1 Teka Kom. Ochr. Kszt. Środ. Przyr. OL PAN, 2010, 7, BIOMASS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PINE FOREST PHYTOCENOSIS FINE ROOTS IN SANDY SOIL AND SANDY CLAY LOAM SOIL ON RECLAIMED SPOIL HEAP OF THE PIASECZNO SULPHUR MINE 1 Marcin Pietrzykowski, Bartłomiej Woś Department of Forest Ecology, University of Agriculture in Kraków Av. 29 Listopada 46, Kraków, Summary. The paper presents the results of research on the biomass and distribution of fine roots (of up to 2 mm diameter) in pine forest phytocenosis aged 30 years growing on a reclaimed spoil heap of the Piaseczno Sulphur Mine, in the following two soil and habitat variants: on Quaternary sands (1Pcz) and on Quaternary sands with Krakowiecki clay insertions (2PczNi). The research was conducted using a modified monolith method. The sides of profiles measuring cm were fitted with a grid of cm squares, next 250 cm 3 cylinders were used to collect samples from each square. The following factors were determined: the graining of the samples (organoleptically), ph (using Hellig's reagent) and temporary moisture. Next the roots were rinsed and divided into fractions of fine roots with a diameter of up to 2.0 mm, other fractions from 2.0 to 8.0 mm and above 8.0 mm. The roots were then dried at 65ºC and weighed. Soil properties and root biomass were submitted to correlation and spatial variability analysis in the profiles using SIP tools. Total biomass of fine roots in the cm horizon was found to be comparable to literature data for natural forest habitats, but in 1Pcz variant it was slightly smaller (6.00 Mg ha -1 ) than in the 2PczNi variant (7.16 Mg ha -1 ). In both variants a significant correlation was discovered (with p = 0.05) between root biomass distribution and moisture distribution in the soil profiles. In the 2PczNi variant, the root biomass moisture distribution was related to the distribution of clay insertions in sand. The results indicated a positive development of biologically active zone in soils forming on the reclaimed spoil heap. Key words: spoil heap, reclamation, reforestation, Scots pine, fine roots 1 The work has been financed from 2010 statutory activity funds (DS 3420/2010) of the Department of Forest Ecology, University of Agriculture in Krakow.
2 320 Marcin Pietrzykowski and Bartłomiej Woś INTRODUCTION In forest ecosystems, the underground biomass has a significant share in the total phytocenosis biomass and it plays an important role in the matter and energy circulation [Waring and Schlesinger 1985]. Research on tree root systems, including their vitality, range and density as well as biomass distribution with division into fractions of thick and fine roots, is a significant element in the assessment of tree condition [Nielsen and Hansen 2006] and in soil ecology studies [Bednarek et al. 2005]. Fine roots, although they only account for 10% of underground tree biomass [Miller et al. 2006], are of direct importance in the process of water and nutrients intake by plants from soil solution [Jackson et al. 1997]. Moreover, fine roots form around them a macro-habitat for micro-organisms (rhizosphere) by secreting special biochemical substances [Richards 1979]. Due to the natural cycle of death and decay, fine roots supply significant amounts of organic matter and carbon to the soil. It has been estimated that these amounts may be even several fold larger than organic matter reaching the soil from the fallout of above-ground biomass [Richards 1979]. The growth of fine root biomass contributes more than 30% of land ecosystem net production [Jackson et al. 1997]. It has been estimated that, globally, fine roots contain over 5% carbon of the total amount in the biosphere. Therefore, this part of land vegetation underground biomass plays a significant role in the carbon cycle in ecosystems and in carbon dioxide sequestration in the biosphere, thus decreasing the greenhouse effect [Miller et al. 2006]. Research on roots is also important for the assessment of the strategy and adaptation to new habitat conditions of plants introduced to new biotopes (habitats) in reclaimed post-mining sites or of plants which find their way there by way of natural succession [Fabijanowski and Zarzycki 1969, Harabin 1973, Rodrigue et al. 2002, Węgorek 2003, Pietrzykowski 2006]. The root depth range, as the so-called biological soil depth, was applied as an ecological assessment criterion for soils forming on post-mining sites [Daniels et al. 1992, Węgorek 2003, Pietrzykowski 2006]. The aim of the work was to determine the root biomass distribution in pine forest phytocenosis in soil profiles on research plots consisting of two soil and habitat variants on the reclaimed top section of the Piaseczno Sulphur Mine external spoil heap. Object of study MATERIALS AND METHODS The research was conducted in autumn 2009 on the reclaimed top section of the former Piaseczno Sulphur Mine external spoil heap. A paper by Krzaklewski  contains a phyto-sociological description of communities on this portion of the spoil heap, while a paper by Pietrzykowski and Socha  contains a description of aboveground tree stands and community biomass. Five
3 BIOMASS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PINE FOREST PHYTOCENOSIS FINE ROOTS species of vascular plants (Quercus robur, Robinia pseudoaccacia, Sorbus aucuparia, Padus serotina and Festuca rubra) were identified in the 1Pcz variant and 18 species (among shrubs layer mostly Quercus robur, Padus serotina, Prunus divericata and P. spinosa and among herbaceous plants Ajuga reptans, Bromus inermis, Calamagrostic epigejos, Moeringia trinervia) in the 2PczNi variant. The investigated communities were multi-layer [Krzaklewski 2010]. The top layer (A) consisted of pine tree with full canopy closure in 1Pcz variant and no full closure in 2PczNi variant. In that variant the degree of coverage in the shrub layer (B) was significantly higher at 50%, whereas in the 1Pcz it was only 5%. Also in the undergrowth layer the coverage was much higher in the 2PczNi variant (35%) than in 1Pcz (4%). Ground coverage in the bryophyte layer was similar at around 5%. The biomass size in particular phytocenosis layers in the 1Pcz variant was Mg ha -1, including undergrowth and shrubs which constituted in total only 0.17 Mg ha -1. Phytocenosis biomass in the 2PczNi variant was Mg ha -1, including shrub and vegetation biomass of 0.07 Mg ha -1 [Pietrzykowski and Socha 2010]. Field and laboratory studies Two research plot variants were set up in 30-year-old pine tree stands: on Quaternary sands (1Pcz); and on Quaternary sands with Krakowiecki Neogene clays (2PczNi). To study the fine root biomass and its distribution in the phytocenosis, on each research plot (1Pcz and 2PczNi) a single soil profile was made between the rows of pine trees. The profiles were fitted with grids of cm and a net of squares to form cells measuring cm (144 cells in each profile). In order to determine the fine root biomass, a modified monolith method was applied [Böhm 1985]; it consisted of collecting volumetric samples from each cell using 250 cm 3 cylinders. The samples were then placed in tightly sealed plastic bags and immediately taken to a lab. They were stored at 4 C (for a maximum of two weeks), and successive assays were conducted in the lab. In the soil samples graining was organoleptically determined using an agreed 3-degree scale: 1 sands, 2 sandy clay loam, 3 clays (a numerical conversion served to compile them in a database and for further calculations); ph was determined using Hellig's method, whereas temporary moisture using the dryer-weight method (5 g 2 repetitions per sample from each cell). Temporary moisture was expressed in percentage of weight to dry soil (in weight %), and the obtained results also allowed to calculate water stock for particular horizons of the soil profiles (Mg ha -1 cm -1 of soil layer). Roots were rinsed of soil samples, and measured with a calliper with accuracy of 0.1 mm, then divided into the fine root fraction with root diameter of up to 2.0 mm [Böhn 1985] and other fractions divided into fractions from 2.0 to 8.0 mm, and above 8.0 mm. The root samples were then dried at 65 C and weighed with an accuracy of up to 0.00 g on a technical balance. The weight was than calculated per root biomass in a volume unit (g dm -3 ). The fine root biomass
4 322 Marcin Pietrzykowski and Bartłomiej Woś and graining, ph and temporary moisture for each cell (a total of 144 per profile) then underwent a correlation analysis using Statistica software [StatSoft 8.0]. Next, using the SIP (Spatial Information System tools; ArcGIS ArcView 9) with Spatial Analyst, the spatial distribution of fine roots and variability in profiles of assayed soil properties were displayed. The IDW (Inverse Distance Weighted) method was applied during interpolation, with borders taken into account and an assumption of searching for the 10 closest neighbours. STUDY RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Soils in the 1Pcz variant were more uniformly grained in the whole soil profile. The applied organoleptic methods allowed determining a small amount of clay in only 9 out of 144 samples. In the soil profile of the 2PczNi variant, there was significant diversification of graining due to uneven distribution of clay insertions mixed with sands. In this case, among the collected samples three groups of substrates were distinguished (sands, sandy clay loams, clays). ph in the 1Pcz profile varied from 4.5 to 6.0, and in the 2PczNi profile it was much higher at 6.5 to 8.0. Water stock in 1Pcz soils was 478 Mg ha cm -1, and in 2PczNi soils it was much bigger at 775 Mg ha cm -1. In the 2PczNi variant an addition of clay significantly increased water retention. The 0 10 cm soil horizon displayed the biggest water stock in the 1Pcz variant (51 Mg ha -1 ). Other horizons with a big water stock included the cm (48 Mg ha -1 ) and the cm (49 Mg ha -1 ) horizons. Similarly in the 2PczNi variant, the 0 10 cm (93 Mg ha -1 ) and cm (88 Mg ha -1 ) horizons displayed the largest water stock. However, what should be noted here is the fact of big water stock in the 2PczNi profile at a depth of cm and cm, which was associated with the occurrence of clay insertions. The fine root biomass (up to 2.0 mm) in the 1Pcz variant was 6.00 Mg ha cm -1, of which 56.7% (3.40 Mg ha -1 ) was to be found in the 0 40cm horizon, 24.9% (1.50 Mg ha -1 ) in the cm horizon and the remaining 18.4% (1.10 Mg ha -1 ) in the cm horizon. These dependencies are wellillustrated by a diagram showing the spatial distribution of biomass (Fig.1). In the 0 40 cm horizon, the maximum values for root biomass of thickness up to 2.0 mm in single clusters of soil profile ranged from g dm -3 (Fig. 1). The total biomass of mm roots in this variant (1Pcz) was 2.6 Mg ha cm -1, of which 2.00 Mg ha -1, that is 77.0%, was found in the 0 40 cm horizon. The total biomass of thicker roots from 8.0 mm in the 1Pcz variant was 3.27 Mg ha cm -1. The largest percentage of root biomass of this thickness (74.5%) was found in the 0 40 cm horizon. In the conditions of natural forest habitats, most fine root biomass is to be found in the upper soil horizons. In the case of coniferous species, up to 95% of fine root biomass may be found in the 0 30 cm horizon [Olsen 1968, cited by Węgorek 2003].
5 BIOMASS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PINE FOREST PHYTOCENOSIS FINE ROOTS The fine root biomass (up to 2.0 mm) in the 2PczNi soil profile variant was 7.16 Mg ha cm -1, of which 42.8% (3.06 Mg ha -1 ) was to be found in the 0 40 cm horizon, 27.1% (1.94 Mg ha -1 ) in the cm horizon, and 30.1% (2.15 Mg ha -1 ) at cm (Fig. 2). The 2 8 mm root biomass in the 2PczNi variant was 2.98 Mg ha cm -1, and the largest percentage (37.2%) was to be Fig. 1. a) Spatial variability of fine root biomass distribution (d 2.0 mm) in the soil profile of the 1Pcz variant (on sandy soil), b) dependence between spatial variability of temporary moisture [weight %] in the soil profile of the 1Pcz variant (on sandy soil) and the fine root biomass distribution (d 2,0 mm) (g dm -3 ) found in the 0 40 cm horizon, 31.9% roots were found at cm, and 30.9% at cm. The thicker root biomass from 8.0 mm in this variant was 2.56 Mg ha cm -1, of which 31.2% at 0 40 cm, 41.8% at cm, and the remaining 27.0% at cm. The 2PczNi variant profile displayed a more uniform distribution of fine root biomass than the 1Pcz profile (Fig. 1 and 2). This was related with the distribution of clay insertions in the 2PczNi profile, particularly in deeper horizons.
6 324 Marcin Pietrzykowski and Bartłomiej Woś These results prove that Krakowieckie (Neogene) clays are a good soil-forming material, but only if they are evenly distributed in sandy deposits. This issue was raised 30 years ago in a paper by Adamczyk and Maciaszek . It was then noted that Krakowieckie clays mixed with sands may be considered valuable soil-forming material. However, these findings were not fully applied, as the for- Fig. 2. a) Spatial variability of fine root biomass distribution (d 2.0 mm) in the soil profile of the 2PczNi variant (sands with addition of clay), b) dependence between spatial variability of temporary moisture [weight %] in the soil profile of the 2PczNi variant (sands with addition of clay) and the fine root biomass distribution (d 2,0 mm) (g dm -3 ) med top layer of the spoil heap contained clusters of clay which were not sufficiently fragmented and unevenly distributed. Soils consisting of Krakowiecki clays alone, although rich, are also characterised by unfavourable aeration and water properties [Adamczyk and Maciaszek 1968]. The fine root biomass (a total of dead and living roots) has been estimated by different authors as ranging from 1.0 to 20.0 Mg ha -1 [Magill et al. 2004]. Research in Eastern Finland indicated living fine root biomass (up to 2 mm) in pine
7 BIOMASS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PINE FOREST PHYTOCENOSIS FINE ROOTS tree stands ranging from 3.69 to 7.42 Mg ha -1, and dead fine root biomass from 1.06 to 30,82 Mg ha -1 [Makkonen and Helmisaari 1998]. Living fine root biomass of Scots pine from a 40-year-old plantation from Great Britain was found to range from 0.74 to 1.48 Mg ha -1, and dead root biomass from 0.34 to 0.94 Mg ha -1 [Vanguelova et al. 2005]. According to research conducted by the Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Dendrology in Kórnik on 12-year-old pine tree stands of various origin, fine root biomass ranged from 1.30 Mg ha -1 (originating from Poland) to 3.30 Mg ha -1 (originating from Russia) [Oleksyn et al. 1999]. Water conditions of soils are one of the ecological factors that are of key significance for vegetation, particularly on reclaimed spoil heaps with ombrophilous type of water management. A key dependency was shown (with p = 0.05) between temporary moisture in the soil profiles of investigated habitat variants and biomass distribution of all root thicknesses, however, the correlation factor (r = 0,59) was higher in the 1Pcz variant. Similar dependencies were found in numerous other studies [Böhm 1985]. No significant correlation was found between root biomass and other assayed soil features (graining and ph). This may have been due to low sensitivity of the methods applied to determine graining (organoleptic method) and ph (using Hellig's reagent). CONCLUSIONS 1. The fine root biomass in both soil substrate variants was comparable to literature data for natural forest habitats. It indicates a positive course of underground phytocenosis development forming in the process of forest reclamation of an external spoil heap of Piaseczno Sulphur Mine. 2. Temporary moisture distribution in profiles clearly affected the fine root biomass distribution in the soils of both variants. 3. Like in the case of forest soils, the majority of fine root biomass was accumulated in the upper horizons of the soil (up to 40 cm). This was particularly apparent in the Quaternary sand with no clay (1Pcz). In the sandyclay loams (2PczNi), most fine root biomass was also found at 40 cm, but the root biomass distribution in the whole profile was more even, which was related to the distribution of clay insertions. 4. The conducted researched proved the correctness of postulates made over 30 years ago (at the design stage of Piaseczno spoil heap reclamation process) concerning the necessity of mixing sand and clay evenly [Adamczyk and Maciaszek 1968] in order to create favourable soil and habitat conditions. REFERENCES Adamczyk B., Maciaszek W., Charakterystyka petrograficzno-gleboznawcza i niektóre aspekty rekultywacji przyrodniczo-technicznej zwałowisk kopalnictwa odkrywkowego rudy siarkowej w Piasecznie. Maszynopis, ze zbiorów Katedry Ekologii Lasu UR.
8 326 Marcin Pietrzykowski and Bartłomiej Woś Bednarek R., Dziadowiec H., Pokojska U., Prusinkiewicz Z., Badania ekologicznogleboznawcze. Wyd. Nauk. PWN, Warszawa. Böhm W., Metody badania systemów korzeniowych. PWRiL, Warszawa. Daniels W.L., Genthner M.H., Hodges R.L., Soil development in sandy tailings derived from mineral sands mining in Florida. Proceedings National Meeting of the American Society for Surface Mining and Reclamation, Duluth, MN, June 14 18, ASSMR, Lexington, Fabijanowski J., Zarzycki K., Spontane Vegetation als Gruntlage fur die Haldenaufforstung in Piaseczno bei Tarnobrzeg (Sudostpolen). Beiheft zu den Zeitschriften des Schweizerischen Forstvereins, 46, Harabin Z., Analiza systemów korzeniowych wybranych gatunków drzew pod kątem ich przydatności do biologicznej obudowy zboczy zwałów towarzyszących kopalnictwu węgla kamiennego i brunatnego. Ochrona Terenów Górniczych, 24, Katowice. Jackson R.B., Mooney H.A., Schulze E.D., A global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 94, Krzaklewski W., Charakterystyka fitosocjologiczna zbiorowisk, w: Analiza i optymalizacja metod klasyfikacji siedlisk i kryteriów oceny rekultywacji leśnej na wybranych terenach pogórniczych w Polsce, pod red. M. Pietrzykowskiego. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rolniczego w Krakowie, Kraków, s Magill A.H., Aber J.D., Currie W.S., Nadelhoffer K.J, Martin M.E., McDowell W.H., Melillo J.M., Steudler P., Ecosystem response to 15 years of chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA. For. Ecol. Manag., 196, Makkonen K., Helmisaari H-S., Seasonal and yearly variations of fine-root biomass and necromass in a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. For. Ecol. Manag., 102, Miller A.T., Allen H.L., Maier Ch.A., Quantifying the coarse-root biomass of intensively managed loblolly pine plantations. Can. J. For. Res. 36, Nielsen C.C.N., Hansen J.K., Root CSA-root biomass prediction models in six tree species and improvement of models by inclusion of root architectural parameters. Plant and Soil, 280, Oleksyn J., Reich P. B., Chalupka W., Tjoelker M. G., Differential above- and belowground biomass accumulation of European Pinus sylvestris populations in a 12-year-old provenance experiment. Scand. J. For. Res., 14, Olsen D.C., Respredelenie kornej i premeszczenje w nich radiocezia w mezofilnom lesu w Tenessi, w: Metody izuczenija produktywnosti kornewych sistem i rizosfery. Wyd. Nauka, Leningrad, Pietrzykowski M., Właściwości gleb powstających na rekultywowanych i pozostawionych sukcesji terenach wyrobiska po eksploatacji piasków podsadzkowych. Rocz. Glebozn., 57 (3/4), Pietrzykowski M., Socha J., Biomasa fitocenoz, w: Analiza i optymalizacja metod klasyfikacji siedlisk i kryteriów oceny rekultywacji leśnej na wybranych terenach pogórniczych w Polsce, pod red. M. Pietrzykowskiego. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rolniczego w Krakowie, Kraków, s Richards B.N., 1979: Wstęp do ekologii gleby. PWN, Warszawa. Rodrigue J.A., Burger J.A., Oderwald R.G., Forest productivity and commercial value of pre-law reclaimed mined land in the eastern United States. Nort. J. App. For., 19(3), Vanguelova E.I., Nortcliff S., Moffat A.J., Kennedy F., Morphology, biomass and nutrient status of fine roots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) as influenced by seasonal fluctuations in soil moisture and soil solution chemistry. Plant and Soil, 270,
9 BIOMASS AND DISTRIBUTION OF PINE FOREST PHYTOCENOSIS FINE ROOTS Waring R.H., Schlesinger W.H., Forest ecosystem concepts and management. Academic Press, San Diego-New York-Boston-London-Sydney-Tokyo-Toronto. Węgorek T., Zmiany niektórych właściwości materiału ziemnego i rozwój fitocenoz na zwałowisku zewnętrznym kopalni siarki w wyniku leśnej rekultywacji docelowej. Rozprawy Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej w Lublinie. Wydział Rolniczy, 275, MASA I ROZMIESZCZENIE KORZENI DROBNYCH FITOCENOZY LASU SOSNOWEGO W PROFILACH GLEBY PIASZCZYSTEJ ORAZ PIASZCZYSTO-ILASTEJ NA REKULTYWOWANYM ZWAŁOWISKU KOPALNI SIARKI PIASECZNO Streszczenie. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań biomasy i dystrybucji korzeni drobnych (o grubości do 2 mm) w fitocenozach lasu sosnowego w wieku 30 lat na rekultywowanym zwałowisku po Kopalni Siarki Piaseczno w 2 wariantach glebowo-siedliskowych: na piaskach czwartorzędowych (1Pcz) i piaskach czwartorzędowych z wstawkami iłów krakowieckich (2PczNi). Badania prowadzono zmodyfikowaną metodą monolitową. Na ścianach profili o wymiarach cm zainstalowano siatkę kwadratów o bokach cm, a następnie z każdego kwadratu pobrano próbki cylindrami o pojemności 250 cm 3. Na próbkach oznaczono uziarnienie (organoleptycznie), ph (odczynnikiem Helliga) i wilgotność chwilową. Następnie dokonano płukania korzeni i rozdziału na frakcje korzeni drobnych o średnicy do 2,0 mm i pozostałych frakcji od 2,0 do 8,0 mm i powyżej 8,0 mm. Korzenie wysuszono w 65ºC i zważono. Właściwości gleb i masę korzeni poddano analizie korelacji oraz zmienności przestrzennej w profilach z wykorzystaniem narzędzi SIP. Całkowita masa korzeni drobnych w warstwie cm była porównywalna z danymi literaturowymi dla naturalnych siedlisk leśnych, przy czym w wariancie 1Pcz była nieznacznie mniejsza (6,00 Mg ha -1 ) niż w wariancie 2PczNi (7,16 Mg ha -1 ). W obydwu wariantach stwierdzono istotną korelację (z p = 0,05) rozkładu masy korzeni z rozkładem wilgotność w profilach glebowych. W wariancie 2PczNi rozkład wilgotności masy korzeni związany był z rozmieszczeniem wkładek iłów w piaskach. Wyniki wskazują na pozytywny rozwój biologicznie czynnej strefy gleb kształtujących się na rekultywowanym zwałowisku. Słowa kluczowe: zwałowisko, rekultywacja leśna, sosna zwyczajna, korzenie drobne