Framework Of course, there have been many examples of new approaches to innovation. One of the most innovative approaches to innovation implemented already at the beginning of the present century in the IDEO company is reported in (Kelly, 2001). Other interesting innovation methodologies that inspired us are given in a seminal paper (Drucker, 2002) and in the book (Christensen, 2006) that argues that innovativeness has a lot to do with what its author, Professor C. Christensen, termed disruptive technologies that are typically developed by small firms or spin offs of large companies, often supported by venture capital, and by its revolutionary features dramatically change the market. From the paper (Drucker, 2002) comes a well aimed observation: There are, of course, innovations that spring from a flash of genius. Most innovations, however, especially the successful ones, result from a conscious, purposeful search for innovation opportunities, which are found in only a few situations. We share this opinion and add to it a remark that knowledge and knowledge carriers are particularly instrumental while searching for these innovation opportunities. So, the task to be done is to identify relevant knowledge sources and knowledge carriers and to organize a search through so established unexplored universe of innovation opportunities. Towards this end, we enhance the concept of Innovation Factory proposed in (Jacobfeuerborn, 2010a) where we drafted the core of a generic informational model of innovation, which prioritized the role of information and knowledge in organizing and executing the innovation cycle in a company or organization. We add to that a Knowledge Framework that is schematically depicted in Fig

12 Towards an Informational Model of Innovation Fig. 1. Knowledge Framework of Innovation The information and knowledge that supply the Innovation Factory are multifold. Companies are familiar with Customer Relationship Management Systems (CRM) that has become a classic tool for working out and implementing company s customer centered philosophy and marketing strategies. In (Gray, 2001) the following concise definition of CRM is offered: CRM involves all of the corporate functions (marketing, manufacturing, customer services, field sales, and field service) required to contact customers directly or indirectly. A survey of CRM methodologies and a proposal of a CRM architecture focused on informational aspects can be found in (Jacobfeuerborn, 2005). A more advanced approach to managing customers and maintaining links with them was proposed in the year of 2003 by Professor B. Schmitt and dubbed Customer Relationship Management system (CEM). In (Schmitt, 2003) CEM is defined as the process of strategically managing a customer s entire experience with a product or a company. In Jacobfeuerborn (2009) the CEM concept is further elaborated as a process oriented satisfaction concept aimed at establishing wide and rich interactive relations with customers. It takes into account not only the product and functionality, but also lifestyle, aesthetics, and social aspects such as prestige, networking, etc. In order for CEM to work it has to be embedded in the company culture and be a unification platform of the company s business processes. Along with CRM we include CEM to the Knowledge Framework of our informational innovation model. Extensive use of information and knowledge, and knowledge management systems are essential for feeding and managing the Knowledge Framework. This applies to both explicit and tacit knowledge and non codified knowledge that are available both in the company and outside the company. Therefore, as far external sources of knowledge are concerned social networking systems such as Facebook, Grupon or MySpace are included as information sources to supply the Knowledge Framework, but also the work and contributions of such classic sources of knowledge as market research and experts opinions and advice are inputs to the Knowledge Framework. Crowdsourcing, the phenomenon identified and presented in (Surowiecki, 2005), taps into 12

13 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn a collective intelligence of customers, suppliers, and a general public in order to collect creative, unbiased, and unexpected solutions. In parallel to already mentioned sources of information and knowledge a company or an organization, for information and knowledge to collect from the outside world, can also make use of CT business intelligence tools, including web 2.0/3.0 facilities and services. In particular, useful are the tools based on artificial agents (small programs) whose task is to penetrate the web in order to search new information and update the information stored in the company s archive. We also need to observe one of the latest tendencies consisting in including customers in identifying new products and/or value added services (prosumerism). Although the concept of prosumerism refers to the old works by Alvin Toffler done in the 80ties of the previous century, it only recently has gained popularity owing to the web 2.0 and progress in e commerce and social networking. In our approach protagonists of the Knowledge Framework, which supply the Innovation Factory with knowledge, are also the stakeholders of the open innovation arrangement as according to our innovativeness model innovation is developed in open shops. Fig. 2 displays the main knowledge based components embedded in the Innovation Factory. Information and knowledge acquired from the company/organization business environment through business intelligence tools along with company s own resources are stored in the modules Knowledge Repository and Best Practices. These knowledge assets might be enhanced by the output delivered as a result of Research activities, and then, if necessary, be subject to Deep Semantic Analysis by means of knowledge discovery and data/text mining facilities to support innovation teams in their work. Fig. 2. Innovation Factory Main Components Innovation can be planned and managed. Thus, having determined the purpose of innovation exercises and the work schedule the innovation team starts Generating Ideas and then Filtering Ideas to set up a list of candidates for Prototyping. The latter is especially an important phase of the innovation process since it provides a real object, not the concept, which can be evaluated and tested. In order to work on concepts and ideas and to filter them various 13

14 Towards an Informational Model of Innovation techniques and toolboxes can be exploited, for instance, affinity diagrams, brainstorming, Las Vegas Voting, mind maps, and collapsing consensus. This can be supported by additional Research, if required. Already at the stage when the list of candidates is known, it is important to evaluate them from the business standpoint, i.e. to draft Business Cases and identify risks and Evaluate Risks related to each candidate. Cooperation with partners during the above mentioned activities through a Collaboration Mechanism, which needs to include legal agreements and intellectual property setups, can enrich, facilitate, speed up, and reduce costs of the innovation task. In our model of innovation the Collaboration Mechanism is organized as an open shop. Here, we apply selected elements of the Open Innovation approach proposed in (Chesbrough, 2003), which combines internal and external ideas as well as internal and external research resources and paths to market for advancing the development of new technologies, products and services. In particular, close collaboration with academia that can offer grey matter, research competence, expertise, labs, and young talents so desirable for unconventional thinking and breaking stereotypes should be part of the collaboration scheme. Also, relevant NGOs should find a place in this scheme as they can help identify customers actual and prospective needs and trends, specify products and services, monitor market and provide feedback on the offered commodities, as well as, to provide awareness, and, why not, to be a discrete marketing channel. Looking more generally, networking with NGOs can help overcome the false assumption that in order to architecture successful innovation it is enough to couple technological solutions with identified market demand; in this regard it is also necessary to take into account social concerns and implications and customers expectations, which eventually may turn out stronger than market signals and to contradict them. Our informational mode of innovation, whose ambition is to overhaul structurally and operationally the conventional model with its emphasis on old style R&D, closeness and controllability exhibits, in addition to the above discussed components, some other features. Briefly, they are as follows. We accept a non linear flow of action within the Factory of Innovation, which means that for instance feedback loops within the whole innovation cycle are allowed and even encouraged in order to better shape the pre fabricated components of the final product. Control and specification of consecutive development stages are loose and modifiable; work is organized in clusters allowing people responsible for different aspects of the process to communicate directly while hands on the job. Moreover, we put special emphasis on the diffusion of innovation within the company s everyday business by integrating it with the existing business and production processes. We also argue that the role of executives and policymakers has to be limited to strategic and financial matters, and to the evaluation of innovation projects. The question now arises whether the Factory of Innovation should be placed within a mother company, or perhaps it should be located outside its boundaries. This is still an open question, subject to controversies between managers and executives. There is no definitive universal answer satisfying all conceivable cases. The success of Silicon Valley and similar hightech innovative environments which are the incubators and nests of small greatly innovative companies and aggressive start ups, and also the pedigree of such companies as Microsoft and Apple that were born in garages on the basis of their innovativeness, along with the arguments put forward in (Christensen, 2006) suggest that a Factory of Innovation should be rather a substantive unit. One can however put forward counterexamples claiming that the Apple company that is a global ICT player has proven a few times by developing such products as iphone, AppStore, and ipad that innovation can also happen, or better to say, be manufactured in a par excellence corporate world. Final Remarks The amount of information constantly generated by a myriad of research labs, universities, industries, communities and individuals grows very quickly. Eric Schmidt, Google CEO, said in August 2010 that: we create as much information in two days now as we did from the dawn of 14

15 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn man through That s something like five exabytes of data, data/. And though only a very small faction of this dense stream is of value and can be transformed into knowledge, nevertheless, it is enough to supply innovativeness worldwide with the food for thinking and experimenting to the masses of entrepreneurs, innovators, developers, and high tech companies. This is why innovation, whose main nourishment is knowledge, accelerates at such a fast rate these days. And this is also why we have focused on the informational and knowledge features of innovation in this paper. In spite of significant and remarkable determinations, efforts, funds and time devoted to understand, theorize, and practice innovation and innovativeness they still remain to a large extent terra incognita, mainly due to the complexity and dynamics of the world we live in, the unceasing crescendos of our expectations, and weaknesses of our methodologies and toolboxes to deal with them. Also, fundamental questions related to innovation have not yet been comprehensively answered, and perhaps not even properly identified. For instance, the question of openness still evokes debates where arguments and real life cases are provided in favor of the opinion that protecting ideas and innovation is a better short and long term business strategy than connecting ideas with the others. Another unsolved question is about incentives, in particular, about the role of monetary rewards and their efficiency vis à vis other motivators such as satisfaction, team spirit, prestige, and self improvement. In general, there is no theory of innovation and innovativeness that could help interested agents to set up workable and sound innovation frameworks suitable to their conditions and optimize them according to their boundary values. Innovation dilemmas and myths are many and can be encountered in small, medium and large enterprises; an interesting and instructive presentation and discussion of them the reader can find in (Berkun, 2010). How demanding and subtle is the task of implementing innovation patterns the author could experience during the design and implementation of the innovation ecosystem at the BRAMA laboratory affiliated at the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology, Warsaw University of Technology. The lab is a joint initiative of the Faculty and T Mobile Poland set up in the year of 2006 as an open innovation shop including two NGOs. One is the MOST Foundation (Mobile Open Society through wireless Technology), program.org, which is a non governmental organization that operates in Central Europe to champion democracy, open society, and free market by means of mobile technologies. Another NGO is the Polish emobility Technology Platform, that associates about 45 information technology and mobile technology companies. The Platform helps governmental bodies to identify mobile technology research agendas for the Polish economy and society, and to assist companies, especially SMEs, to develop and place on the market innovative products and services based on mobile technologies. The BRAMA laboratory collaborates with a number of domestic and foreign enterprises and universities and coach an array of awareness events addressed mainly to students and young entrepreneurs. BRAMA has provided its founders with a remarkable amount of experiences on innovativeness configured as an open venture that can successfully bridge industry with academia and NGOs. Details on this innovative ecosystem the reader can find in (Jacobfeuerborn, 2010b) and by visiting the laboratory website at Today, BRAMA is not only a test bed for specific technological solutions but also a platform for developing, experimenting, and testing innovation frameworks. References 1. Berkun, S. (2010). The Myths of Innovation. O Reilly Media. 2. Chesbrough, H. (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business School Press. 3. Christensen, C. (2006). The Innovator s Dilemma, Collins Business Essentials. 4. Dubberly Design Office (2006). Innovation /06/ddo_book_innovation.pdf (visited on 20 June, 2010). 15

16 Towards an Informational Model of Innovation 5. Drucker, P.F. (2002). The Discipline of Innovation. Harvard Business Review on the Innovative Enterprise, Harvard Business Press, March 20, Gray, P., Byun, J. (2001). Customer Relationship Management, Report of Univ. of California, Center for Research on Information Technology and Organizations, March, Harvard (1998). Harvard Business Review. reprint number, November December Hawking, S., Mlodinow, L. (2010). The Great Design. Bantam. 9. Jacobfeuerborn, B. (2005). Information systems for boosting competence and management in high tech organizations, MOST Press. 10. Jacobfeuerborn, B. (2009). From Customer Experience to Customer Involvement Management [in:] Customer Experience Management. Informational Approach to Driving User Centricity, MOST Press, IINiSB Uniwersytet Warszawski, pp Jacobfeuerborn, B. (2010a). A Generic Informational Model of Innovation for High tech Companies, [in:] Rola informatyki w naukach ekonomicznych i społecznych. Innowacje i implikacje interdyscyplinarne, (editor: Z.E. Zieliński), Wydawnictwo Wyższej Szkoły Handlowej, Kielce. 12. Jacobfeuerborn, B., Muraszkiewicz, M. (2010b). A Generic Model of Cooperation between Academia, Industry and NGOs to Boost Education. Proc. of Int. Conf. INTE 2010, Northern Cyprus. 13. Kelly, T. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America's Leading Design Firm. Broadway Business. 14. Luecke, R. Katz, R. (2003). Managing creativity and innovation. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press. 15. Rooney, D., Hearn, G., Mandeville, T., Joseph, R. (2003). Public Policy in Knowledge Based Economies: Foundations and Frameworks. Edward Elgar Publishing. 16. Schumpeter, J. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development, 1934, Harvard University Press, Boston. 17. Schmitt., B. (2003). Customer Experience Management: A Revolutionary Approach to Connecting with Your Customers. Wiley. 18. Surowiecki, J. (2005). The Wisdom of Crowds. Anchor. 19. Tidd, J (2006). Innovation Models. Imperial College London. Ku informacyjnemu modelowi innowacji Jednym z głównych wniosków, które zostały wyciągnięte z rozwiązywania problemów i wyzwań, które pojawiły się na gruncie ekonomii i spraw społecznych w ciągu ostatnich kilku dekad jest to, że innowacje i innowacyjność są szczególnie efektywnymi instrumentami przydatnymi do pokonywania trudności, wspierania rozwoju i osiągania przewagi porównawczej i konkurencyjnej. Innowacyjność stała się także głównym czynnikiem rozwojowym poza gospodarką i przemysłem, jest bowiem ważnym elementem w służbie zdrowia, edukacji, ochronie środowiska i zarzadzaniu kryzysami, by wymienić tylko kilka dziedzin. Dziś rozumiemy, że innowacyjność jest nie tylko związana z techniką i jej zastosowaniami. Dotyczy także systemów społecznych. W artykule twierdzimy, że innowacyjność w obszarze techniki może odnieść sukces tylko jeśli bierze pod uwagę aspekty społeczne. Oba rodzaje innowacyjności mają wspólny mianownik, którym jest ich generyczny związek z informacją, wiedzą, kreatywnością i gotowością oraz zdolnością do podejmowania ryzyka, bez czego żadna z nich nie mogłaby zaistnieć. Artykuł szkicuje informacyjny model innowacji odnoszący się do obu jej rodzajów. Model ten zawiera między innymi zbiór technik informacyjnych i komunikacyjnych (ICT) do pozyskiwania wiedzy, eksploracji danych i odkrywania wiedzy oraz jej głębokiej analizy semantycznej. W modelu tym zakłada się aktywny udział i wkład klientów i użytkowników innowacyjnych produktów w procesie ich opracowywania i tworzenia. Ponadto model korzysta z koncepcji otwartych innowacji Chesbrougha. Model 16

17 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn dopuszcza udział środowisk akademickich i organizacji pozarządowych w procesach innowacyjnych prowadzonych przez firmy i organizacje oraz uwzględnia czynnik ryzyka związany z innowacyjnością. W zakończeniu artykułu znajduje się nota o zastosowaniu proponowanego modelu w obszarze zaawansowanych technik mobilnych. Słowa kluczowe: innowacje, innowacje społeczne, model informacyjny, techniki informacyjne i komunikacyjne (ICT) Dr. Bruno Jacobfeuerborn Bruno Jacobfeuerborn was born in 1960 in Germany; he holds M.Sc. in telecommunications (University of Paderborn) and Ph.D. in information science (University of Warsaw). He worked as a Head of Radio and Transmission Department in Hanover and Regional Director in Leipzig for Deutsche Telekom. From 2002 to 2007 he was a Technical Director T Mobile Netherlands and Management Board Member, as well as, Head of Service Management Europe in the T Mobile International. Then, until June 2009 Dr. Jacobfeuerborn was Chief Technical Officer and Board Member of Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa. Now, he is Director responsible for technology in Germany at both T Home and T Mobile. He closely collaborates with the Institute of Information Science and Book Studies of University of Warsaw, and the MOST Foundation (Mobile Open Society through wireless Technology). Contact: online.de 17

18 ICT to Advance a New Generation of Entrepreneurs Bruno Jacobfeuerborn 18 ICT to Advance a New Generation of Entrepreneurs Abstract: New information and communication technologies (ICT) are increasingly intelligent and user friendly. The achievements of web 2.0, the harbingers of web 3.0 and cloud computing dramatically change the game rules in each and every place where the internet and mobile technologies are exploited, in particular, in production and business. Nowadays, owing to the internet and mobile technologies the market entry threshold, investments and skills necessary to start up, survive and develop a business are less demanding for upcoming entrepreneurs than in the classic bricks and mortar production and business environments. Therefore, there are more and more entrepreneurs exceeding this threshold and starting up businesses in the cyberspace. This is a new generation of entrepreneurs whose main leverage are the new ICT, knowledge, and social networking. They significantly differ from their conventional counterparts for they are heavily oriented towards and focused on innovation, they are internet savvy and highly information literate, they have a global reach, their mind sets are founded on self reliance, cooperativeness, prosumerism, and risk taking, they are challenge driven, usually aware of social and environmental and ethical issues. In this paper we put forward the conjecture that the population of new generation entrepreneurs will be numerous, counted in hundreds of millions and in the incoming society will join or perhaps even take over the role of the present middle class that is now shrinking. Keywords: ICT, mobile technology, entrepreneurship Introduction Information and communication technology (ICT) has dramatically been changing the landscape of human life. Over the last 60 years, or so, ICT has been sweeping around countries, nations and communities and has brought a number of cutting edge inventions and innovations, it has caused or triggered new trends in economy and lifestyle, and as a horizontal technology reached and seized almost all the niches of public and private spheres. ICT has linked and glued such different domains as politics, culture, education, economy, manufacturing, services, and many others and has shown that a common denominator and a fundamental factor of development and growth have shifted from capital and bruit force to knowledge, knowledge management, and innovation. Noteworthy, ICT itself is subject to the incessant evolution and change, often taking aback not only a general public but also domain specialists. In the 40ties of the previous century it was just a domain of fast calculators that could quickly and faultlessly resolve complex numeric problems. Over time it has become more intelligent fulfilling Professor R. W. Hamming s postulate that he concisely expressed as follows: The purpose of computing is insight, not numbers (Hamming, 1962). Indeed, new information and communication technologies have progressively become more intelligent and user friendly offering means and tools supporting decision making and cognitive activities of people. Also, the cost of information processing and transmission is constantly being reduced. The achievements of web 2.0, the harbingers of web 3.0, and cloud computing dramatically change the game rules in each and every place where the internet and mobile technologies are exploited, in particular, in production, business, and administration. In this paper we put forward the conjecture that the population of new generation entrepreneurs is emerging and will be numerous, counted in hundreds of millions, and that in the incoming society they will join or perhaps even take over the role of the present middle class that

19 Bruno Jacobfeuerborn is now shrinking. Should this conjecture happen to be true the human capital of entrepreneurial nations and societies will dramatically increase in quantitative and qualitative terms. Nowadays, owing to the internet and mobile technologies the market entry threshold, investments and skills necessary to start up, survive and develop a business are less demanding for upcoming entrepreneurs than in the classic bricks and mortar production and business environments. Therefore, there are more and more entrepreneurs exceeding this threshold and starting up businesses in the cyberspace. This is a new generation of entrepreneurs whose main leverage are the new ICT, knowledge and innovation, and extensive social networking. The structure of the paper is as follows. In the next chapter we shall succinctly recall the notions of knowledge and innovation, as they are the cornerstones of new entrepreneurship. The following chapter will elaborate on the notions of entrepreneur and entrepreneurship, then we depict a new generation of entrepreneurs and their organic relationship with and, in a certain sense, dependence on ICT. The paper is concluded by a few remarks on the development prospect of the new entrepreneurship. Knowledge and Innovation There is no doubt that the notion of knowledge is intrinsically complex, multifaceted and multidimensional, and that its definition and understanding by far depends on who and for what coins the definition. There are many definitions that attempt to capture the meaning of this compound notion, which actually indicates that no definition is good enough to cover all the cases that according to our intuitive meaning of the term qualify for the category of knowledge. There is thus no consensus on a universal definition of knowledge, perhaps also because such a definition is not feasible at all. Apart from many definitions and analysis of what is the meaning of the very term knowledge, which one can find in philosophical literature dealing with epistemology or one can distill from scientific debates that adopt as a starting point for discussions a stance formulated already by Plato that knowledge is justified true belief, we shall look at knowledge from the entrepreneurship standpoint. We have to admit that in this context our approach to knowledge has a Darwinian flavor for it resorts to evolution, competition and survival in an environment of living creatures. Knowledge has always played the role of a survival instrument for the mankind providing men with a comparative advantage over other species and human beings themselves. Owing to the advances in technology and the overwhelming spirit of competitiveness that our society is infused with, only recently knowledge has become a defining factor of the society and its makings. It especially applies to business and entrepreneurship in which the imperative of survival and development has been stringently associated with knowledge and knowledge management. It is worth noting that considering knowledge as part of survival strategies visibly refers to a classic understanding provided by Aristotle in his book of Metaphysics for whom knowledge was experience. Noteworthy, Albert Einstein regarded knowledge mainly as experience, too. Undoubtedly, entrepreneurship relays above all on experience, good practices and testimonials. It includes know how and skills one acquired as a result of education and/or practical exercises and experiences. Engineers and many business people favor the following pragmatic definition: Knowledge is a rich set of information related to objects, facts, events, and procedures, and also to itself (meta knowledge). It goes without saying that such understanding of knowledge is to a significant degree relative to culture and local social contexts. Knowledge is a mental artifact produced by a human mind. We can readily see it while observing the discrepancies in behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs of different origins, say, business people of Asia and businessmen of the occidental provenance. Notwithstanding this, all of them appreciate knowledge and its instrumental role in doing business and achieving success. As mentioned, today entrepreneurship extensively benefits from knowledge and innovation. The former is a pre requisite of the latter as innovation without knowledge is hardly possible. Incidentally, it is important to distinguish innovation from invention, mainly because 19

20 ICT to Advance a New Generation of Entrepreneurs invention cannot be planned and managed whereas innovation is a process that to a large extent can be controlled and guided. Invention is a sort of Black Swan effect according to Nassim Taleb s conceptualization of events. Black Swan episodes occur very seldom and are hardly predictable, yet they might have massive implications and impact (Taleb, 2007). Innovation is different, it is not a Black Swan since it is usually planned and organized. It consists in delivering new products or services that bring up added value or new value to our life and, hopefully, can provide better off. We realize that this description of innovation is rather optimistic since it assumes that the outcome of innovativeness will serve people mainly for good purposes. Obviously, it is not always the case as there are many examples when innovative solutions were turned against humanitarian principles. Nevertheless, if for any reason we have to drop this upbeat part of our definition, we can still keep its remaining part intact and valid. In spite of inherent differences between innovation and invention they have something in common, namely, they require creativity, selfconfidence, and patience. Entrepreneurship can benefit from innovation as well as from invention; however, establishing endeavors on promised future inventions is extremely risky and unsustainable. A path to a prosperous venture paved by innovation is much more certain. In (Jacobfeuerborn, 2010) we discussed the notion of innovation from the viewpoint of entrepreneurship following Professor P. Drucker s opinion that: Innovation is the specific function of entrepreneurship, whether in an existing business, a public service institution, or a new venture started by a lone individual in the family kitchen. It is the means by which entrepreneur either creates new wealth producing resources or endows existing resources with enhanced potential for creating wealth (Drucker, 2002). In this paper we adopt this perspective as well and connect the notion of new generation of entrepreneurs with innovation and innovativeness, and with extensive use of ICT facilities. At this point it is important to note that the concept of innovation in the context of new type entrepreneurship includes also social innovation in addition to technological innovation for only an orchestration of both of them can have a sustainable positive impact on our life. Entrepreneurship The term entrepreneur is a loanword from French. It is believed a French economist Richard Cantillon coined it in the early 1700s. In the French language the two words that form the word entrepreneur, i.e. entre and preneur mean: entre between, and preneur someone who takes something. The word was originally referred to people who took on risk between the buyers and sellers or started new ventures (Barringer, 2006). Adam Smith, in his historic book The Wealth of Nations (Smith, 1776) argued that: It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker, that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest, and thus implicitly defined an entrepreneur as a person who in order to gain a personal profit transformed demand into supply. In 1848, John Stuart Mill while mentioning entrepreneurs in his writing on principles of political economy emphasized the role of knowledge and risk taking in a decision making process (Mill, 2004). Joseph Schumpeter used the term Unternehmergeist (entrepreneur spirit) in his German writings to stress a psychological aspect of entrepreneurship in the sense that entrepreneurs are those who do all their best to make things work. He linked the entrepreneurial spirit with creativeness and ability to innovate even to the point which he called creative destruction by which he understood the replacement of old dysfunctional structures with new ones. He thought that this ability was: only accessible to people with certain qualities (Schumpeter, 1934). A contemporary adaptation of Schumpeter s understanding of the notion of entrepreneur reads: An entrepreneur is in pursuit of a discontinuous opportunity, involving the creation of an organization (or sub organization) with the expectation of value creation to the participants. The entrepreneur is the individual (or team) that identifies the opportunity, gathers the necessary resources, creates and is ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization (Carton, 1999). Our understanding of the term entrepreneur especially focuses on those entrepreneurial individuals who offer innovative solution to the existing problems as well as to yet unrecognized problems. In what follows, the defining feature of entrepreneurship, then, is 20

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