CNG Safety Changing Perceptions into Reality

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1 Global and Russian Energy Outlook to 2040 CNG Safety Changing Perceptions into Reality IAA Nutzfahrzeuge in Hannover: LNG-Tankstellen Nowa Kia Soul LPG test PHOTO - bevezetem


3 PLAY IT SAFE WITH NON HAZARDOUS FLASHLUBE. Wolfgang Kluenner Flashlube Inventor Flashlube Valve Saver Fluid is proudly non hazardous and one of the market s safest products. Packaged in clear bottles, which many dangerous products are unable to achieve, Flashlube s protected formulation can be transported safely with other goods and enhances the LPG / CNG industry s reputation as the environmentally friendly fuel of choice. Others may claim to be just like Flashlube but the only way to play it safe is to ensure you ask for Genuine Flashlube.

4 no: 67 XI-XII 2014 LPG from renewable raw materials 05 new future prospects for sustainable energy RESULTS: findings & conclusions 14 of Critical Issues Workshop CNG & LNG Safety: Perception & Reality BRC LDI im Renneinsatz: Gute Rundenzeiten für den Seat Leon mit Autogas 36 Projekt "Nauczanie o Metanie" CNG market info Global and Russian Energy outlook to 2040 Nowa Kia Soul LPGŁ 18 kwadratowa, praktyczna, dobra i szczególnie oszczędna w wersji 20 LPG 20 Westport updates HPDI 2.0 dual fuel system with new Delphi injectors, upgraded LNG storage and supply Secure composite solutions founded on many years of experience GASDROID technical knockout Flashlube DIESEL FILTER LPG news Interview with Jim York, Vice President GoGreen, EMEA Flashlube australijski producent 21 doskonałych płynów i dodatków do silników zaprezentował Electronic Valve Saver Kit 2! UK car tax bands Sterowniki KING DI60 oraz DI I Mistrzostwa Polski Mechaników Samochodowych AA Nutzfahrzeuge in Hannover: LNG-Tankstellen werden mit EU-Geldern gebaut Strefa Metanu 2014 CENY PALIW 41 FUEL PRICES REDAKCJA Der neue Kia Soul LPG: Quadratisch, praktisch, gut und in der LPG Version besonders sparsam Wywiad z... Johnem Bickertonem EDITORIAL OFFICE Ukazuje się od lipca 2003 Established in July 2003 WYDAWCA (EDITOR) Amber Media Sylwia Bujalska ul. Myśliwska 8/20, Gdynia, Poland TAX ID: PL ISSN REDAKCJA (OFFICE) tel. (+48) Skype: czas_na_gaz REDAKTOR NACZELNY (CHIEF EDITOR) Sylwia Bujalska tel. (+48) OPRACOWANIE GRAFICZNE / SKŁAD Paweł Wójcik DYTRYBUCJA w 49 krajach! DISTRIBUTION in 49 countries! TŁUMACZENIA Biuro Tłumaczeń AMBIT Redakcja nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za treść publikowanych ogłoszeń i reklam oraz może odmówić ich zamieszczenia, jeśli pozostają w sprzeczności z prawem oraz charakterem pisma. W razie konieczności, redakcja zastrzega sobie prawo do dokonywania skrótów i niezbędnych zmian w nadsyłanych tekstach. Wydanie bieżące oraz archiwalne dostępne bezpłatnie pod adresem: Present issue and archives are available freely on: The Publisher assumes no responsibility for the content of advertising, sponsored texts or written materials with copyrights of its authors. Opinions, pictures, slogans and logos stated in advertising are solely those of the advertiser. The Publisher reserves the right to reject any advertisement. While every effort has been made to ensure that the publication adheres to industry standard practices, Czas na gaz! magazine, shall not be liable or responsible for errors, omissions or inaccuracies whatsoever for the views expressed or the work provided by its contributors in the magazine. Cover, contents and Website are copyright protected and may not be reproduced in any shape or form without prior written consent from Czas na gaz!. Czas na gaz! does not knowingly accept false or misleading advertising or editorial, nor does the publisher assume any responsibility for the consequences that occur should any such material appear. Czas na gaz! also assumes no responsibility for content, text or artwork of advertisements appearing in Czas na gaz! the printed magazine and &

5 Premium LPG/CNG protection Ursula Megies (DVFG), Sebastian Dörr (Neste Oil), Dr. Andreas Stücke (DVFG) and Bart van Aerle during the press conference. LPG from renewable raw materials new future prospects for sustainable energy LPG is now also available as a bio-option and can be produced from renewable raw materials. This autumn the company Neste Oil will start the construction of a plant for the provision of biopropane from renewable raw materials. A side product of Neste Oils renewable diesel production, the bio propane will be purified and separated from the side stream gases produced at the company s refinery through the new plant in order to make it suitable for use in existing liquefied petroleum gas applications. Production is scheduled to start at the end of 2016 and is expected to total 30,000-40,000 t/a. With liquefied petroleum gas from renewable raw materials the market gained a high-quality and sustainable energy carrier which can be used as fuel or as heating gas, says Dr. Andreas Stücke, Managing Director of the German LPG Association on the occasion of a press conference at the Automechanika trade fair in Frankfurt. Especially with a view to the climate goals of the Federal Government, the CO 2 reduction potential of biopropane is very valuable, Stücke adds. Traditional liquefied petroleum gas already burns CO 2 at a reduced rate and with almost zero pollutants. Biopropane reduces CO 2 emissions by 50% compared to traditional LPG. In the transport sector, a blending of ten percent biopropane would provide the possibility to reduce CO 2 emissions by an additional 5%. This would allow LPG fueled vehicles to reduce CO 2 emissions by around 20% compared to petrol-driven vehicles. At the press conference Prins Autogassystemen presents system technologies such as VSI- 2.0, VSI-2.0 DI, Prins Direct LiquiMax- 2.0 and Dieselblend-2.0, which support further reductions of particulate and CO 2 emissions. Particular about this is that with the right software strategy we can adapt our new systems, explains Bart van Aerle, CEO of Prins. These can also run with biopropane, which would further minimize the CO 2 emissions, Aerle confirms. German LPG Association headquartered in Berlin, represents Germany based LPG supplying businesses. The association has 42 members and 72 extraordinary members. The total LPG output for 2013 amounted to 3.6 Million tons with an increase of 5.2 percent compared to the previous year. Neste Oil Corporation is a refining and marketing company concentrating on low-emissions, high-quality traffic fuels. The company produces a comprehensive range of major petroleum products and is the world s leading supplier of renewable diesel. Neste Oil had net sales of EUR 17.5 billion in 2013 and employees around 5,000 people, and is listed on the NASDAQ OMX Helsinki. Prins Autogassystemen B.V. is leading the development of alternative fuel systems globally for more than 25 years. Prins is known to producers, importers and converters for its extraordinary quality, its cost-efficiency and its innovative solutions for a high number of engines available on the market today. Prins Autogassystemen is winner of the Automechanika Innovation Awards and the Green Directory Awards Source: DVFG

6 EUROPE SEAT, Volkswagen-Audi Spain and Madrileña Red de Gas (Madrid gas network) have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) that aims to develop and promote NGVs and the necessary refueling infrastructure as part of the strategy shared by all 3 companies to promote sustainable mobility, improve air quality in cities and contribute to the fight against climate change. The agreement, which is valid for 2 years, renewable by express agreement between the parties, was signed in Madrid by Vice President of Governmental and Institutional Relations for SEAT and the Volkswagen Group in Spain, Ramón Paredes, President of Volkswagen-Audi Spain Francisco Pérez Botello and CEO Madrileña Red de Gas, Alejandro Lafarga. Under this agreement, the 3 partners will enhance the marketing of vehicles CNG by developing joint commercial packages, which comprise the vehicle, infrastructure and supply of CNG. They will also study specific offers in the form of renting designed for companies with fleets of cars, which include vehicle and fuel supply security through filling stations.the agreement also includes the installation of CNG refuelling points with different dealers and the development and updating of a map of the geographical distribution of this alternative fuel infrastructure. Source: SEAT 06 FRANCE, BULGARIA MAN has secured major orders for natural gas powered buses from France and Bulgaria. Parisbased RATP has purchased 103 MAN Lion s City buses, half of which are powered by CNG and Bulgaria s city of Sofia has acquired 126 Lion s City buses, all CNG-powered. The buses for Sofia use 310 HP, 6-cylinder natural gas, Euro 6 engines. RATP, the state-owned public transport operator responsible for most of the public transport in Paris and its surrounding Île-de-France region and the fifth largest provider of public transport services in the world, has bought 50 hybrid and 53 CNG buses. The volume of the order is around EUR 30 million (USD 38 million). The units are expected to be delivered in The units have particularly high seating and standing capacities of around 100 persons. MAN has received an order from the City of Sofia for 126 Lion s City G CNG type articulated buses intended for public transport. The 18-metre long Lion s City G CNG seats up to 150 passengers comfortably. The first 20 buses have already been handed over. Using concentrated biogas (biomethane) or e-gas, MAN CNG buses can be operated as CO 2 -neutral, offering emission levels comparable to that of fully electric vehicles. RUSSIA Under the program aimed at developing the NGV market and supporting domestic automakers, Russian auto manufacturer KAMAZ is ready to sell customers more than 1,000 units of such vehicles. By the end of the year, the Russian government will have allocated 3.77 billion rubles (USD 90 million) to regions for the purchase of gas-powered buses and equipment for public utilities. That will be about 30% of the cost of the vehicles. KAMAZ is an active participant of government programs aimed at the development of NGV market in the regions of the Volga Federal District. Thus, the program of the Russian Government embraces 18 pilot regions developing the gas industry. Under the terms of the comprehensive program, its participants as represented by Gazprom, KAMAZ and municipalities build gasfilling stations, supply gas-engine vehicles, service them and train technical staff in the regions. Today, more than 355 units of gas KAMAZ vehicles and NEFAZ buses are in operation in 9 of 14 regions of the Volga Federal Districts. In view of the provision of state subsidies, this number will increase significantly: under this state program and the existing agreements with the regions, KAMAZ plans to deliver clients 500 NEFAZ buses, 200 small-capacity Bravis buses and 400 units of special equipment for the needs of municipal services until the middle of next year. Source: KAMAZ SWEDEN, UK A gas-powered double-decker will join the UK market in late 2015, Scania has announced. The CNG doubledecker will be powered by the same Euro 6, 9-litre engine already in service in 23 single-deck K270UBs with Stagecoach in Sunderland. Though there will be a slight penalty in the number of standing passengers which may be carried compared to a diesel double-decker, seating capacity will remain the same. Scania will also offer a diesel double-deck chassis Euro 6, powered by a 250bhp nine-litre engine. This is the same unit which will be used in the Irizar i2 and i3 single-deck buses built on Scania chassis, despite earlier reports suggesting a Cummins unit was to be fitted. USA Cleveland-based Quasar Energy Group uses organic waste to produce a renewable energy source known as biogas, which is then converted into CNG one of two fuels that can power the 2015 Chevrolet Bi-fuel Impala which goes on sale later this year. If you can buy renewable fuel at $1.95 per gallon while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, everybody wins said Mel Kurtz, president of Quasar Energy Group. quasar s Columbus facility can produce 1.3 million gasoline gallon equivalents of CNG each year. That s enough to fill the CNG tanks of 163,000 Bifuel Impalas at least once. Nichole Kraatz, Impala chief engineer, explains the Impala was designed for bi-fuel operations to ensure fuel security in places where CNG is still scarce. The CNG tank mounted in the trunk has the

7 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine equivalent capacity of 7.8 gallons of gasoline, which is expected to offer approximately 150 city miles of range on compressed natural gas based on GM testing. With gasoline and CNG combined, expected range is 500 city miles based on GM testing. EPA estimates are not yet available. The Bi-fuel Impala will have a starting price of $38,210 (excluding tax, title, license, dealer fees and optional equipment). Source: GM USA Worthington Industries, Inc. has acquired a majority interest in dhybrid Systems, a manufacturer of CNG fuel systems. Worthington will own 80% of the equity, with the founder retaining 20% and continuing in a leadership role. The acquisition of dhybrid gives us the opportunity to increase our participation in the fast growing CNG fuel market and enhance the value of our supply chain offering said Andrew Billman, president of the Worthington Industries Pressure Cylinders business. We expect the combination of dhydrid s innovative system designs and Worthington s commercial and manufacturing capabilities to help drive significant growth for this portion of our alternative fuel platform. As a result, we are also analyzing the expansion of our composite cylinder manufacturing capacity, including the potential to integrate this new capacity within the fuel systems operation. Billman added, We expect this approach to increase operational efficiencies and reduce customer lead times. Source: Worthington Industries, Inc. FINLAND Finnish tractor manufacturer Valtra, Inc., has been awarded the silver medal at the Agrosalon exhibition in Moscow in early October, for its N103.4 HiTech Dual Fuel tractor. The jury praised especially the low operating costs of the dual-fuel tractor, which can run on diesel and either biogas or natural gas. If gas is unavailable, the tractor can run normally on diesel alone. When run on gas, small quantities of diesel are injected into the fuel mix to create combustion in the cylinder under pressure. However, most of the power is generated by the gas. Using natural gas or biogas has no adverse effect on the tractor s performance, the tasks it is used for or the optional equipment that can be specified with it. In Valtra Dual Fuel tractors a standard AGCO Power diesel engine is converted to use 2 types of fuel. The majority, up to 83 % of the power is generated by methane from natural gas or upgraded biogas and a minor part by diesel fuel to ignite the gas-air mixture according to the diesel process. For precise and efficient fuel injection there is an intake manifold with integrated electronic gas injectors and a gas common rail operating parallel to the standard diesel injection. The gas tanks are of durable composite material and they are located below the cab floor level, not influencing the centre of gravity, not disturbing the visibility, ground clearance or use of important equipment like front loader. The gas tank capacity is 192 litres and the maximum fill-up pressure is 200 bar. This basic gas tank capacity allows working approximately four hours but it is possible to mount additional tanks for example as extra weight in front of the tractor. The diesel tank volume is the same as on a regular tractor. The engine can switch automatically to run with diesel fuel only if gas is not available. Valtra dual-fuel models include the N Series HiTech and HiTech 5 models N103.4, N113 and N123. Source: Valtra, Inc. Dear Readers and Advertisers, Due to the needs of international gas companies, we would like to inform you that starting from this issue, "Time For Gas!": strongly increased the amount of hard copies of magazine, sent to the LPG/CNG/LNG companies in Germany and Austria; is more available for Readers with a more articles in German language added; Since more than 11 years of existing in gas area, "Time For Gas!" is still growing to make more and more attractive our international actions and connecting them with your clear business interest. We hope that this action you will find interesting and will connect our marketing goals. Let's catch German and Austrian market together! Szanowni Państwo, W związku z licznymi zapytaniami i zapotrzebowaniem firm z rynku gazowego zarówno w Polsce jak i za granicą informujemy, że począwszy od bieżącego wydania, "Czas na gaz!": jest wysyłany do znacząco większej, niż dotąd liczby Czytelników branży LPG/CNG/LNG w krajach niemieckojęzycznych (Niemcy, Austria) ; ma dodane kilka stron w celu publikacji większej liczby artykułów w j. niemieckim; W ciągu ponad 11 lat istnienia, "Czas na gaz!" stale się rozwija w sposób, który ma uatrakcyjnić nasze liczne międzynarodowe działania łącząc je z Państwa doraźnym interesem biznesowym. Mamy nadzieję, że te działania spotkają się z Państwa uznaniem i zainteresowaniem, jako potencjalnych Reklamodawców przedstawiających swoją ofertę w naszym piśmie. Zapraszamy do współpracy! 07

8 GLOBAL AND RUSSIAN ENERGY OUTLOOK TO 2040 DEMAND FOR LIQUID FUELS (OIL PRODUCTS, BIOFUELS, AND FUEL PRODUCED BY GAS-TO-LIQUIDS AND COAL-TO-LIQUIDS TECHNOLOGY) WILL GROW AT A SLOWER RATE COMPARED TO THAT OF OTHER FUELS, AND WILL SLOW TOWARDS THE END OF THE PERIOD UNDER REVIEW. A combination of 2 techniques was used to forecast the demand for liquid fuels: for oil, the oil intensity of individual economies was used, together with a determination of the demand for oil as the sum of demands for different oil products (LPG, gasoline, naphtha, diesel, fuel oil, kerosene, and other oil products); the demand for different oil products was determined through the capacity trends of the economies of individual countries for each relevant product. Demand for biofuels and other liquid fuels has been identified as a scenario assumption with an additional recalculation of competition between fuels. By 2040 in the Baseline Scenario, world demand for liquid fuels will have risen by about a quarter in comparison with 2010, reaching 5160 mtoe (Figure 1). This is 60 million tonnes more than in Outlook 2013, and is due to slightly higher figures for expected global GDP growth rates (an annual average of 3.5% as opposed to 3.4% in the previous year), as well as a refinement of total oil demand resulting from a consideration of demand for a mix of oil products in different countries - taking into account the peculiarities of formation of the oil product mix and current energy policies in individual countries and regions of the world. FIGURE 1. Demand for liquid fuels for regions and largest countries in 2010 and 2040, Baseline Scenario The developed countries demonstrate the opposite trend, with a longterm reduction in demand for liquid fuels in Europe and the developed countries of Asia, and a particularly significant Japanese reduction in demand (by 70 million tonnes by 2040 compared with 2010). Demand in North America, which has its own supplies of accessible and cheap oil resources, will grow, albeit only slightly, by 2.3% compared to 2010, regardless of efforts to diversify the region s fuel mix and to develop efficient technologies. Source: ERI RAS It is clear that the main increase in global demand for liquid fuels will be from developing countries. Consumption in non-oecd countries will be nearly 60% higher in 2040 than in 2010 (Figure 2). It is important to note that in absolute terms, China alone will provide an increase in demand of 320 million tonnes of liquid fuels. FIGURE 2. Demand growth for liquid fuels for for regions and largest countries Source: ERI RAS An important feature of the oil market is the fact that oil demand in most developed countries has already reached its peak; in the USA, Japan, South Korea, and most European countries, peak demand was passed before the beginning of the XXI century. It should be noted that among all the OECD countries, only Australia (peak expected in 2025), Poland (2030), Turkey (2040), and Israel (2040) are yet to reach this point. Among European countries, only Slovenia, Bosnia, and Macedonia will fail to reach peak demand in the period under examination. The key liquid fuels consuming regions in the forecast period will be developing countries in Asia; their share of global consumption will increase from 23% in 2010 to 34% by A key factor in demand growth will be China, whose demand will increase by more than 320 million tonnes by 2040 compared to 2010 levels, which will practically bring China level with the USA in terms of liquid fuel consumption. Demand for liquid fuels from India, Asia s second largest economy, will also more than double by 2040: in the Baseline Scenario it will reach 390 million tonnes a year. A significant increase in demand is expected in the countries of Africa up 70% compared to 2010 levels. Demand in the countries of South and Central America, the Middle East, and the CIS will grow by a 3rd over the forecast period (Table 3). 08

9 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine TABLE 3. Liquid fuel consumption by region and world s largest countries, Baseline Scenario, million tonnes The structure of global liquid fuel demand by sector in the forecast period will undergo some changes due to increased competition between relatively expensive liquid fuels and other forms of energy. Accordingly it is expected that there will be a reduction in the heat and electricity generation sector s share in the overall consumption of liquid fuel due to the replacement of oil-fired power stations by coal and gas stations, as well as by those relying on renewable energy sources. In the domestic sector, liquid fuels will also be replaced by other energy resources. They will retain their share in the industrial sector primarily due to the growth of petrochemical production in the world as a whole, but here also it will be tough for petroleum products to compete with alternative energy sources, above all with natural gas (Figure 4). FIGURE 4. Liquid fuel demand by economic sector, Baseline Scenario Source: ERI RAS * consumption of liquid fuels in Russia in this case takes into account the consumption of non-monetized products, including exports. Source: ERI RAS The transport sector will remain the key consumer of liquid fuels, with demand for motor fuels by 2040 amounting to more than 70% of the total demand for oil. Despite the increase in the number of cars and the needs of transportation (both freight and passenger), measures to modernize and increase efficiency will constrain global growth of demand for liquid fuels. This is illustrated by the way in which the specific fuel consumption of the aviation sector has decreased over the last decade by 30%, due to the use of more modern materials in aircraft construction, increased efficiency of jet engines, and modern airliners improved capacities for both freight and passengers. By 2040, on the basis of Boeing s13, projections, ERI RAS expects specific fuel consumption in aviation to be reduced by 30%. Energy efficiency is also crucial for road transport. The specific fuel consumption of lorries declined by 10% between 1990 and 2010 according to CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) figures. By 2040 consumption is expected to decline by another 43% owing to the renovation of the global cargo fleet and improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and transmissions, but above all by reducing the weight of heavy freight lorries and developing lowtonnage transportation. A significant reduction in the fuel consumption of cars is also expected by 50% in comparison with figures for the 2010s - through the use of composite materials and the reduction of energy losses from tank to wheel (Figure 5)1. cont. on p.10 09

10 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine cont. from p. 09 FIGURE 5 Reduction in specific fuel consumption for light vehicles, freight vehicles, and air transport FIGURE 6. Demand for energy in the transport sector, Baseline Scenario Source: ERI RAS 1 For more detail see Global and Russian Energy Outlook to 2035, under the direction of A. A. Makarov and L. M. Grigoriev, ERI RAS/REA,2012, pp Sources: EPA, Boeing, ERI RAS Oil products, while being dominant, are far from being the only fuel type that meets the demand for energy in the transport sector. In 2010, nearly 5% of the demand for transport was met by non-petroleum fuels: liquid synthetic fuels from gas, coal, biomass, and natural gas, as well as electricity. In the Baseline Scenario it is expected that the share taken by non-petroleum fuels in the transport sector s total energy demand will increase to 11% of by The main demand growth will come from the most common substitute for oil products biofuels whose consumption in transport will be 230 million tonnes by 2040, compared with 60 million tonnes in 2010 (Figure 6). The success of biofuels will result from active government support in developed countries as well as the relatively high oil prices in the Baseline Scenario. The transport sector, as a key segment of the demand for liquid fuels, will also determine the structure of regional and global demand for petroleum products. By 2040, demand for petroleum products in the world as a whole will have grown by 20% (to 4.93 billion tonnes) compared with 2010, and moreover the overall structure of demand for petroleum products in 2040 will not have changed significantly. The greatest growth in demand will be for gasoline and diesel fuel as key motor fuels. The share of LPG will increase, first and foremost due to its increased use in the petrochemical industry and as motor fuel, as will the share of all light motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and aviation fuel), while the share of dark petroleum products will fall, mainly due to the replacement of fuel oil in electricity generation (Figure 7). FIGURE 7. Global demand for oil products, 2010 and 2040, Baseline Scenario A significant increase in demand is also expected for natural gas-based motor fuel, with its consumption in the transport sector growing by more than three times (up to 85 million TOE) by the main growth in demand being in Asia Pacific, as well as Iran, the USA, and the European Union countries. Development of electric vehicles and rechargeable hybrids will help increase the share of electricity to 2.5 per cent of the total consumption of energy for transport by The motor fuel substitute that will be least in demand will be fuel produced by coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL) technologies, due to the relatively high production costs (current CTL and GTL projects are considered to be cost effective only when the price of oil is more than $ dollars a barrel). Source: IEA statistics, ERI RAS Source: from GLOBAL AND RUSSIAN ENERGY OUTLOOK TO 2040, authors: The Energy Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ERI RAS, the Analytical Centre of the Government of the Russian Federation (ACRF); Research Advisor: A. A. Makarov, President of ERI RAS Project Manager: T. A. Mitrova. PhD, Head of Department, ERI RAS Professor L. M. Grigoriev, PhD, Senior Advisor to the Head of ACRF 10

11 Interview with Jim York, Vice President GoGreen, EMEA J IM HAS MANY YEARS EXPERIENCE IN THE LOGISTICS INDUSTRY THROUGH VARIOUS FLEET MANAGEMENT AND ENGINEERING ROLES PRIOR TO TAKING UP HIS CURRENT ROLE HEADING UP THE GOGREEN PROGRAMME ACROSS EUROPE FOR DHL SUPPLY CHAIN. FOR THE PAST 5 YEARS JIM HAS LEAD THIS PROGRAMME DEALING WITH ALL ASPECTS IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPROVEMENT WITHIN THE OPERATIONS OF THE BIGGEST GLOBAL LOGISTICS COMPANY, PRIMARILY FOCUSED ON THE CARBON ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING PROCESS AND DEVELOPING AND ROLLING OUT BEST PRACTICES FOR IMPROVEMENT IN CARBON EMISSIONS EFFICIENCY IN LINE WITH DPDHL TARGET OF 30% IMPROVEMENT BY 2020 AGAINST A 2007 BENCHMARK. Can you tell us a little about your role and responsibilities? I am VP GoGreen for DHL Supply Chain Europe region. GoGreen is DPDHL s global sustainability and environmental improvement programme, primarily aimed at improving our carbon emission performance by 30% by 2020 (vs 2007) but also encompassing usage of natural resources, recycling waste, etc. We know that DHL is working with biogas and LNG what drew you to using these fuels for your transport? We have concluded that there will be no widespread liquid fuel replacement for diesel before 2020 and therefore gas gives us the only alternative fuel for our heavy trucks. Choosing to go for dual fuel NG/Diesel gives us the flexibility to fall back to diesel if gas runs out during a long journey, but also to incorporate the use of blended Biomethane where supplies permit. Which vehicles have you chosen for these natural gas and biogas fleets, and why? To date our gas usage has been focused on Volvo heavy tractors. Volvo are the only manufacturer on our Preferred suppliers list that produce an OE dual fuel tractor and for which there is an after-market conversion. We stick to our heavy higher mileage trucks as this is where there is a commercial pay-back available. Where do you refill the vehicles you have have you invested in supporting infrastructure to fuel the fleets? We have two depots where DSC have invested in our own fuelling installations and we have a lesser number of trucks using the commercial facilities at DIRFT, Avonmouth, etc. What kind of cost and emissions benefits have you seen from your investment so far? What differences have you seen between LNG and biogas? The emission benefits we are seeing from the dual fuel trucks ranges from around 12/15% on LNG to around 20% where we are using some Biogas/ NG blends. Cost benefits are very dependent upon the mileages operated by the trucks. Have there been any surprises when using these fuels? Or have you come up against any challenges and how have you handled these? Main challenges to date have been with the refuelling facilities, where early bulk fuel installations had a problem with keeping the LNG sufficiently cool and preventing vapourisation and also there were issues with pressurisation leading to only part refuelling of trucks. The later bulk fuel storage, particularly from BOC incorporates a cooling system to overcome this. The trucks have largely been ok. Can you share any information on the cost of your biogas conversion? Have you seen return on your investment? The dual fuel conversions range in price between OE and after-market, around Ł25k average per truck. We can get a commercial return on the truck conversion when operating decent mileages, but getting a pay-back on the refuelling installation is much more difficult! Are biogas vehicles a major part of DHL s long term sustainable transport strategy? Do you have any plans for further investment? For DHL, yes, Biogas is definitely in our strategy, we need to see how things develop now, as there are currently no gas conversions available on the new Euro6 engines and we need better refuelling infrastructure and more vehicle availability. Which other figures are you working with to accelerate the use of biogas? What shape does this take? We are working in conjunction with FTA in UK to drive the gas fuel option and get better engagement with Government etc. Also engaged with NGVA and Green Freight Europe for the wider European continent. With your experience, what advice would you offer to fleets or transport companies interested in natural gas or biogas solutions? If you have heavy trucks operating long distances (18,000kmpa +)and either access to refuelling facilities nearby or enough vehicles to justify your own installation, then do the sums, talk to operators such as ourselves that are using gas already and see if it will work for you. Source: fc-gi,

12 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine I Mistrzostwa Polski Mechaników Samochodowych kat. JUNIOR - wyniki ZAWODY BYŁY JEDNYM Z NAJWAŻNIEJSZYCH WYDARZEŃ TOWARZYSZĄCYCH XI WYSTAWIE SAMOCHODÓW TUNINGOWANYCH I SPORTOWYCH STS TUNING-SHOW W HSW ŁUCZNICZKA. MISTRZOSTWA MŁODYCH MECHANIKÓW ZORGANIZOWANO NA BARDZO WYSOKIM POZIOMIE, Z UDZIAŁEM WYJĄTKOWO DUŻEJ I UZDOLNIONEJ GRUPIE MECHANIKÓW. ZWYCIĘZCY I MISTRZOSTW W sportowej rywalizacji I miejsce zajął Rafał Gołembiewski, uczeń klasy maturalnej Zespołu Szkół, CKU w Gronowie reprezentowali ASD TOYOTA Bednarscy. Co więcej, otrzymał dodatkowe wyróżnienie od Shell Polska dla najlepszego zawodnika I MPMS. Trudno się dziwić, skoro jako jeden z nielicznych odpowiedział na egzaminie teoretycznym, na wszystkie pytania eksperta Shell Polska, otrzymując maksymalną liczbę 6 pkt. Jak oceniasz te mistrzostwa? Dzięki przychylności Dyrekcji Szkoły i osób funkcyjnych w ASD TOYOTA-Bednarscy mogliśmy poczuć dreszczyk emocji panujący w HSW Łuczniczka. Ponadto nasi nauczyciele zawodu przygotowali nas kompleksowo do tak prestiżowych zawodów. Jednak tak wysokie miejsce jest dla mnie zaskoczeniem. Potwierdziliście klasę zajmując dwa pierwsze miejsca indywidualnie. Jakie są źródła sukcesu? Rzeczywiście, mój kolega z klasy Krzysztof Laskowski zajął drugie miejsce. Ale sukces jest pełny, zawdzięczamy to wysokiemu poziomowi nauki w naszej Szkole, jak również kierunkowym zainteresowaniom, poszerzanym we własnym zakresie. Mamy też doskonałych nauczycieli w ASD Toyoty, jak Krzysztof Stachowski, wielokrotny laureat mistrzostw Polski. Warto dodać, że Rafał jest mocno uzdolnionym człowiekiem, oprócz mechaniki nie zaniedbuje żyłki artystycznej, a szczególnie gry na perkusji. W przyszłości chce pracować w zawodzie, ale mocno myśli o kierunku dość zaniedbywanym lakiernictwie samochodowym. Zdradził też tajemnicę, iż majsterkowanie, dokręcanie śrubek i dopasowywanie przekładni odziedziczył po ojcu, który też jest mechanikiem. W rywalizacji drużynowej najlepsi byli uczniowie Zespołu Szkół Samochodowych w Bydgoszczy Jarosław Markiewicz i Kamil Majer, tegoroczni absolwenci, reprezentujący ASD Ford-Bieranowski. Oceń poziom tegorocznych zmagań młodych mechaników? Czy to było łatwe zwycięstwo? Poziom były bardzo wysoki, szczególnie trudne były zadnia bonusowe za 6 pkt. Jeśli ktoś marzył o zwycięstwie musiał nie tylko szybko wykonań obsługę samochodu, ale także wybrać najtrudniejsze zadnia bonusowe zawierające dość skomplikowane treści o gazie LPG/CNG powiedział Markiewicz. Przypomnijmy, że zawodnicy startujący w drużynie mieli 8 minut na pokonanie meandrów techniki motoryzacyjnej w Seacie Leonie 1.4 TSI kombi. Minutę więcej dostali singliści. Jeśli zawodnik liczył na zadania bonusowe musiał szybko, bardzo szybko wykonać obsługiwanie przedsprzedażne i wykryć co najmniej cztery usterki. Teamowi Forda ta sztuka udała się znakomicie, znacznie skracając czas dobrze wykonanej obsługi mogli skorzystać z trzech zadań bonusowych. Jarek i Kamil byli i szybcy i efektywni z egzaminu teoretycznego uzyskali 4,5 pkt. (na 6 możliwych). Mistrzostwa to także dobra zabawa, zawieranie nowych znajomości, poznawanie nowych tajników mechanicznego rzemiosła. Obaj Panowie mieli jeszcze czas na zmierzenie siły elektromotorycznej akumulatora. Wykonali to najdokładniej ze wszystkich zawodników. Czy Wasza Alma Mater przygotowuje do zawodu mechanika kompleksowo? Tak. I to od wielu już lat. Uczniowie startują też w olimpiadach przedmiotowych, jak również w regionalnych konkursach "Najlepszy mechanik regionu." Mamy też świetnych nauczycieli, z mgr inż. Edwardem Rymaszewskim na czele. To on przygotowuje olimpijczyków i finalistów mistrzostw Polski powiedział Jarosław Markiewicz Prywatnie kapitan zwycięskiej drużyny jest miłośnikiem jednośladów, posiada w swojej kolekcji Kawaski GPZ 500S. Podobnie jak w przypadku Rafała, zamiłowanie do mechaniki przekazał mu ojciec, który także jest mechanikiem. Z kolei Kamil Majer pielęgnował swoją pasję do mechaniki rozkręcając na czynniki pierwsze Fiaty 126p i Skody. Jako jedyny z tej trójki finalistów nie otrzymał w genach smykałki do majsterkowania po ojcu. Prywatnie jeździ Hondą Accord 2.2 diesel. Co dla was jest ważniejsze, prestiż imprezy czy nagrody? To trudne pytanie przynajmniej dla mnie. Wiem, że jako zwycięzca mogę sobie wpisać w CV stosowne zdanie. Nie wiem, czy rzucę tym na kolana mojego pracodawcę, ale w ASD Ford pracują najlepsi. Więc prestiż też jest ważny kończy Kamil Majer Źródło: Krzysztof Golec, Patron Medialny: Czas na gaz! 12


14 MEDIA PARTNER RESULTS: FINDINGS & CONCLUSIONS of Critical Issues Workshop CNG & LNG Safety: Perception & Reality THIS 6TH IN THE SERIES OF CLEAN FUELS CONSULTING CRITICAL ISSUES WORKSHOPS SINCE 2008 GATHERED 50 EXPERTS FROM 16 COUNTRIES ON FOUR CONTINENTS REPRESENTING NGV STAKEHOLDERS, INCLUDING EQUIPMENT MANUFACTURERS AND SUPPLIERS, VEHICLE MANUFACTURERS, GOVERNMENT POLICY MAKERS AND OTHERS TO IDENTIFY AND ADDRESS THE MOST CRITICAL SAFETY ISSUES RELATED TO CNG AND NG AS VEHICLE FUELS. The presentations and discussion focused on the current standards and regulatory state-of-play related to CNG and LNG fuel storage systems, vehicle technologies, and fuelling options. The workshop participants addressed existing gaps as well as some of the opportunities to fill the gaps in order to facilitate further market development and commercialization of NGVs. Four informative panels followed by a discussion session helped formulate the findings, conclusions and some next steps that will be required to improve the safety outlook for CNG and LNG. Sessions included: Understanding the Critical Elements in the NGV Safety Chain; Technical Issues for CNG Safety; LNG Safety for Road, Rail and Sea; Design and Safety of CNG and LNG Fuelling Systems. 14

15 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine Some of the key findings from the presentation and discussions, as well as conclusions drawn, indicated that the safety of CNG and LNG equipment and systems is an on-going concern. Despite the best efforts of the industry to learn from accidents and incidents, safety issues some real and some perceived will be a continued topic of concern, analysis and on-going improvement. UNDERSTANDING THE CRITICAL ELEMENTS IN THE NGV SAFETY CHAIN The NGV industry faces 2 separate but related challenges to ensure that, on a global basis, NGV customers receive the safest and most reliable equipment: (1) dealing responsibly and professionally to improve technology and safety through legitimate standards and regulatory channels that are supported by effective industry and government oversight; (2) that those in the NGV value chain do not jeopardize NGV safety due to inferior materials, poorly made equipment, or lax enforcement of existing standards and regulations. As the market for NGVs has developed, certain issues within the safety chain seem to have remained constant over time: Perception is reality and NGV safety remains an issue. Consumer research of commercial fleet operators in the United States dating back to 1991 showed that safety is one of the top issues, although different types of operators put it at different priority levels related to performance and economics. Likewise, consumer research of commercial fleet operators and the driving public in Italy over the past two decades shows that, despite the familiarity with the fuel and technology, NGVs are perceived to be less safe than gasoline and diesel vehicles by a large margin. NGVs are safe.if you handle them safely. Most failures of NGV systems are due to human error, mostly due to a lack of knowledge. Industry advocates, for example, tout the strength and integrity of CNG cylinders and LNG tanks typically shown in severe abuse testing, however proper care and handling of fuel storage systems is required because damage inflicted through human abuse makes them less safe. The safety ethic and the concept of quality varies widely from countryto-country. Safety, quality, and reliability of equipment and systems are sacrificed when a manufacturer s or customer s driving motivation is to have cheap products. In the long run, the cost of equipment to customers will go up because of poor quality. Buyers beware of NGV systems coming from locations where cheap is a priority over safety and quality. Equipment installers at the workshop seem to be the weakest point of the NGV value chain, mainly because of the lack of certified competence. This begins to highlight the differences between OEM quality and retrofit quality. Countries entering the NGV market should look to the highest level of standards and regulations and not borrow from other countries. NGV stakeholders should strengthen their cooperation through active participation in the regulatory fora like the UNECE Working Parties and ISO. The joint participation of government experts, industry and standardization organizations make it possible to improve harmonization and safety by developing regulations also on the basis of updated available standards. TECHNICAL ISSUES FOR CNG SAFETY Despite having one of the best safety records in the transportation sector, the steady growth of NGVs has resulted in a constant learning process through accidents, incidents and understanding best practices. Increasingly rigorous testing and certification requirements have resulted but, unfortunately, implementation continues to be a challenge. Installers need to follow appropriate installation codes. Handling pressurized fuels like CNG requires installers and mechanics who have received training and, at best, certification and licensing. In-depth training is required if the train-the-trainer is to be adequate. Clear installation requirements should be specified. Problems associated with premature PRD activation or non-activation in fire can result in vent down and a possible fire hazard. Cylinder rupture can be mitigated also through localized fire testing and smarter fueling stations that include temperature compensation. Periodic inspections and cylinder recertification are weak links in the safety chain. Visual inspections of external cylinder surfaces are the only practical way to detect certain damage that might occur during normal use. This includes things such as moisture trapped in CNG cylinder shields that can create external corrosion or mechanically induced damage due to improperly installed rubber gaskets on mounting brackets. Enforcement inspectors frequently do not have the knowledge required for thorough cylinder inspections. Additionally, the manufacturers manuals, which are essential to understand different inspection procedures for different types of cylinders, are not regularly provided to inspection agencies. ISO and other standards have requirements for inspection but, ultimately inspection quality relies on the manufacturers recommendations and these frequently are not forthcoming. An automotive-grade corrosion performance test is required in NGV industry standards. External corrosion is an ongoing concern sometimes made worse by installation practices (trapping water in contact with the cylinder; installation in proximity to hot exhaust systems). Standards allow for the application of coatings, but this has not been sufficient. North American standards may adopt the General Motors (GM) corrosion test so that eventually every design will have to comply with automotive corrosion performance. A process to systematically track CNG incidents internationally would promote continued learning and safety. A small group of industry stakeholders have been tracking CNG incidents and sharing information on an informal but coordinated basis internationally. The challenge is to create a formal process within a yet-to-be-determined institution that can record incidents, identify causes (likely from other investigations) in order to continue amassing technical information designed to improve safety knowledge base of NGV technology. The NGV industry should learn from the hydrogen industry and consider adopting hydrogen vehicle industry practices. Ironically the hydrogen industry in its infancy first looked to the CNG industry to guide the development of its standards and codes. The hydrogen industry has received massive funding from government and private sector sources enabling the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) industry to do research and development that could also be applicable for NGVs. LNG SAFETY FOR ROAD, SEA AND RAIL Cryogenic natural gas in the form of LNG brings a new dimension to NGV markets and technologies for trucks, marine vessels and railway trains. Safety in the design of vehicles, fuelling and fuel storage for large and very large scale systems pose new practical and regulatory challenges that must be addressed and resolved. There are potential hazards as well as safeguards at each stage of the LNG supply chain. cont. on p.16 15

16 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine cont. from p. 15 Fixed parts of the supply chain (e.g. small scale fuelling) and mobile suppliers in the fuel chain (e.g. virtual pipelines via truck) require different measures to ensure safety. Lessons learned from industrial LNG applications are applied to transport sectors. There is extensive experience with LNG for industrial applications and these have been carried through to vehicular use of LNG and expanded/ refined to help ensure safety of handling LNG in the trucking and marine sectors. Marine sector NGV standards are emanating from the top down. Unlike the road transport sector where standards and regulations have grown bottom up as the technology and need arises, marine NGV stakeholders are defining some basic principles (e.g. in ISO). Creating specifications for marine LNG applications before completely understanding and experiencing the details of LNG fuelling and operating procedures is very challenging. Gas propulsion is at different levels of maturity between road, marine and rail applications but quality control still must remain a goal. The rail sector use of LNG is in its infancy and mostly is prohibited except through exemptions and for purposes of proof of concept. The railway regulatory framework for LNG is unclear, with no specific LNG regulations and standards for locomotives, tender (tank) cars, or fuelling. Leadership and advocacy for natural gas is needed in the railway industry to determine what standards and regulations should be developed and which ones must be created. DESIGN AND SAFETY OF CNG AND LNG FUELLING SYSTEMS While the traditional CNG fuel station represents the largest share of NGV fuelling, LNG and L-CNG stations represent a new dynamic in building the market simultaneously for both CNG and LNG vehicles. Mobile fuel transport and mobile fuel stations also are important in fuelling NGVs where the gas infrastructure is limited. The lack of worldwide fuel station standards has complicated the job of fuel station installers and local code officials in assuring best safety practices of fuelling vehicles, although this should improve with the introduction of new ISO fuel station standards for CNG and LNG. Development of natural gas as a marine fuel will depend on the development of robust safety standards and regulations for bunkering (fuelling ships) and related activities. One of the early and on-going challenges for the marine application of natural gas will be to maintain the high standards formulated by the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators (SIGTTO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO), ISO and others in the bunkering industry. This will be separate from any other gas-related standards with respect to other non-fuelling marine activities such as travel on inland waterways; passenger and cargo loading; training and qualification of personnel; and further integration of gas usage with normal port activities. Proving safety through hazardous operations studies (HAZOP) is being done on a case-by-case, location-by-location basis, which is very expensive and time-consuming. It is not yet clear whether generic safety studies can replace individual point-of-use safety studies. If possible, this could help speed the use of natural gas as a marine fuel. There are no standards or regulations for mobile fuelling stations. Without specific requirements, existing standards and regulations for stationary fuelling, moveable high pressure equipment TPED (Transportable Pressure Equipment Directive) and ADR (dangerous good transport) are being applied. 16 CONCLUSIONS Changing Perceptions into Reality Perception vs reality: Perception of natural gas as a vehicle fuel is that potential dangers remain. The reality that NGVs (CNG and LNG) are safe requires a concerted communication effort via all channels to reach the widest audience of policy makers, regulators, and customers. The NGV industry must police itself to ensure safe products and safe system designs start by adopting proven industry standards and regulations. Countries without such standards should look to the highest international levels ISO and UNECE as the best models to guide the safe adoption of equipment, whether it is for the road, marine or rail sectors. The NGV industry must continue to understand the causes of NGV incidents in order to effect change in codes/standards resulting in safer products. Incidents that occur should be explored and not ignored (or concealed). Best practices, sharing experiences of various stakeholders and preparing the proper documentation for broad dissemination could be a good way to introduce safety concepts that are not necessarily in the context of legal regulations or even standards. It is a method that also might encourage equipment suppliers, who are cautious about liability and sharing what they consider their intellectual property, to provide data or experiences that contribute to an overall safety consciousness. This is a role for equipment suppliers and the various associations. Standards, Regulations & Harmonization Standards and regulations are critical to get the fuel and technologies into the market place BUT harmonization is a challenge within each industry sector dealing with gas (road, marine and rail for future). Implementing the standards/regulations differs widely in different parts of the world. Enforcement of regulations also differs in different places, especially in those countries that do not have a robust safety culture. If equipment emanates from countries where safety and safe practices are not well enforced, then all customers/recipients must be cautious to ensure that the equipment conforms to the proper standards and regulations. On the other hand, owner/operator education and certified training will help ensure that individuals adhere to the standards and regulations that the industry has created to promote safety and reliability. Training is Critical and Available But Not Necessarily Popular Due to Cost Expertise and training is available for a broad range of needs (conversions, vehicle and fuelling station operation, maintenance, inspection, fire mitigation) but the cost frequently is not something the stakeholders are willing to pay for. Without legal obligations for certification or training safety can be compromised throughout the NGV value chain. Manufacturers often provide training for specific technologies and associations can assist. But disseminating knowledge to the right stakeholders will continue to be a challenge. Expanding Horizons and Cooperation Across NGV Markets and Applications Cross fertilization of knowledge, expertise and experience between the transport sectors (road, marine and rail) is possible but it likely will involve cooperation via industry associations at the various levels, international, regional and national. But this must be a goal first recognized by the industry associations before such knowledge-sharing can take place. Source: dr Jeff Seisler, CEO Clean Fuels Consulting


18 International LPG & CNG & LNG magazine Nowa Kia Soul LPG: kwadratowa, praktyczna, dobra i szczególnie oszczędna w wersji LPG KWADRATOWA. PRAKTYCZNA. DOBRA. TO CECHY, KTÓRE W PRZYPADKU NOWEJ KIA SOUL OPISUJĄ TEN SAMOCHÓD ODDAJĄC JEGO CHARAKTERYSTYCZNE CECHY, GDYŻ MA ON ATRYBUTY, KTÓRYCH INNI JUŻ NIE POSIADAJĄ. 18 Jest to pojazd o kultowym statusie, takim, za jakim każdy z nas w skrytości tęskni. Prawie żaden inny producent za wyjątkiem Kii nie jest w stanie zaoferować nam czegoś tak oryginalnego. To ujednolicenie sylwetek samochodów jest motywowane niewielkimi oporami powietrza i związanym z tym korzystniejszymi parametrami emisyjnymi. Ale można przecież inaczej: jeśli wprowadzimy w samochodzie Kia Soul np. instalację gazową, taką jak Prins Direct LiquiMax 2.0 by ecoengines, która wtryskuje gaz w płynnej formie, to nasz kultowy samochód stanie się prawdziwym "czyścioszkiem" i będzie emitować przynajmniej 12% mniej CO 2 zaś spaliny będą miały zredukowane 99% cząsteczek stałych. Jednak te argumenty interesują nabywcę auta w drugiej kolejności. Przeprowadzone badanie rynku przez dużego producenta olejów mineralnych pokazało, iż 93% kierowców zdecydowało się na instalację gazową w aucie ze względów oszczędnościowych. Widać to również w przypadku modelu Soul. Przyjmując roczny limit kilometrów oraz przeciętne zużycie paliwa, kierowca modelu LPG-Soul jest w stanie zaoszczędzić rocznie 804 euro w stosunku do modelu benzynowego. Ponieważ jednak przeciętne zużycie paliwa to jedynie wartość porównawcza, a faktyczne zużycie jest przeważnie o wiele wyższe, można wyjść z założenia, iż roczna oszczędność w przypadku modelu Soul wyposażonego w instalację gazową wynosi ponad euro. Składają się na to koszty paliwa, rabaty ubezpieczalni, które oferują tańsze ubezpieczenia użytkownikom ekologicznych energii jak np. gaz LPG, niższy podatek drogowy ze względu na fakt, że model Kia Soul z instalacją gazową jest zaliczany do wyższej klasy wydajności energetycznej. Zajrzyjmy pod maskę tu też nastąpiły znaczne zmiany: nowoczesny silnik benzynowy z bezpośrednim wtryskiem paliwa z serii Gamma o mocy 132 KM (97 kw) przy obrotów osiąga swój maksymalny moment obrotowy 161 Nm przy obrotów. W wersji z manualną skrzynią biegów nowa Kia Soul 1.6 GDI przyspiesza do 100 km/h w 11 sek., osiąga prędkość maksymalną 185 km/h i zużywa średnio 6,8 l benzyny Super na 100 km (zużycie normatywne). W praktyce może to być 8-9 litrów, w zależności od sposobu jazdy. Kto jednak zdecyduje się na wersję z instalacją gazową przejedzie bez problemu 100 km na litrach LPG, nie oszczędzając zbytnio przy sposobie jazdy. Pozytywnym efektem ubocznym jest fakt, iż zasięg samochodu dzięki 65l zbiornikowi gazu zwiększa się o 500 km-1200 km, przy znacznej redukcji poziomu hałasu. Kia oferuje 7letni serwis w całej Europie wszystkim nabywcom pojazdów wyposażonych w instalację gazową (pod warunkiem, że to jest PrinsDLM 2.0 by ecoengines). W tej wersji został zastosowany nowoczesny system Additive, nieporównywalny z dotychczasowymi systemami. System ten został poddany kompleksowych testom, które potwierdziły wysoką jakość ochrony, jaką system zapewnia w stosunku do poszczególnych elementów instalacji gazowej. Nowa Kia Soul LPG może być bardzo konkurencyjny w tym segmencie rynku. Wraz z kompleksowym pakietem usług, pojazd ten zdaje egzamin przy wszystkich wyzwaniach dnia codziennego. Bezpieczeństwo aktywne i pasywne, ale również bogate systemy Assistance, wraz z systemem, który uniemożliwia staczanie się pojazdu na pochyłościach oraz wyrafinowanym dodatkom jak np. ogrzewana kierownica lub standardowo zabudowywane wysokiej klasy urządzenia audio powodują, iż Soul jest prawdziwym unikatem, takim, którego nie da się zaszufladkować i który podoba się klientom w każdym wieku. Dzięki instalacji gazowej oraz udzielonym gwarancjom ważnym w całej Europie, koszty utrzymania samochodu nie są zbyt wysokie. We Włoszech oferta ta już dawno znalazła uznanie: tylko w pierwszym miesiącu od momentu wejścia na rynek 120 pojazdów z instalacją gazową sprzedało się jak świeże bułeczki. Wolfgang Kröger


20 Westport updates HPDI 2.0 dual fuel system with new Delphi injectors, upgraded LNG storage and supply WESTPORT INNOVATIONS INC. IS UPDATING ITS SECOND-GENERATION WESTPORT HIGH PRESSURE DIRECT INJECTION (WESTPORT HPDI 2.0) DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM WITH A NEW FAMILY OF HIGH-PRESSURE FUEL INJECTORS, CO-DEVELOPED WITH DELPHI AUTOMOTIVE PLC. THE NEW INJECTORS ARE DESIGNED TO PROVIDE LOWER COST, SMALLER SIZE AND IMPROVED PACKAGING COMPARED TO PRIOR GENERATION WESTPORT HPDI INJECTOR DESIGNS. The new generation injectors were running in engine tests in October. The other major element of the HPDI 2.0 system is an upgraded LNG fuel storage and supply system, which includes the next generation Westport LNG tank with an integrated second generation cryogenic LNG fuel pump. Significant reduction in costs combined with major enhancements in reliability, durability, and serviceability deliver substantial improvements in customer operating uptime and return on investment. In addition, with the system s unique capabilities to exploit cold (unsaturated) LNG, station complexity is reduced and range is improved. The HPDI 2.0 LNG components will also be incorporated into the Westport ice PACK LNG Tank System product for spark-ignited engines, including the Cummins Westport ISX12 G. Westport currently has several engine development programs underway with multiple OEMs using Westport HPDI for the diesel-like power, torque and fuel economy benefits of a compression ignition engine powered by natural gas. Westport expects the introduction of Westport HPDI 2.0 to provide better system costs and better compatibility with advanced diesel engine platforms compared to its earlier generation systems. First generation Westoprt TM HPDI Injector Next generation Injector HPDI 2.0 Westport HPDI uses natural gas as the primary fuel in a diesel cycle along with a small amount of diesel fuel as an ignition source. Core to the approach is an injector with a dual-concentric needle design. This allows small quantities of diesel fuel and large quantities of natural gas to be delivered at high pressure to the combustion chamber. The natural gas is injected at the end of the compression stroke. Under the pressures found in the combustion chamber of a normal diesel engine, natural gas requires a higher ignition temperature than diesel. To assist with ignition, a small amount of diesel fuel is injected into the engine cylinder followed by the main natural gas fuel injection. The diesel acts as a pilot, rapidly igniting the hot combustion products, and thus the natural gas. The two fuels are not pre-mixed with the intake air before they enter the combustion chamber so there is no risk of engine knock and therefore no need to lower the compression ratio and peak torque output. The compression ratio of an engine with Westport HPDI is the same as the diesel engine on which it is based, which results in fewer changes to engine components and preservation of the fuel economy benefits associated with high compression. As compared to diesel fuel, directly injected natural gas burns with a lower adiabatic flame temperature and has a low propensity to the formation of carbon particles and therefore offers inherent nitrous oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions benefits that provide more product engineering flexibility to allow powertrain designers to increase potential performance and customer value. Westport thus expects the upgraded HPDI 2.0 fuel system to further increase OEM interest in natural gas products with industry-leading performance, fuel economy and flexibility. It is designed to provide stronger economics to truck customers across a broad range of engine displacements and applications compared to traditional natural gas engine technology. Westport s OEM customers are testing trucks with some HPDI 2.0 components in China and Europe. The Weichai Westport HPDI 12-liter engine has recently received China V emissions certification from the National Passenger Car Quality Supervision & Inspection Center (Tianjin Automotive Test Center), opening the door for delivery of the first customer test trucks while OEM customers are testing trucks using Westport HPDI in Europe. Products will be available for controlled customer fleet deployment in 2015 in pre-production volumes. However, Westport is working with OEMs to incorporate of the next generation injector to take advantage of the new performance and cost benefits. Westport has calculated that heavy-duty trucks in China incorporating the full HPDI 2.0 system could be delivered with a typical 18-month payback. In the near term, Westport expects fleets with high performance requirements to see HPDI trucks as offering unique capabilities and be encouraged to commit to adopting LNG with a clear path to upgraded and continued development of this technology. The needs of customers in the primary markets for natural gas powered trucks-regional haul and dedicated routes-in North America are being met with currently available natural gas engines from Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI), Westport s joint venture with Cummins, Westport said. Today CWI is supplying virtually all natural gas engines in the US commercial vehicle space. Source: 20



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