An analysis of the quality and value of timber in pine tree stands representing selected ecotypes of this species in Poland

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1 nnals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW Forestry and Wood Technology 95, 2016: (nn. WULS - SGGW, For. and Wood Technol. 95, 2016) n analysis of the quality and value of timber in pine tree stands representing selected ecotypes of this species in Poland TOMSZ JELONEK, RKIUSZ TOMZK, MRIN JKUOWSKI, WITOL GRZYWIŃSKI, WITOL PZROWSKI, GNIESZK REMLEIN, EWELIN JURKIEIWIZ Poznan University of Life Sciences, epartment of Forest Utilisation Wojska Polskiego 71, Poznań, Poland bstract: n analysis of the quality and value of timber in pine tree stands representing selected ecotypes of this species in Poland This paper attempts to compare the value and quality of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) represented by four of its ecotypes, i.e. olewice, Gubińska, Taborska and Supraska. The research was carried out on old pine tree stands aged between 104 and 113 years of age located on four surfaces. In total, 780 pines which represented the four ecotypes were analysed. The height and the diameter at breast height were measured on each surface. lso the quality class of the boles on the trunk was determined. The acquired measurements allowed us to determine wood volume and the quality of timber in the tree stands representing each of the analysed ecotypes. The highest wood volume was ascertained in the tree stand representing the Supraska ecotype, while the best quality, and at the same time the best value of wood, was the feature of the Taborska ecotype. Key words: Scots pine, ecotype, wood quality, wood volume, wood price INTROUTION Many years of evolution caused the local populations to form within the species. They are adapted to the local conditions of growth and development. However, they differ from each other in many respects most frequently those are morphological features (Szweykowski and Urbaniak 1982, Krzakowa et al. 1994; Giertych 1997, iałobok et al. 1993, Szweykowski et al. 1994). Many local populations of the Scots pine which are considered valuable in Poland are called ecotypes. The local populations form optimal growth features mainly in the conditions they have grown in for generations. ue to the distinct characteristics, typical for a given population, attempts at their description were undertaken. In the literature on the subject, one most commonly encounters research into the changeability of the pine on the basis of morphological and anatomical features of needles, cones and seeds (Sokołowski 1931, Staszkiewicz 1961, obowicz, Korczyk 1994a, b, Urbaniak 1997, 2009, Pawlaczyk et al. 2010) as well as genetic research which is becoming increasingly more and more popular recently (Krzakowa 1979, Nowakowska et al. 2005, 2007a, b, Nowakowska et al. 2014). On the basis of N analyses, a relationship between pine populations in different regions of Poland was identified (Nowakowska et al. 2005, 2007a, 2010). One can name among the regional ecotypes, among others, the olewice population, which occurs on the border of Greater Poland and the Lubusz region. Trees from this population attain a height of up to 32 metres; they are straight with a quickly and well purified bole; and with an early occlusion fading on the bole. Trunks are covered with grey and brown outer bark with diverse cracks along the trunk (Zawierucha 1981; 1985). nother native ecotype is the Supraska pine which is also called the Mast pine. It occurs in the Knyszyńska Primeval Forest in the Podlaskie region. Its exceptionally good technical properties were already appreciated in the XVI century. This pine was then exported to Western 20

2 Europe and it was intended for masts on ships. This ecotype reaches the height of over 35 metres. There are known individuals which, at the age of 150 years, grow to about 45 metres and a diameter of about 90 centimetres. The Supraska pine possesses very good technical quality of wood. It is a tall, full tree, knotless, with a straight and well purified bole. side from the local olewice and Supraska pine ecotypes, there are also other populations in Poland, such as the Gubińska or Taborska pine which grow up to 42 metres of height. They are characterized by straight, slender and cylindrical boles (Fabijanowski 1961). This paper undertakes the attempt to compare the quality and value of timber from the four know ecotypes of the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), i.e. the olewice, Taborska, Gubińska and Supraska ecotypes (Figure 1). METHOS Fig Supraska ecotype, 2- Taborska ecotype, 3- Gubińska ecotype, 4 olewice ecotype This paper undertakes the attempt to compare the quality and value of timber from mature tree stands representing the olewice, Gubińska as well as the Taborska and Supraska ecotypes. The research was carried out on mature pine tree stands between the age of 104 and 113 years of age located in four areas (Figure 1, Table 2). Tab. 2. Location and description of the research surfaces Forest ivision Gubin Miłomłyn Grodzisk Supraśl epartment 31 h 117 c 218 f 244c Separation size [ha] 16,29,8 5,94 5,84 Forest site type FM FM F FM Tree stand type P P P SP Forest cover ,8 ge Number of trees per 1ha ccording to the used methodology, approximately 200 trees in each of the selected tree stands representing a given ecotype were designated for the measurement. The measurement of the basic morphological features was done, i.e. the diameter at breast height (1.3), tree height (Hd). The diameter at breast height (1.3) of each tree was measured in the bark with 0,1 cm precision in two perpendicular directions to each other, i.e. N-S and E-W; after the arithmetic mean was calculated, the result was acknowledged as real value. The tree height (Hd) was measured by means of a Nikon Forestry Pro laser rangefinder with 0,1 m precision. Subsequently, stock survey on the bark (in accordance with the regulation Number 25 issued by the irector General of the State Forests on the 12 th of March 2003 pertaining to the creation 21

3 Number of trees of stock survey) was carried out using the technical conditions on large-diameter coniferous timber (quality and dimensions class according to PN-92/-95017). In total, the wood volume and quality of over 780 pines representing four of its ecotypes was ascertained, i.e. olewice, Gubińska, Taborska and Supraska. ollected empirical data were analysed using statistical methods with the application of the STTISTI 12 software package. RESULTS The height Hd and diameter at breast height 1.3 underwent analysis in this paper. Moreover, the quality and value of timber found in the four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree stands representing the ecotypes were determined. Firstly, an analysis of the tree number was presented (Figure 2) where the boles were classified according to their quality class. nd so, the largest number in the highest quality class () equal to % of trees was present in the tree stand representing the Taborska ecotype. The largest percentage of trees from the quality class was ascertained in the Supraska ecotype and the trees included in this class amounted to 24% of the whole Supraska population. The class was represented in the largest number (160 trees) by the Gubińska pines which amounted to 80% of the whole population. The worst quality class was represented in the largest number by the Supraska population and it constituted 18% of the measured trees VLUE olewicegubin Supraśl Tabórz olewicegubin Supraśl Tabórz olewicegubin Supraśl Tabórz olewicegubin Supraśl Tabórz Ecotype and Wood quality Fig. 2. The number of trees in each of the quality classes Nextly, the changeability of the diameter at breast height (1,3) and of the tree height (Hd) in each quality class of the compared ecotypes was presented (Figure 3 and Figure 4). ssuming the height as the variable, the highest value was ascertained in the trees from Taborz classified in the class, where the mean pine height equalled 33 metres and the maximum value of this feature was 38 metres. Slightly lower were the pines in this quality class (32 metres) from the Supraska ecotype, while the smallest were the olewice pines (Figure 3). fter subjecting the diameter at breast height to analysis, the highest value was ascertained in the pines representing the Supraska ecotype. The mean value of this quality for trees qualified as

4 those belonging to the class measured 45cm; slightly thinner were the pines from Taborz, where the diameter at breast height in the class amounted to a mean of 44 cm (Figure 4). H d Mean Maean+/-Stand. error Mean+/-Stand. deviation Ecotype: olewice Ecotype: Tabórz class quality Ecotype: Gubin Ecotype: Supraśl Fig. 3 The changeability of the tree height (H d) in the pine tree stands representing different ecotypes 23

5 1.3 Tabórz Tabórz Supraśl Supraśl Gubin Gubin olewice olewice Mean Mean+/-Stand. error Mean+/-Stand. deviation Ecotype: olewice Ecotype: Tabórz class quality Ecotype: Gubin Ecotype: Supraśl Figure 4. The changeability of the diameter at breast height ( 1,3) in the pine tree stands representing different ecotypes The pines representing the olewice ecotype were definitely the thinnest, where the mean diameter at breast height of the examined trees equalled 32 cm; and the trees classified in the lowest quality class in this population measured only 29cm (Figure 4). Volume of wood [m 3 ] Value of wood [pln] Figure 5. The volume of wood in each quality class of the pines representing different ecotypes Figure 6. The value of wood in each quality class of the pines representing different ecotypes 24

6 The total volume of large size wood of the measured pines equalled 1161 m 3, of which 17 % was the wood of the olewice pine, 24% was the wood of the Gubińska pine, 29% was the wood of the Taborska pine and 30% was the Supraska ecotype timber. The value of the measured timber, according to mean timber prices in 2015, is over 680 thousand PLN, out of which 200 thousand PLN was made up of timber from the Supraska and Taborska ecotypes. fter analyzing the acquired results in each quality class, in the highest class the highest volume and, at the same time, value of timber was ascertained in the Taborska population. The class constituted there 25% of the volume, 33% of the timber value and also 10% of the value of large size wood of all the examined populations. The Supraska population had the highest volume and value of wood in the class, the second best class in terms of quality. lmost % of the large size volume of wood of this population was the timber belonging to the class, which constitutes almost 30% of the value of the whole large size timber in this population and over 8% of the value of the whole measured timber in all of the compared populations. The highest number of wood in the class was ascertained in two ecotypes, i.e. Taborska (202 m 3 ) and Gubińska (215 m 3 ) (Figure 5). Timber of the lowest quality class dominated in the tree stand representing the Supraska ecotype. The wood volume of trees which were qualified into the class amounted to 54m 3 and made up 15% of the volume of the whole measured timber in this ecotype. ONLUING REMRKS N ISUSSION The growth of the economic function of the product depends not only on its volume but, first and foremost, on the quality. Efficiency of production as well as the final quality of timber depends on numerous factors, among which is, for example, genetic changeability. However, the final effect of the production of timber is decided in large measure by the qualities resulting, in varying degree, from overlapping conditions of growth and development as well as human activity. From among the aforementioned factors, genetic predispositions probably have a key importance in shaping the value and quality of wood. For this reason, the literature on the subject devotes more and more attention to them (Zobel 1971, Persson et al. 1995, llona et al. 1998, Fujimoto et al. 2006, Kumar et al. 2006). Interaction between all the factors mentioned above creates local tree populations characterized by unique qualities, among them are those pertaining to the quality of tree tissue. The lumber market is influenced more and more by the actions undertaken in order to protect the environment which have a large influence on the size of forests usage. urrently, the key task for forest management is to urgently develop such a method of timber regulation which will ensure stability of forest management as well as satisfy the growing needs of the wood economy and of the population together with maintaining and developing the multifunctioning of the forest at the same time (damowicz 2006, 2012). The deepening wood shortage, especially of high technical quality, as well as the growing demand for this raw material require searching for ways enabling the improvement in this area (Pazdrowski et al. 2007). One such method is the optimization of usage of timber which can take place only through exact examination of the raw material base. This paper carried out the analysis among four recognized pine populations, i.e. the Gubińska, Supraska, olewice and Taborska populations. First of all, the quality of wood as well as the estimation of its value were analyzed. ccording to the Pinus growth model (eker and ndrzejewski 2013), the examined tree stands represent soil productivity class from ON24 (the olewice and Gubińska populations) to ON32 (the Taborska and Supraska populations), which already points to the 25

7 occurrence of differences which decide what quality of wood is produced in the tree stands represented by the described pine ecotypes. The highest value of timber among the compared pine ecotypes was ascertained in the Taborska population where less than 200 trees possessed a total volume of 335m 3 and a value of over 202 thousand PLN. This means that the average value of 1 tree in the tree stand equals roughly 1075 PLN while 1m 3 equals 603 PLN. Second, in terms of the value of the produced wood, was the Supraska pine where 352m 3 of wood possessed the value of roughly 200 thousand PLN which translates to roughly 1000 PLN per 1 tree and 568 PLN per 1m 3. The lowest value of timber was the feature of the olewice pine. The 203m 3 of this population possessed the value of 120 thousand PLN which equals roughly to 1 tree for 625 PLN and 591 PLN per 1m 3, which is more than in the case of the Supraska population. In case of the Gubińska pine, the average value of one tree is the amount in the range of 790 PLN and the average value of 1m 3 of wood equals 573 PLN. The differences which arose in the value of 1m 3 of wood result mainly from the specific system of the quality class in each population. Quite large percentage of the class, which was the worst timber in terms of quality, was ascertained in the Supraska ecotype. 36 trees were in this class which, together with quite large volume, significantly influenced the mean price of 1m 3 of wood. On the other hand, the growth of value in the olewice population per 1m 3 occurred due to a large percentage of pines classified in the class. So while searching for large quantities of the highest quality timber, one should take into account the Taborska pine where the class is % of the population as well as the Supraska and olewice pines where the class is about 24% of the tree population in each case. Taking into account the growing importance of international trade (damowicz et al. 2016), the acquired results of the research possess utilitarian importance which enables the creation of the timber market in Poland in the changing domestic and international marketing conditions. REFERENES 1. MOWIZ K., SZRMK H., STROST GRL M., SZZYP P. 2016: Eksport i import surowca drzewnego w wybranych krajach Unii Europejskiej. Sylwan 160(3): MOWIZ K. 2006: Próba charakterystyki rynku drzewnego w Polsce w kontekście ekorozwoju obszarów wiejskich. Roczniki Naukowe Stowarzyszenia Ekonomistów Rolnictwa i grobiznesu 8(2): MOWIZ K. 2010: enowa elastyczność popytu na drewno na pierwotnym lokalnym rynku drzewnym w Polsce. Sylwan 154 (2): MOWIZ K. 2012: Ocena zmian gospodarki leśnej prowadzonej przez Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne Lasy Państwowe w handlu drewnem w Polsce. Rozprawy Naukowe 441. Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu 5. MOWIZ K., KIUNK H. 2014: Ocena tempa zmian kosztów produkcji drewna przy pniu i cen surowca drzewnego w latach na przykładzie Regionalnej yrekcji Lasów Państwowych w Zielonej Górze. Leśne Prace adawcze 75(1): LLON I., QUINN M., SHOOP E., SWOPE K.,ST YR S., RLIS J., RIEL J., RETZEL E., MPELL M.M., SEEROFF R, WHETTEN R. W. 1998: nalysis of xylem formation in pine by cn sequencing. Proc. Natl. cad. Sci. US. 95(16):

8 7. EKER., NRZEJEWSKI T. 2013: Model wzrostu niepielęgnowanych drzewostanów sosnowych. II. Lokalny model bonitacyjny PINUS. cta Sci. Pol. Silv. olendar. Rat. Ind. Lignar, vol. 12, nr 3: IŁOOK S., ORTYŃSKI., UGŁ W. 1993: iologia sosny zwyczajnej, Poznań Kórnik, Sorus Press 9. OOWIZ M.. KORZYK. F. 1994a: Interpopulational variability of Pinus sylvestris L. in eight Polish localities expressed in morphological and anatomical traits of needles, cta Soc. ot. Pol. 63(1): OOWIZ M.. KORZYK. F. 1994b: Variability of eight Polish populations of Pinus sylvestris L. expressed in traits of cones, cta Soc. ot. Pol. 63: FIJNOWSKI J. (1961): Kilka uwag dotyczących ras sosny zwyczajnej w Polsce oraz o sośnie mazurskiej. Sylwan, 4, FUJIMOTO T., KUTSU H., NEI M., KIT K., KUROMRU M., O K. 2006: Genetic variation in wood stiffness and strength properties of hybrid larch (Larix gmelinii var. japonica L. kaempferi). J. For. Res. 11: GIERTYH M. 1997: Zmienność proweniencyjna sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) w Polsce, Sylwan 8: JELONEK T., PZROWSKI W., TOMZK., SPŁW-NEYMN S. 2009: The effect of biological class and age on physical and mechanical properties of European Larch (Larix deciduas Mill.) in Poland, Wood Research 54(1) KRZKOW M. 1979: Enzymatyczna zmienność miedzypopulacyjna sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.), Wyd. UM, ser. iol. Nr KRZKOW M. 1979: Enzymatyczna zmienność miedzypopulacyjna sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.), Wyd. UM, ser. iol. Nr KRZKOW M. URNIK L. KORZYK F : hromatographic studies on phenolic compounds in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), ull. Soc. mis Scienc. Lettr. Poznań. 30: KUMR S., UNGEY H. S., MTHESON : Genetic parameters and strategies for genetic improvement of stiffness in Radiata pine. Silvae Genet. 55 (2): NOWKOWSK J. 2007a: Zmienność genetyczna polskich wybranych populacji sosny zwyczajnej na podstawie analiz poliformizmu N.Rozprawy i Monografie IL 20. NOWKOWSK J. 2007b: Zmienność genetyczna sosny zwyczajnej na podstawie mitochondrialnych markerów N, Notatnik Naukowy 4(78) IL 21. NOWKOWSK J. 2010: Określenie struktury genetycznej populacji sosny zwyczajnej i świerka pospolitego w wybranych regionach pochodzenia z weryfikacją granic regionów po uwzględnieniu zróżnicowania genetycznego populacji. okumentacja naukowa z tematu badawczego LP-309, Sekocin Stary 2010, s NOWKOWSK J., RKOWSKI K. 2005: harakterystyka zmienności genetycznej sosny napiwodzko-ramuckiej i spalskiej na podstawie analiz mitochondrialnego N, Leśne Prace adawcze 2: NOWKOWSK J., ZHR T., KONEK. 2014: Genetic variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) natural regeneration compared with their maternal stands, Leśne Prace adawcze (Forest Research Papers), 75 (1): PWLZYK E., OOWIZ M., KORZYK. 2010: Zmienność trzech naturalnych populacji Pinus sylvestris L. z różnych siedlisk Puszczy iałowieskiej oszacowana cechami igieł, Leśne Prace adawcze, 71(1):

9 25. PZROWSKI W., SPŁW NEYMN S., JELONEK T., TOMZK., STYPUŁ. I. 2007: Volume and proportion of sapwood and heartwood vs. selected biometric features in larch trees (Larix decidua Mill). Wood Research 52(4): PERSSON., PERSSON,., STHL E.G., KRLMTS U. 1995: Wood quality of Pinus sylvestris progenies at various spacings. For. Ecol. Manage. 76: SOKOŁOWSKI S. 1931: Prace biometryczne nad rasami sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus silvestris L.) na ziemiach Polski, Prace Rolniczo-Leśne PU 5: STSZKIEWIZ J. 1961: Zmienność współczesnych i kopalnych szyszek sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus silvestris L.), Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 7: SZWEYKOWSKI J. URNIK L. 1982: n interesting chemical polymorphism in Pinus sylvestris L., cta Soc. ot. Pol. 51(3-4): SZWEYKOWSKI J., PRUS-GŁOWKI W., HRYNKIEWIZ J. 1994: The genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) population from the top of Szczeliniec Wielki Mt. entral Sudetes, cta Soc. ot. Pol. 63 (3 4): URNIK L. 1997: iometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) provenances. cta Soc. ot. Pol. 3 4: URNIK L. 2009: adania porównawcze cech morfologicznych igieł populacji Pinus sylvestris L. z terenów Wielkopolskiego i Słowińskiego Parku Narodowego oraz borów tucholskich. Wielkopolski Park Narodowy w badaniach przyrodniczych.. Walna, L. Kaczmarek, M. Lorenc, R. ondajewska (red.) Poznań-Jeziory 2009, s ZWIERUH E. 1981: Zmienność niektórych cech przyrodniczych sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) proweniencji bolewickiej. Rocznik kademii Rolniczej w Poznaniu 34. ZWIERUH E. 1985: Sosna zwyczajna (Pinus sylvestri L.) proweniencji bolewickiej w świetle badań naukowych. Sylwan, (4): ZOEL. 1971: Genetic manipulation of wood of the southern pines including chemical characteristics. Wood Sci. Technol. 5 (4): Streszczenie: naliza jakości i wartości surowca drzewnego w drzewostanach sosnowych reprezentujących wybrane ekotypy tego gatunku w Polsce W pracy podjęto próbę porównania wartości oraz jakości sosny zwyczajnej (Pinus sylvestris L.) reprezentujących jej cztery ekotyp tj.: bolewicki, gubiński, Taborski oraz supraski. adania przeprowadzono w starych drzewostanach sosnowych w wieku od 104 do 113 lat zlokalizowanych na czterech powierzchniach. W sumie analizie poddano 780 sosen reprezentujących jej cztery ekotypy. Na każdej z powierzchni pomierzono wysokość i pierśnicę oraz określono klasę jakości strzał na pniu. Uzyskane pomiary pozwoliły na określenie miąższości i jakości surowca drzewnego w drzewostanach reprezentujących każdy z badanych ekotypów. Najwyższą miąższość surowca drzewnego stwierdzono w drzewostanie reprezentującym ekotyp supraski, najlepszą zaś jakością a tym samym wartością drewna cechował się drzewostan reprezentujący ekotyp taborski. orresponding authors: Tomasz Jelonek ssociate Professor Poznan University of Life Sciences epartment of Forest Utilisation Wojska Polskiego 71, Poznań, Poland Phone Fax

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