The Impact of Lifelong Learning Policies on the Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups LITERATURE REVIEW AND TARGET GROUP DEFINITION POLAND

Wielkość: px
Rozpocząć pokaz od strony:

Download "The Impact of Lifelong Learning Policies on the Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups LITERATURE REVIEW AND TARGET GROUP DEFINITION POLAND"

Transkrypt

1 The Impact of Lifelong Learning Policies on the Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups LITERATURE REVIEW AND TARGET GROUP DEFINITION POLAND Z E S P O R E A L I Z A C J I P R O J E K T U V P / / I N S T Y T U T S O C J O L O G I I U n i w e r s yt e t M i k o a j a Ko p e r n i k a u l. F o s a S t a r o m i e j s k a 1 a Toru

2 THE REVIEW OF ACADEMIC LITERATURE Referring to the results of research into the influence of education (in particular lifelong learning) upon social and economic inclusion Prepared by Grzegorz Zablocki in co-operation with Anna Pluskota-Lewandowska and Jolanta Maciag Structure of the review Range of the considered literature Introduction Literature about the influence of education upon social inclusion Prognoses of the influence of lifelong learning upon inclusion The results of the research and projects for social inclusion through education Analysis of the relationship between education and social inclusion Final remarks List of the considered publications Range of the considered literature The present survey covers publications which have appeared in the last ten years, and which present conclusions or research carried out in countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Apart from books, the list of which was enclosed at the end of the review, we conducted systematic review of the contents of articles published in the following journals in the years : Agroprzemiany (Agrotransformations), Eastern European Countryside, Edukacja Doroslych (Education of the Adult), Polityka Spoleczna (Social Policy), Rocznik Andragogiczny (Andragogic Yearly), Wies i Rolnictwo (Rural Area and Agriculture). We also considered some articles published in other scientific journals of the time which were listed in the Bibliography of the Journals' Contents, as well as descriptions of research works presented in the electronic data bases (SYNABA and SYNABA II). 1

3 Introduction The survey we made proved that a notion and idea of lifelong learning are not very common in Central and Eastern European countries. The notion (or its counterparts in Polish such as education throughout one s life, or lifelong education) is used by limited groups of specialists who discuss the European Union s policy or who deal with continual education (or permanent learning) and the adult education. For this reason, in the literature we surveyed, there is hardly any description of the research devoted directly to the influence of lifelong learning upon prevention of social and economic exclusion (and the influence of this education upon social integration and re-integration). This results from the fact that this kind of research is still very scarce in this part of Europe. However this influence became the topic of some short statements in the form of forecasts or announcement of activities which are or going to be carried out in the state policy. On the other hand, the influence of education as understood traditionally (that is schooling of children and young people, supplemented with the adult education) upon social and economic situation of people who completed this type of education was the object of numerous broad studies in the field of sociology, pedagogy and social policy in the 20 th century, and in particular the studies devoted to structure, social mobility and sociology of education. A high rate of unemployment which occurred in countries of Eastern and Central Europe in the period of transformation of the 1990s, made these studies focus on the problem how education affected the employment opportunities or economic and social marginalization pf people. Therefore, academic literature of the last 10 years reported broadly the studies of education as a crucial factor for young people to avoid marginalization and exclusion. Thus the present survey of literature of the topic reflects this state of research. Literature about the influence of education upon social inclusion Prognoses of the influence of lifelong learning upon inclusion The idea of lifelong learning was promoted, among others, in the report drafted for the UNESCO by the International Committee for Education in the 21 st Century [Delors 1998] and the Lisbon Strategy in which lifelong learning was to be an important EU progress instrument and the way to create the society based on knowledge. In countries of Central and Eastern Europe which changed their systems, the years 1990s were a period of deep transformation in their education systems, which sometimes were thought as disintegration of the previous system. Transition to market economy, challenges of globalization and information revolution, as well as aspiration of these states to become the EU members made find lifelong learning the best possible model of education which would help, among others, limit a very high unemployment rate and 2

4 prevent development of numerous pathologies, marginalization and social exclusion included. Such an approach is expressed in many publications in the field of pedagogy and social policy. In publications of the time, changes in the processes of society s education are a frequent object of analyses. The comparison of biographies of the present and former generations resulted in conclusions that former generations more frequently than the present one did one lifelong job [Wesolowska 2002: 121]. Because nowadays doing more than one job in one s life is typical, therefore the present education systems should provide opportunities to acquire new skills and vocational qualifications at different stages of people s life. Other publications pay attention to internal differentiation of modern societies, and the existence in them different cultural groups (ethnic minorities, immigrants and refugees) which, because of their cultural and language identity, were heavily at risk of marginalization. For example, Gypsies living in countries of Central and Eastern Europe, can be included in this category. In the late 1990s,? of the Gypsy youth in Poland failed to obtain complete primary education [Staniszewski 2004: 215]. Therefore, another priority was to provide proper learning systems adapted to the situation of various minorities and to meet the needs and interests of different people. This postulated variety was to be the effect of development of new forms of education such as multi-cultural education, as well as extensive progress in after-school education. An the result of universal availability of various forms of learning would reduce social and economic marginalization. The years 1990s were also the period of great changes in the former adult education systems in Central and Eastern Europe. These changes were studied by experts in andragogic and social policy. And what they found in post-socialist countries was a deep regress in theses forms of education which were once offered by state organizations. This regress of state forms of the adult education was accompanied by a dynamic development of private organizations offering teaching to adult people. [Polturzycki 1998: 32; Kargul 1998]. According to these experts, the adult education should serve the development of all members of society and their self-fulfillment, rather than social integration of those who had failed to acquire necessary education earlier as it was the case under socialist system. The opinions presented by the considered publications, almost with no exception, spoke in one voice that education should be transformed into lifelong learning. Such postulates were, among others, found in the report of the International Commission for Education in the 21 st century. Here and there, the mentioned publications include opinions and prognoses directly linked to some important assumptions of the report. The claim that lifelong learning is the key to the 21 st century is the case [Czerniawska 1997:13; Delors 1998: 17]. As for accumulation of education in an early stage of life the approach to 3

5 this claim was pretty similar - the Commission s report stated that the individuals fate is not decided determined between the 14 th and 20 th year of one s life [Delors 1998: 22], and the authors of presented publications find the split of human life into the stages of games, learning and work groundless [Kupisiewicz 1999: 48]. Many publications about changes in education did not present the results of research on the changes effects, but simply described these changes and expressed hopes that their effects would be favorable. It was found, for example, that in the 1990s there occurred fast progress in the development of integrative schooling for the disabled, and decrease in the negatively evaluated segregation schooling [Branka and Rozenbajgier 2004: 30]. As for lifelong learning in Slovakia it was evaluated that in the last couple of years lifelong education was addressed to a far wider proportion of population than at any other time before [Timcak 1999: 50]. The growing education offer addressed to people at their working was attributed a great importance in decreasing the level of unemployment and poverty [Torudanov 2004], therefore a closer co-operation between schools and business was suggested [Tarkowska i Korzeniowska 2002]. In the work devoted to the condition of continual education in Poland, a close relationship between high qualifications and great employment opportunities as well as high remunerations was indicated [Matysiak 2003]. In turn, in the description of the two projects for social integration in Latvia (one referred to unemployed and poorly educated youth, another one to people in their working age who belonged to different ethnic minorities) which were carried out in the years one finds information on the number of people and institutions involved, but information on the results of these projects was limited to the two short claims which were not lent credence: the activity of the project s participants has increased [Paeglite i Gabrane 2005: 274] and during the implementation of the project, the majority of the inhabitants involved in the project became more active, therefore it is important to continue such activities in the future [Paeglite i Gabrane 2005: 276]. There were few publications which showed discrepancies between the predictable positive effects of lifelong learning and some negative phenomena which accompany the implementation of this idea now. Such a discrepancy was noticed between the vision of lifelong learning as a way to make knowledge accessible in the broadest possible way and the way to retain it for one s own disposal in the face of a market business competition or even competition among employees in the same company [Kargul 1998; Aleksander 2002: 360]. The idea of informal learning at one s workplace or in a local community is contrasted with particularism of competitive market agents. Moreover, hardly few authors confronted a commonly accepted intention to improve the quality of education with the current practice of educational authorities. It is the case with the author who reports the current education system in Slovakia, where low salaries of teachers who work for primary and secondary schools cause that 35% of classes in these schools are taught by not fully qualified staff [Budzen 2005: 37]. And in publication 4

6 devoted to changes in continuing education in Ukraine of the 1990s, it is stated that this period witnessed significant reduction of quota of state preschool institutions and reduction of system of state training of the adults [Korsak 1999: 61]. The changes in continual education in Romania were described as follows: lack of a national policy in this field makes a systematic and good development of continuing education in Romania very difficult [Sava 1999: 79]. Deep changes in the adult education in Greece was reported by S. Papaionnaou (Erwachsenenbildung in Griechenland, DIE, Frankfurt/M 1997), where in the years the number of training course for adults fell from 16 thousand to 4 thousand [Solarczyk 1999: 97]. In the works which compare biographies of several generations it was noticed that despite the idea of lifelong learning which assumes the need of periodical re-qualification of the individual for a new vocation, the modern generations more rarely take part in training courses that would give them qualifications to do a new job (more often they take courses in order to improve their ability to continue the present job [Wesolowska 2002: 121]. Also not very numerous were the works in which the school and education were accused of activities contrary to tasks they were responsible for [Kwiecinski 2003: 12], and such evaluation could also be referred to part of the predictable effects of lifelong learning. It seems, that the reasons for severe criticism of the school formulated some decades ago [Illich 1972] were not analyzed carefully enough by founders and followers of lifelong learning, and therefore the implementation of the idea will be endangered with failures resulting from structural characteristics of this idea. This anxiety is partly justified in the research results collected so far and in projects of social and economic integration through education. The results of the research and projects for social inclusion through education In the period discussed, the number of studies and projects whose direct aim was to examine the influence of education upon social and economic integration was rather small. However, some conclusions referring this influence can be drawn from the research which referred this problem indirectly. These types of research are presented by, among others, professor Urszula Sztanderska from Department of Economics at Warsaw University. As she writes, the research conducted in the year 2002 showed that participation of an unemployed person in vocational training increased statistical probability to find employment only through training financed by the unemployed themselves, and it was not essential [ ] in case of training courses financed by a labor agency [Sztanderska 2005:106]. And if participation in training courses would prove helpful in economic integration of the poor, for instance the long-term unemployed, this relationship should be inverse. However, actual relationships are different the unemployed whose material situation is poor take free training courses sponsored by labor agencies because they cannot afford paid courses offered in the training market [Struzyna 2002: 218]. 5

7 The mentioned research challenged also the predictions that training courses taken by the employees on their own initiative will be helpful in keeping the job. It appeared that participation rate of an employee in the training courses held by the employer decreased probability of his/her becoming unemployed. However, his/her participation in other training courses selected on one s own initiative did not affect the risk of a job loosing [Sztanderska 2005: 106]. The vision of society of people who learn constantly and on their own initiative, which is assumed in the idea of lifelong learning, proves (in the light of this research) inefficient in maintaining economic integration, as well as in re-integration of economically excluded persons. This conclusion is confirmed by the 2003 studies which show that in every quarter of this year in Poland on average almost 7% of highly educated employees took qualification improvement courses, and only 1% of blue-collar workers participated in such form of training (the latter group included persons with vocational secondary or primary education) [Sztanderska 2005: 101]. Thus - lifelong learning is an asset accessible first of all to those members of society who are to the least extent threatened with exclusion, and it is difficult to obtain by those who are actually with exclusion endangered. For persons with so-called higher general human capital it is easier to adapt to the changing requirements, they more often and in a more efficient manner take additional training because they have a specific educational stock which they can use. Persons with poorer education are in a more difficult situation [Sztanderska 2005: 101]. A similar relationship is found in the activity of after-school educational organizations whose mission is to improve knowledge and skills of social groups which are specific for their low level of obtained education. In Poland, rural population belongs to such a category. In the mid 1990s, in this population, adults with higher or secondary education constituted hardly 18%, and those who completed primary schooling made 40% proportion. The study of participants of the training courses held by Folk Universities in one regions of the country showed that almost 60% of the participants had higher or secondary education, and only 7% completed primary schools [Rosalska 2002: 290]. In the cities this privilege refers to a slightly different category the companies run in big cities offer? of all training courses to people who belong to high rank staff [Pierscieniak 2000: 25]. In the year 2003, among all people in Poland who took after-school education, every six person with higher education participated in many training courses (four and more courses a year) and only every fifty person with primary education participated in as many forms of additional education opportunities [Ksztalcenie 2003: 86]. In 1997, only 1% of participants in different forms of continual education for adults were persons from rural area, 5% of them were unemployed [Pierscieniak 2000: 19], whereas rural population at that time constituted 38% of total population of the country, and the unemployed rate was at the level of circa 14%. Also the research carried out in former Eastern Germany calls for criticism towards a simple, explicitly positive approach to education as a form of social and economic inclusion. 6

8 The work (Kraus F., Puhani P., and Steiner V., Employment Effects of Publicly Financed Training Programmes - the East German Experience, Jahrbucher Nationalekonomie und Statistik 219/1999, p ) reports that vocational training courses in the years 1990s proved that training which was not adapted to the needs of a local labour market which resulted in a growing unemployment rate within a long period of time [Wrobel 2004; 63]. Also in Poland, a poor level of education at schools for adults attracted scholars attention [Kopciewicz 2004], whereas according to opinions formulated in mid 1990s the quality of schooling in new, non-state educational organisations in Russia simply was not studied [Lesochina 1997: 55]. In the idea of lifelong education, an important role is assigned to pre-school education as way to match inequalities between various social environments, among others between rural and urban areas. However, in the years in Podlaskie province, only? of children at the age between 3-5 went to kindergartens, and hardly 5% of them were rural children of the same age [Kaminska 2003: 35-36]. Certainly, the efficiency of the unemployed training can be evaluated in many different ways, but popularity of this form of unemployment prevention may result from, among others, the fact that in the years the cost of a training course for one unemployed person as financed by a labour agency was 2-3 times lower than the cost of his/her temporary employment [Izycka 1999: 60]. What was alarming though, it was the efficiency of the training organised in co-operation with business organisations, when employers took upon themselves to give jobs to the course graduates, actually only? of them were offered work [Izycka 1999: 69]. One should agree with L. Lesochina who, while reporting the role of education in Russia, claims that education is understood as a factor in the individual s development, but the relationship between knowledge or education and many social factors, for example wealth, should not be neglected [Lesochina 1997: 85]. This approach was confirmed in 2004 by a group of over 200 students of adult pedagogy in Lithuania who were asked a question: Can learning solve the problem of social fragmentation?. As many as 91% of them answered that learning in itself cannot solve problems of social cohesion [Teresevicene and Zuzeviciute 2005: 319]. Additional confirmation is provided by statistics referring warmi sko-mazurskie province - the region with the highest unemployment rate in Poland. In this area, 12% of higher schools graduates were registered as the unemployed [Orzechowska 2002: 319]. E. Vosahlova paid attention to inefficiency of the state policy for the sake of social integration of the disabled in Czechs, as well as to inequalities in the access of the physically disabled to education: Within the last couple of years, a lot has been said about promoting equal possibilities to people with disabilities. And unfortunately much more has been said than really has been done. According to my personal knowledge and experience, this area has been neglected in all our post-communist countries [Vosahlova 2005: 112]. Also the policy directly oriented to integration of the disabled prove ineffective: in the 7

9 Czech Republic it is a general rule that companies with more than 20 employees have to employ people with so-called lowered working ability. Most of the companies prefer to pay a penalty to the state budget than give a job to an invalid [Vosahlova 2005: 115]. The inclusion projects were rather ineffective too, even though they took advantage of social capital in local communities and associations [Frieske 2004]. The research in a small group of incorrigible offenders, carried out in the years , showed that employment opportunities of persons released from prison to find a job and experience social re-integration are really slight, because nobody wants to employ ex-prisoners [Lopuszanska 2004: 248]. Some influence of education upon inclusion was found out in the research conducted in Estonia in the year Then the Commission for Labour Market organized training courses for 11 thousand of unemployed people, and after completion of which 6 thousand of them found employment [Runiewicz-Jasinska 2001: 116]. The study on efficiency of training courses for the unemployed, organized by a labor agency in a big city in the years , revealed that proportion of their graduates who did find jobs grew from 35% to 65% in the years , and then, in the years it fell again to 35% [Fabis 2000: 11]. An important element of lifelong education are open universities, called in Poland Third Age Universities, but even though they developed well in the 1990s their activity covers hardly 1/1000 of old age and disability pensioners [Trafialek 2003: 26]. In the years , among students of Warsaw open university (at CKMP) hardly 13% had completed primary schooling, and as many as 55% graduated from higher schools [Szwarc and Szyszko-Wydra 1999: 19]. All this did not prevent some authors from writing that growing individual responsibility for quality and course of one s life is observable [Solarczyk 2002: 305]. A separate category of data that affect the influence of education upon social inclusion and exclusion can be found in the suicide statistics. Even though the reasons for committing suicide is difficult to examine, attention should be paid to the fact that this form of social exclusion occurred three times more seldom in farmers community than in white-collar workers and intelligentsia [Jarosz 1998: 137]. It should be emphasized that in Poland farmers are a social category with the lowest level of education. Hopes for social integration connected with the work of non-profit associations supported by denomination institutions or collective co-operatives and public companies which create the grounds for so-called social employment (which takes into account limited quality of the work performed but meets basic social and economic needs of such employees] (Cechnicki and Kaszynski 2003]. In Poland of the 1980s, thus still under socialist system, social employment was estimated at the rate of 20% of total employed population [Piatek 1993: 137]. Now, when economic efficiency of the company really matters, the rate of unemployment is 20%. Thus the hopes that 8

10 education will guide the unemployed and vocationally passive individuals to economic and social inclusion are rather faint. However, education is a very important instrument of inclusion of social groups whose marginalization is caused mostly by cultural distinction. This role of education is emphasized by the research teams from 13 European countries, among them Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, Latvia, Poland, Romania and Hungary. These countries founded the NILE network (Network for Intercultural Learning in Europe). According to the founders of this network, the large number of immigrants in the countries of the EU creates the intercultural education a very important sphere of combating discrimination and exclusion [Schmidt-Behlau 2005: 46]. Bilingual education held for ethnic and lingual minorities, for immigrants and refugees may contribute to remarkable improvement of the level of education obtained by representatives of these minorities. Favorable effects in schooling of Gypsies were achieved in Czechs, in Slovakia and Hungary by having an assistant from a local Romany community employed in a school that teaches this minority. The assistant helps to keep good contacts between Romanies and their children and teachers and children of non-romany background. Similar action has been recently undertaken in southern Poland [Staniszewski 2004: 215]. In this way the forms of bringing the Polish culture closer to people from Romany minorities crossed the walls of the school [Szarota 2002]. Similar results were obtained in the project implemented in Finland. The aim of the project was social integration of the refugees through developing the model of pair work (e.g. teacher + assistant of refugee background with knowledge of the students languages) as a resource for working with the refugees [Kuusipalo 2005: 71]. However, while evaluating this project it was noticed that the core of the success is in the strong emphasis on co-operation among partners and on the creation of equal opportunities for the workers refugee (or less privileged) backgrounds [Kuusipalo 2005: 77]. Thus it should be claimed that creating various opportunities for cultural minorities can include opening schools that offer a bilingual teaching process. Such schools are more expensive to run, which can be found as a form of this minority s privilege. This refers also to after-school forms of cultural integration because participants in such projects mention that intercultural learning will be effective if it is not in a form of several short courses, but if it is a chain of educational experiences [Schmidt-Behlau 2005: 46]. Although in the years 1990s, interethnic relationships in Central and Eastern Europe headed for rather favorable direction, but part (15%) of Lithuanian students of pedagogy who were asked (in 2004) about the usefulness of extending intercultural education, said: you cannot improve what does not exist [Tereseviciene and Zuzeviciute 2005: 319]. Also the research conducted in the years in Belorussian minority in Poland showed the school as a place of clear discrimination of this minority [Czykwin 2000: ]. 9

11 Analysis of the relationship between education and social inclusion While evaluating the influence of various forms of education on social and economic integration and re-integration, the information on the process of heritage of social positions in modern society should be of great importance. The role of education and training in these processes is relatively small: persons brought up among people with low social positions usually achieve as low social positions, and persons who grow up among people with high social positions achieve high social positions too. In one British research on the influence of pre-school education upon future careers of pupils (reported in the work by Osborn A. and Milbank J., The Effects of Early Education: a Report from t5he Child Health and Education Study, Oxford 1987), it was found out that well-off families much more frequently send their children to private nursery schools than poor families do, and they rather avoid sending their children to local-government nursery schools which present clearly lower level of equipment, staff and work [Putkiewicz and Zytko 2003: 66]. In the long-term study conducted by I. Lazar in which biographies of the two groups of people, from their nursery-school age to the age of 27, were followed. The study proved that GOOD pre-school education has a lasting beneficial influence upon children from neglected environments, whereas for children in stabile functional families this influence is much weaker [Putkiewicz and Zytko 2003: 62-63]. As the British research proves, there is little probability for children in neglected environments to take advantage of GOOD pre-school education, at least in the countries where pre-school education is the sphere of market economy or is financed by local governments with different financial resources. The strong influence of not only the family but also the place of residence upon educational and vocational careers was proved by other numerous studies conducted, among others, in Poland [Kozlowska-Rajewicz and Polanska 2005: 84; Wesolowska 2002; Kolaczek 2001: 105; Zahorska 2003: 104; Halicka and Halicki 2002: ]. These studies also showed that schools tend to adapt to the requirements set by various social groups. In this way the schools reproduce and even strengthen social inequalities [Zahorska 2003: 7]. Similar processes were observed, among others, in Ukraine, where educational plans of the young were the more ambitious, the higher level of education their parents obtained [Lesochina 1997: 70]. Reporting the evolution of the adult education, the author claimed that in post-socialist countries in Europe, the place of the state educational organizations for adults which were being closed was taken by private and thus paid organizations which are unavailable to, for instance, the unemployed [Polturzycki 1998: 22]. Heritage of social and vocational positions is encouraged by the rules applied in business organizations where some expensive training courses for management staff and specialists are fully financed by the company whereas courses for ordinary employees are payable [Juras-Krawczyk 2002: 333]. 10

12 In the research which aimed at comparison of biographies of several generations, it was noticed that an average level of consecutive generations was just one grade higher than that of the former ones, as if education was simply an effect of some technological and civilization changes, and not the cause of individual careers [Wesolowska 2002: 120]. The school is still a place where current social order is reproduced and consolidated, and improperly educated parents are not ready to take care of appropriate education of their children and support the school in its function of cultural transmission. Additional factors accelerating the educational disablement of rural youth in Poland were closing down of rural schools, libraries and cultural centers, together with growing unemployment and impoverishment which took place in the 1990s [Bujak 2003]. Therefore in the opinion of some researchers, once education did open opportunities for vocational, economic, social and cultural advancement, but now the importance of education for a social position of the individual is not that essential [Jarmuzek 2004: 39]. These processes were also noticed by promoters of lifelong learning: school failures refer mainly to the youth in underprivileged environments, and are often the cause of exclusion [Delors 1998: 142]: in many developed countries the prolonged schooling worsened the situation of young people in socially underprivileged environments [Delors 1998: 54]. However, broad reception of lifelong learning by societies and European institutions overwhelmed some favorable expectations connected with this idea. Education was to become a chance for the individuals and societies development, the tool to eradicate poverty, injustice, exclusion, oppression, wars and discrimination [Delors 1998: 9], the key do the gates of the 21 st century [Delors 1998: 17]. Many studies of the 1990s provided researchers with data which were interpreted as confirmation of this causative force of education These data showed a strong correlation between education and unemployment rates, poverty, and social exclusion. Persons with poor education made a category endangered with marginalization to most extent [Tarkowska and Korzeniowska 2002], and the low level of education was thought to be one of the basic causes of unemployment [Tourdanov 2004]. In the studies conducted in Poland for the World Bank it was indicated that 85% of the poor were members of families supported by persons without secondary education [Golinowska 1997: 93]. The conclusions from the research showed a favourable influence of education and training courses upon opportunities to find employment [Jeruszka 2002: 242]; Runiewicz- Jasinska 2001: 116]. It was claimed: the research proved that the crucial condition of competent adaptation to the labor market is a high level of education [Sztanderska 2005: 101]: the probability of finding a job was directly proportional do the level of education [Sztanderska 2005: 106]. The conclusions from these interpretations resulted in postulates addressed even to the best educated stimulation of educational activity of graduates [ ] should be a priority [Matysiak 2003: 70]. 11

13 Hardly anyone of the scholars wrote that the relationship between education and social integration did not prove a cause-and effect nature of this relationship. Statistical data allow for assumption that the young generation in most countries is not only better educated but also more heavily burdened with unemployment than the former generations. In this case though a high level of education does not protect them from unemployment. There are reasons for the dependence between education and social and economic integration to be interpreted in a different manner. In other words, we should assume that the level of social and economic participation of a given person in social life, which is closely connected with social positions occupied by this person and his/her nearest, affects this person s education. The range of resources owned and the level of social inclusion of a given person would decide about his/her education. Such interpretation is supported by the results of many studies conducted in the last decade. The studies showed that in Poland of the year 1999, hardly 8% of people with primary education, and as many as 57% of people with higher education participated in various forms of training [Juras-Krawczyk 2002: 331]. Also there are quite many of analyses which confirm the assumption that taking advantage of education depends on a social position. For example, under the former system it was mainly blue-collar workers that took part in factory qualification improvement courses. Nowadays this form of training is addressed for management staff mainly [Aleksander 2002: 358]. Different forms of education seem beneficial rather for privileged groups, for elites [Lewowicki 2000: 33]. The basic obstacle to access education for adults in Lithuania is the need to pay for almost training and courses [Runiewicz-Jasinska 2001: 117]. The author that this opinion is also for Estonia and Latvia [Runiewicz-Jasinska 2001: 119]. Such claims include pre-school education too: pre-school education is the worst developed in communities which need it most [Zahorska 2003: 10]. The introduction of fees for education for adults in the 1990s made it inaccessible for poorer social classes [Wesolowska 2002: 11-12]. The national statistical data in Poland for the year 2003 proved that after-school education was very often taken by persons with higher education and urban population [Ksztalcenie 2003: 81-86]. Education opportunity inequalities which occur in business organizations result from unequal situation of its employees in their structure and from the character of their employment [Stolarczyk- Ambrozik 2002: 305]. Rural school is a site of potential cultural and social exclusion [Bujak 2003]. Extensive and 25-year long research on one age cohort allowed for the conclusion that the school universal and uniformed appears to be an excellent instrument to consolidate differences resulting from different development conditions in the family home [Kwiecinski 2003: 12].The formally equal education opportunities of multi-lingual national groups in Lithuania were evaluated in a similar way: people with high competencies at the initial stages (native inhabitants of the country or persons who know the official language of the country) have better opportunities for future education [Tereseviciene and Zuzeviciute 2005: 310]. 12

14 Final remarks The surveyed literature almost lacks the information on activities which would privilege the poorly educated people and those who need inclusion most in their access to education. This kind of action is declared in the form of regulation in the Polish Criminal Executive Code of the year 1997 (article 130, point 3) that reads that persons who did not complete primary education or those who did not learn any vocation shall have precedence in access to education in prison [Sapia-Drewniak 2000: 37]. However this regulation is not effective as for economic and social inclusion of people who leave prisons, because prisoners are trained in vocations for which there is no demand in the labor market [Sapia-Drewniak 2000: 38]. The report which promoted lifelong education included suggestions that a positive discrimination should be applied in the case of socially underprivileged persons early in their childhood [Delors 1998: 143], and that it is these persons for whom offers of continual education should be addressed first of all [Delors 1998: 52]. It also warned that education contributes to social cohesion if it takes into account the diversity of individuals and human groups, and at the same time it avoids becoming a causative factor of social exclusion [Delors 1998: 52]. The reported literature proves that practice of education systems in Central and Eastern Europe did not take these reservations into account and therefore it causes social exclusion rather than inclusion. However, it is, to some extent, the result evoked by the mentioned report. The description of lifelong education presented in it starts with a controversial diagnosis of the current state of affairs, and it includes - as it seems some structural discrepancies or problems that are analyzed in a too superficial way. 13

15 List of the considered publications Aleksander T., Ewolucja systemu pozaszkolnej edukacji zawodowej doroslych w zmieniajacej sie rzeczywistosci spoleczno-gospodarczej [w:] Wesolowska E. (red.), Edukacja doroslych w erze globalizmu, Plock 2002, Novum, Auleytner J. (red.), Lifelong learning links between West and Central Europe, Warsaw 1999, Elipsa Bauman Z., Zbedni, niechciani, odtraceni - czyli o biednych w zamoznym swiecie, Kultura i Spoleczenstwo 1998, nr 2, s Bednarski M. i B. Szatur- Jaworska, Wskazniki spoleczne jako narzedzia pomiaru skutecznosci i efektywnosci polityki spolecznej, Warszawa 1999, IPiSS (Opracowania PBZ, Z. 12) Blad M., Czynniki i symptomy marginalizacji na obszarach wiejskich w Polsce, Zagadn. Doradz. Roln. 2004, nr 1, s Blad M., Wspieranie rozwoju obszarow wiejskich na przykladzie Lubelskiej Inicjatywy Rozwoju Wsi, Wies i Rolnictwo 2003, nr 3, s Bogaj A., Kwiatkowski S. i Piwowarski R., Wskazniki edukacyjne: Polska 2000, Warszawa 2001, IBE Borowska T., Pedagogia ograniczen ludzkiej egzystencji, Warszawa 2003, IBE Branka Z. i Rozenbajgier M., Ewolucja systemu integracyjnego w Polsce, Auxilium Sociale 2004, nr 2, s Brzezinska A., Edukacja wobec wyzwan spolecznosci lokalnych [w:] Psychologiczny kontekst problemow spolecznych (red. H.Sek i S.Kowalik), Poznan 1999, s Budzen H., System ksztalcenia ustawiczengo w Slowacji, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 2005, nr 1, s Bujak K., Zroznicowanie szans oswiatowych a rozwoj gospodarczy [w:] Nierownosci spoleczne a wzrost gospodarczy, Rzeszow 2003, UR Cechnicki A. i Kaszynski H. (red.), Praca, zdrowie psychiczne, opieka spoleczna, Krakow 2005 Cichy D., Ksztalcenie doroslych dla trwalego i zrownowazonego rozwoju, Problemy Ekologii 1999, nr 2 Czapinski J., Diagnoza spoleczna Warunki i jakosc zycia Polakow, Warszawa 2005, WSzFiZ Czykwin E., Bialoruska mniejszosc narodowa jako grupa stygmatyzowana, Bialystok 2000, Trans Humana Danecki J. i M. (red.), U podloza globalnych zagrozen, Warszawa 2003 Delors J. (red.), Edukacja. Jest w niej ukryty skarb. Raport dla UNESCO, Warszawa 1998, SOP 14

16 Domanski H., Ubostwo w strukturze spolecznej w Bulgarii, Polsce, Rosji, Rumunii, Slowacji i na Wegrzech, Kultura i Spoleczenstwo 2002, nr 4, s Draus E., Aktywnosc zawodowa bezrobotnych na wsi zarejestrowanych w urzedach pracy, Wies i Rolnictwo 2000, nr 4 Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa- Radom 2002, ITE Dydycz B., Pozaszkolna edukacja zawodowa w krajach Unii Europejskiej jako forma przeciwdzialania bezrobociu, Fol. Univ. Agricul. Stetin. Oecon. 2001, z. 39 (216), s European Commission (DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Oppartunities), Joint report on social inclusion, Luxebmourg 2002 European Commission (DG for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Oppartunities), Report on social inclusion in the 10 new member states, Luxebmourg, February 2005 Fabis A., Wskaznik efektywnosci zatrudnienia po kursach i szkoleniach organizowanych przez urzedy pracy, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 2000, nr 4, s Fedyszak-Radziejowska B. (red.), Procesy demarginalizacji polskiej wsi. Programy pomocowe, liderzy, elity i organizacje pozarzadowe, Warszawa 2005, ISS Fedyszak-Radziejowska B., Wies w polityce i debacie publicznej, Wies i Rolnictwa 2002, nr 1, s Frackiewicz L. (red.), Wykluczenie, rewitalizacja, spojnosc spoleczna, Katowice-Warszawa 2004, Slask Frieske K. (red.), Utopie inkluzji. Sukcesy i porazki programow reintegracji spolecznej, Warszawa 2004, IPiSS Golinowska S. (red.), Polska bieda II. Kryteria. Ocena. Przeciwdzialanie, Warszawa 1997, IPiSS Grotowska-Leder J. i Feliszek K. (red.), Ekskluzja i inkluzja spoleczna, Torun 2005, Akapit Halamska M., Marginalizacja. Ludzie z PGR, Nowe Zycie Gospodarcze 1999, nr 15, s Halamska M., Procesy marginalizacji (dezaktywizacja zawodowa, bezrobocie, pauperyzacja) na wsi popegeerowskiej, Wies i Rolnictwo 1999, nr 2, s Halicka M. i Halicki J., Drogi edukacyjne w biografiach starszych wiekiem mieszkancow Bialegostoku [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa-Radom 2002, ITE, s Herbst M., Kapital ludzki na obszarach wiejskich w swietle wynikow egzaminow szkolnych, Wies i Rolnictwo 2004, nr 4, s

17 Hinzen H., Przybylska E. i Staszewicz M. (ed.), Adult Education in a United Europe - Abudance, Diversity, Experience, Torun 2005, UMK Hunek B., Program "Poprawa szans edukacyjnych dzieci z osiedli popegeerowskich", Agroprzemiany 1999, nr 5, s Illich I., Spoleczenstwo bez szkoly, Warszawa 1976 Iwanowska A. (red.), Edukacja jako czynnik rozwoju spolecznosci malych miast, Pultusk 2004, WSH Izycka H., Szkolenie bezrobotnych w okresie 5-lecia systemu urzedow pracy, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 1999, nr 1, s Jackowska M., Ksztaltowanie sie ubostwa w Polsce w powiazaniu ze zmianami w zatrudnieniu w latach dziewiecdziesiatych, Zesz. Nauk. SGGW Ekon. Org. Gosp. Zywn 2002, nr 47, s Jarmuzek J., Po co doroslym samoksztalcenie?, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 2004, nr 4, s Jarosz M., Suicide, Warszawa 1998, PAS Jeruszka U. (red.), Metody badania losow i karier absolwentow szkol zawodowych, Warszawa 2001, IPiSS Jeruszka U., Pomiar wynikow a jakosc ksztalcenia zawodowego, W-wa 2002, WSP TWP Judge A., Wskazniki zdolnosci naprawczej [w:] Danecki J. i M. (red.), U podloza globalnych zagrozen, Warszawa 2003, s Juras-Krawczyk B., Przymus czy uzaleznienie od edukacji? [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa-Radom 2002, ITE, s Kabaj M., Projekt systemu integracji edukacji zawodowej i rynku pracy, Polityka Spoleczna 1998, nr 9 Kaminska K., Upowszechnienie edukacji przedszkolnej w Polsce - stan i prognozy na przyszlosc [w:] Zahorska M. (red.), Edukacja przedszkolna w Polsce - szanse i zagrozenia, Warszawa 2003, ISP, s Kargul J., Edukacja a rynek pracy relacja czy jej zaprzeczenie, Edukacja Doroslych 1998, nr 4 Kawczynska-Butrym Z. (red.), Mieszkancy osiedli bylych pegeerow o swojej sytuacji zyciowej, Olsztyn 2001, SQL Klepacki B., Wprowadzenie gospodarki opartej na wiedzy szansa rozwoju Polski, Wies Jutra 2005, nr 1, s Kobylecki J., Rola oswiaty i doradztwa rolniczego w rozwoju obszarow wiejskich, Zagadnienia Doradztwa Rolniczego 2001, nr 2 16

18 Kolaczek B., Aspiracje edukacyjne i mozliwosci ich realizacji [w:] Sztumski J. (red.), Pokolenie wygranych? Dzieci i mlodziez w procesie transformacji spoleczno-gospodarczej i politycznej Polski, Katowice 2001, US, s Kopciewicz L., Gender (rodzaj) i druga szansa - feministyczne kontrowersje wokol edukacji doroslych, Edukacja Doroslych 2004, nr 1-2, s Korsak K., Evolution of continuous education in Ukraine ( ) [w:] Auleytner J. (red.), Lifelong learning links between West and Central Europe, Warsaw 1999, Elipsa, s Korzeniowska K. i Tarkowska E., Mlodziez z bylych PGR-ow, Warszawa 2002, ISP Kosciuk T., Informacja o realizacji programu oslonowo-aktywizujacego dla bylych pracownikow panstwowych gospodarstw rolnych, Agroprzemiany 1999, nr 1, s Kowalak T., Marginalnosc i marginalizacja spoleczna, Warszawa 1998, Elipsa Kowalewski T., Znaczenie szkolnictwa wyzszego w pokonywaniu nierownosci spolecznogospodarczych w malych miejscowosciach [w:] Nierownosci spoleczne a wzrost gospodarczy, Rzeszow 2003, UR Kowalski J., Ksztalcenie ustawiczne w warunkach przeobrazania rolnictwa i jego otoczenia, Zagadn. Doradz. Roln. 1998, nr 4 Kozlowska-Rajewicz A. i Polanska E., Spoleczno-ekonomiczne uwarunkowania wynikow sprawdzianu 2002 i 2003 w gminach na terenie OKE Poznan, Przeglad Badan Edukacyjnych 2005 nr 1, s Kozuch A., Czynniki deprecjacji kapitalu ludzkiego na wsi, Zagadn. Doradz. Roln. 2004, nr 4, s Krajowy Plan Dzialania na rzecz Integracji Spolecznej na lata , RM Kraus F., Puhani P. i Steiner V., Employment effects of publicly financed training programs - the East German experience, Jahrbucher fur Nationalokonomie und Statistik, 219, 1999, s Ksztalcenie ustawiczne w 2003 roku, Warszawa 2004, GUS Kubicki P. i Cichowicz E., Rodzina wobec wykluczenia spolecznego - analiza "Pamietnikow bezrobotnych", Polityka Spoleczna 2000, nr 4 Kupisiewicz Cz., Eduacyjne nadzieje i rozczarowania XX wieku, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 1999, nr 3, s Kuusipalo P., KAMU II - The community and a peer worker supporting the refugees' mental healt [w:] Hinzen H., Przybylska E. i Staszewicz M. (ed.), Adult Education in a United Europe - Abudance, Diversity, Experience, Torun 2005, UMK, s Kwiecinski Z., Blokada rozwoju. Skutki nierownosci w poziomie alfabetyzacji [w:] Zahorska M. (red.), Edukacja przedszkolna w Polsce - szanse i zagrozenia, Warszawa 2003, ISP, s

19 Lapinska-Tyszka K, i Perepeczko B., Subiektywny i obiektywny wymiar ubostwa na wsi, Wies i Rolnictwo 2002, nr 3, s Lawryniuk W. i Niemiec M., Praca - zawod - kariera. Mlodziez z bylych PGR-ow, Agroprzemiany 2002, nr 5 Lawryniuk W., Spoleczny wymiar transformacji rolnictwa uspolecznionego w Polsce, Agroprzemiany 2001, nr 4, s Lesochina L., Spoleczenstwo ludzi wyksztalconych? Spoleczne uwarunkowania edukacji, Warszawa-Torun 1997, A.Marszalek Lewczuk M., Przeciwdzialanie bezrobociu w srodowisku wiejskim, Agroprzemiany 1997, nr 1, s Lewowicki T. (red.), Edukacja miedzykulturowa w Polsce i na swiecie, Katowice 2000 Lopuszynska M., Trudnosci z powrotem do spoleczenstwa w opinii recydywistow, Auxilium Sociale 2004, nr 3-4, s Lutyk A., Programy specjalne przeciwdzialania bezrobociu, Agroprzemiany 1997, nr 1, s Major F., Przyszlosc swiata, Warszawa 2001, Fund. Studiow i Badan Edukacyjnych Malecki-Tepicht S., Fundusz aktywizacji bezrobotnych, Agroprzemiany 1995, nr 12 Malinowski J., Szkola jako podmiot systemu zintegowanych dzialan socjalnych w srodowisku lokalnym [w:] Praca socjalna w organizacjach pozarzadowych (red. B.Kromolicka), Torun 2005, Akapit, s Matysiak A., Ksztalcenie ustawiczne w Polsce. Korzysci i bariery rozwoju, Gdansk 2003, IBnGR Mazur R., Podnoszenie plastycznosci innowacyjnej mieszkancow obszarow wiejskich jako narzedzie walki z bezrobociem, Fol. Univ. Agricul. Stetin. Oecon. 2002, z. 41 (230), s Meighan R., Wczesne wychowanie i ksztalcenie [w:] Kwiecinski Z. (red.), Nieobecne dyskursy, Torun, 1997, UMK Mendel M. (red.), Animacja wspolpracy srodowiskowej, Torun 2002, A.Marszalek Mikolajewicz Z. (red), Spoleczne i regionalne aspekty przemian strukturalnych w polskiej gospodarce okresu transformacji, Opole 2004, UO Nieweglowski M., Kierunki zmian wplywajace na aktywizacje zawodowa mieszkancow wsi, Zesz. Nauk. AP Siedl. Ekon. Org. Rol. 2004, nr 64, s Okolski M., Demografia zmiany spolecznej, Warszawa 2004, Scholar Olech D., Pomocna dlon, Agroprzemiany 1997, nr 6, s

20 Orzechowska G., Autoedukacja pomoca w poszukiwaniu pracy w rejonie zagrozonym bezrobociem [w:] Wesolowska E. (red.), Edukacja doroslych w erze globalizmu, Plock 2002, Novum, s Osborn A. i Milbank J., The effects of early education: a report from the child health and education study, Oxford 1987, Oxford Univ. Press Pachocinski R., Andragogika w wymiarze miedzynarodowym, Warszawa 1998, IBE Pachocinski R., Strategie reform oswiatowych na swiecie. Szkolnictwo podstawowe i srednie, Warszawa 2002, IBE Paeglite I. i Gabrane I., Civic education [w:] Hinzen H., Przybylska E. i Staszewicz M. (ed.), Adult Education in a United Europe - Abudance, Diversity, Experience, Torun 2005, UMK, s Papaioannou S., Erwachsenenbildung in Griechenland, Franfurt/M 1997, DIE Piatek K. (red.), Problemy spoleczno gospodarcze w Europie Srodkowo-Wschodniej, Wloclawek 2002, WSH-E Piatek K. i A.Karwacki, Zagrozenie wykluczeniem spolecznym w woj. kujawsko-pomorskim. Perspektywy klubow integracji spolecznej w gminach, Torun 2005, ROPS Piatek K., Polityka spoleczna a praca osob o ograniczonych mozliwosciach aktywnosci zawodowej, Torun 1993, UMK Piecek B., Edukacyjny i materialny potencjal wiejskiego przedsiebiorcy, Wies i Rolnictwo 2004, nr 4 Pierscieniak K., Funkcjonowanie systemu pozaszkolnej edukacji doroslych w Polsce, Edukacja Doroslych 2000, nr 1, s Piwowarski R., Szkoly na wsi - edukacyjne wyzwanie, Warszawa 2000, IBE Polska w obliczu wyzwan przyszlosci, Warszawa 2004, PAN Polturzycki J., Edukacja doroslych za granica, Torun, 1998, A.Marszalek Przybylska E. (red.), Edukacja doroslych w wybranych krajach Europy, Torun 2000 Psyk-Piortowska E., Spoleczne konsekwencje przeksztalcen wlasnosciowych w rolnictwie panstwowym, Lodz 2004, UL Psyk-Piotrowska E., Mozliwosc demarginalizacji wsi poprzez programy "Odnowy wsi", Wies i Rolnictwo 2005, nr 4 Putkiewicz E. i Zytko M., Znaczenie edukacji przedszkolnej na podstawie badan i doswiadczen miedzynarodowych [w:] Zahorska M. (red.), Edukacja przedszkolna w Polsce - szanse i zagrozenia, Warszawa 2003, ISP, s

21 Rabczuk W., Polityka edukacyjna Unii Europejskiej wobec imigrantow oraz mniejszosci narodowych i etnicznych, Warszawa 2004, IBE Rabusicova M. i Rabusic L., On adult education in the Czech Republic - who participates and why [w:] Rethinking inequalities. 7 th European Sociological Association Conference. Abstracts, Torun 2005, UMK, s Radziewicz-Winnicki A., Modernizacja pozaszkolnych obszarow edukacji w srodowisku lokalnym w procesie transformacji ku gospodarce rynkowej [w:] Ubostwo, zmiana spoleczna (red. D.Zalewska), Wroclaw 1995, s Rosalska M., Drogi edukacyjne sluchaczy Wielkopolskiego Towarzystwa Uniwersytetow Ludowych [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa-Radom 2002, ITE Runiewicz-Jasinska R., Edukacja doroslych w panstwach nadbaltyckich (Litwa, Lotwa, Estonia) w dobie globalizacji, Rocznik Andragogiczny 2001, s Sanecki G., Bezrobotna mlodziez wobec dalszej edukacji, Edukacja Doroslych 1998, nr 4 Sapia-Drewniak E., Polskie szkolnictwo przywiezienne wobec doswiadczen wybranych krajow europejskich, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 2000, nr 1, s Sava S., Continuing education in Romania [w:] Auleytner J. (red.), Lifelong learning links between West and Central Europe, Warsaw 1999, Elipsa, s Schmidt-Behlau B., Europejska Siec Miedzykulturowej Edukacji Doroslych, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 2005, nr 1, s Sikorska A., Potrzeby edukacyjne ludnosci wiejskiej, Zagadnienia Rkonomiki Rolnej 2000, nr 2-3, s Sirojc Z. (red.), Edukacja przeciw wykluczeniu, Warszawa 2005, KG OHP Skrzyczynski T., Ksztalcenie ustawiczne w srodowisku wiejskim, Zagadn. Doradz. Roln. 1997, nr 2, s Skwarek J., Rola oswiaty doroslych w zyciu osobistym i karierze zawodowej uczestnikow ksztalcenia (doktorat obroniony w 2003 r na KUL) Solarczyk H., Edukacja doroslych w Grecji, Edukacja Doroslych 1999, nr 4, s Solarczyk-Ambroziak E., Szanse i bariery na drodze edukacyjnej w perspektywie biograficznej [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa- Radom 2002, ITE, s Sosnowska B., Ewolucji poziomu i struktury wyksztalcenia ludnosci wiejskiej oraz jej implikacje spoleczno-ekonomiczne, Roczn. Nauk. Stow. Ekon. Roln. Agrobizn. 2001, t.3, z. 6, s

22 Staniszewski A., Naznaczeni spolecznie - Romow polskich problemy i dzialania edukacyjne, Edukacja Doroslych 2004, nr 1-2, s Stanko A., Wykluczenie spoleczne i sfera ubostwa w krajach Unii Europejskiej, Zesz. Nauk. SGGW, Ekon. Org. Gosp. Zywn. 2003, nr 50. s Struzyna A., Utrata pracy - jej znaczenie dla wyboru drogi edukacyjnej [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa-Radom 2002, ITE, s Suchy S., Warunki formalnoprawne szkolenia bezrobotnych i osob, ktorym zagraza utrata pracy, Edukacja Ustawiczna Doroslych 1999, nr 2, s Sulmicka M., Strategia lizbonska - nowe wyzwania, Polityka Spoleczna 2005, nr 1 Sulmicka M., Ubostwo we wspolczesnym swiecie, Warszawa 2001, SGH Szadrina T. i Werszinina W., Oswiata jako czynnik socjalnej rehabilitacji, Edukacja Doroslych 2000, nr 3, s Szafraniec K., Pokoleniowe preferencje systemowe. Specyfika wiejska, Wies i Rolnictwo 2003, nr 3, s Szafraniec K., Wies jako miejsce niechciane. Przyczynek do tezy o postepujacej marginalizacji wsi i rolnictwa w Polsce, Wies i Rolnictwo 1999, nr 4, s Szalczyk Z., Czterdziesci lat funkcjonowania panstwowego systemu upowszechniania postepu w rolnictwie i doradztwa rolniczego w wojewodztwie poznanskim, Zagadn. Doradz. Roln. 1997, nr 2, s Szarota Z., Edukacja jako funkcja spolecznej emancypacji Romow, Edukacja Doroslych 2002, nr 4, s Sztanderska U., Warunki realizacji Narodowego Planu Rozwoju. Spojrzenie od strony rynku pracy [w:] Sirojc Z. (red.), Edukacja przeciw wykluczeniu, Warszawa 2005, KG OHP, s Sztumski J. (red.), Pokolenie wygranych? Dzieci i mlodziez w procesie transformacji spoleczno-gospodarczej i politycznej Polski, Katowice 2001, US Szwarc H. i Szyszko-Wydra B., Motywy podjecia studiow i ocena programow nauczania przez sluchaczy Uniwersytetu Trzeciego Wieku przy CMKP w Warszawie oraz sluchaczy UTW przy Wyzszej Szkole Pedagogicznej w Schwabisch Gmunde, Edukacja Doroslych 1999, nr 2, s Szyndler K., Edukacja daje szanse, Agroprzemiany 1998, nr 4 Tarkowska E. i Korzeniowska K., Mlodziez z bylych PGR-ow, Earszawa 2002, ISS Tarkowska E., System edukacji a problemy mlodziezy ze srodowisk defaworyzowanych [w:] Sirojc Z. (red.), Edukacja przeciw wykluczeniu, Warszawa 2005, KG OHP, s

23 Tarkowska E., Ubostwo w bylych PGR-ach czyli o dawnych zrodlach nowej biedy, Agroprzemiany 1999, nr 3, s Tarkowska E., Ubostwo w bylych PGr-ach: w poszukiwaniu dawnych zrodel nowej biedy, Kultura i Spoleczenstwo 1998, nr 2, s Tereseviciene M. i Zuzeviciute V., [w:] Hinzen H., Przybylska E. i Staszewicz M. (ed.), Adult Education in a United Europe - Abudance, Diversity, Experience, Torun 2005, UMK, s Timcak G., Introduction of lifelong education to the educational culture of Slovakia [w:] Auleytner J. (red.), Lifelong learning links between West and Central Europe, Warsaw 1999, Elipsa, s Tourdanov D., Ksztalcenie ustawiczne a edukacja europejska w Polsce, Warszawa 2004, WSP TWP Trafialek E., Uniwersytety Trzeciego Wieku wobec ekskluzji spolecznej ludzi starych - stan i perspektywy w ujeciu porownawczym, Edukacja Doroslych 2003, nr 3, s Vosahlova E., promote equal opportunities for disabled persons [w:] Hinzen H., Przybylska E. i Staszewicz M. (ed.), Adult Education in a United Europe - Abudance, Diversity, Experience, Torun 2005, UMK, s Waszkowski H., Rola turnusow rehabilitacyjnych w rehabilitacji spolecznej i zawodowej osob niepelnosprawnych, Auxilium Sociale 2004, nr 1, s Wawrzyniak B., Luka edukacyjna bariera procesu integracji polskiej wsi i rolnictwa z Unia Europejska, Wies i Rolnictwo 2001, nr 3, s Wesolowska E. (red.), Edukacja doroslych w erze globalizmu, Plock 2002, Novum Wesolowska E., Drogi edukacyjne pieciu pokolen - na przykladzie jednej rodziny w Polsce [w:] Dubas E. i Czerniawska O. (red.), Drogi edukacyjne i ich biograficzny wymiar, Warszawa- Radom 2002, ITE, s Wrobel J., Efektywnosc aktywnych programow rynku pracy [w:] Frackiewicz L. (red.), Wykluczenie, rewitalizacja, spojnosc spoleczna, Katowice-Warszawa 2004, Slask, s Zahorska M. (red.), Edukacja przedszkolna w Polsce - szanse i zagrozenia, Warszawa 2003, ISP Zawisza-Maslyk E. i Domagala-Krecioch A., Relacje, deklaracje, postawy. Studenci uczelni pedagogicznej wobec niepelnosprawnosci, Edukacja Doroslych 2003, nr 2, s Zieba K., Zmiana kwalifikacji mieszkancow wsi prowadzacych uslugi agroturystyczne, Fol. Univ. Agricult.Stetin. Oecon. 2000, z. 38(208), s

24 POLISH TARGET GROUP the youth from the area of former state farms in Northern Poland (provinces of pomorskie, zachodnio-pomorskie, warmi sko- mazurskie ) 1 the problems they are facing: unemployment poverty a block on educational opportunities social isolation assignment to one s position trapping in a local space learnt helplessness social reproduction (reproduction of low social status) self-marginalization The system transformation in Poland resulted in both economic and social diversification. Winners and losers emerged. In the process of privatization in agricultural sector, for example, the winners are new owners or leasers who began to form a middle class, and losers are the dismissed workers of the SAF (State Agricultural Farms) and their families. Rural areas in Poland, in particular those where once state farms prevailed, contend with multidimensional results of socio-economic disadvantage. Inhabitants of post- SAF housing estates in rural area and small towns clearly experience marginalization, trapping in local space, assignment to one s position. All this contributes to their isolation and makes an obstacle in their entering the labor market that results in social reproduction in a following generation. Thus, an essential problem in the areas of the former SAF is not only spatial segregation that strengthen a ghetto effect, but also possibility to inherit a limited opportunity to obtain good education, qualifications and a steady job, as well as to inherit the attitude of passivity. The marginalization process is reinforced with a specific type of mentality these people present it is a combination of a serf s complex and collective farmer s awareness former SAF workers and their families came from small holders farms or peasants who did not have any farming land, or they came from large poor families of the former farmhands, from the rural poor, the court servants. Therefore for many villagers rurality means marginalization. Marginalization seems particularly painful for rural youth. Much too often they experience marginalization already at the very start of their life in education, which is the sphere in which 1 area of former state farms understood as villages and small towns 23

25 opportunities and life aspirations of young people get differentiated. For many young people in the country education is not accessible, which means limitation of their life opportunities (marginalization) and therefore their educational plans are not as ambitious as those of urban youth (auto-marginalization). One of the most marginalized groups in rural area in Poland are young people from poverty stricken rural areas- areas of former state-owned farms, especially graduates staying without work. These graduates having completed different kind of schools, young people from rural area often are not able to find employment in cities. They come back to their villages and families for which they constitute a large burden. The unemployed, without right to an unemployment benefit - social benefit, soon become "redundant and inconvenient persons, incapable of independent life, they are gradually driving into the feeling of helplessness. The learnt helplessness which is the effect of self-marginalization (auto-marginaliztion) accelerates a process of social exclusion of this group. It is the continuation of a dramatic trajectory, leading the described youth to the margins of social, cultural, economic and political life. That s why they are unable to negotiate their social exclusion. Those young people are a next link in social reproduction, they are incapable of breaking symbolic and structural barriers of their background. They are not used to forming forces of social capital in rural area (we can accept thesis, that they are obstacle in a road to building social capital). The feeling of throwing out by fate and society, characterizes a considerable group of this youth. Obstacles in opportunity prospects and aspirations of the youth in post-saf communities can be interpreted in terms of cultural trauma. There occurs the clash between internalized value of education with actual opportunities to obtain it. The lack of financial resources to pay for educational aspirations seems to be the biggest problem. Thus development (educational development mainly) tracks get closed. This may end up in frustration and the sense of social deprivation among the young whose aspirations were aroused. In the situation of the experienced trauma, the mechanisms of adaptation of the young to the present situation develop. These adaptation strategies can take a form of innovation that aims at better accommodation (in the form of migration, for example) or a form of passive continuation of the status quo (the young stay and vegetate in a local community, retreatism, self-marginalization). 24

26 RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS OF POLAND in 2004 (percent factorization) 30% and more 25,1% - 30,0% 20,1% - 25,0% 15,1% - 20,0% 15,0% and less 25

Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme

Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme Pracownia Naukowo-Edukacyjna Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme and the contribution by ESF funds towards the results achieved within specific

Bardziej szczegółowo

ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS.

ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS. ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS. Strona 1 1. Please give one answer. I am: Students involved in project 69% 18 Student not involved in

Bardziej szczegółowo

Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level

Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level Opening presentation at joint Polish Ministry OECD conference April 16, 2012, Warsaw Mirosław Sielatycki Ministry of National Education Doskonalenie

Bardziej szczegółowo

Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing and its consequences for society

Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing and its consequences for society Prof. Piotr Bledowski, Ph.D. Institute of Social Economy, Warsaw School of Economics local policy, social security, labour market Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing

Bardziej szczegółowo

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl Back Twoje konto Wyloguj magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students Tworzenie ankiety Udostępnianie Analiza (55) Wyniki

Bardziej szczegółowo

Łukasz Reszka Wiceprezes Zarządu

Łukasz Reszka Wiceprezes Zarządu Łukasz Reszka Wiceprezes Zarządu Time for changes! Vocational activisation young unemployed people aged 15 to 24 Projekt location Ząbkowice Śląskie project produced in cooperation with Poviat Labour Office

Bardziej szczegółowo

Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers

Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers 10-12 milionów Romów w Europie 6 milionów mieszkających w U E Irlandia Polska Republika Czeska Turcja Populacja społeczności romskiej w liczbach Irlandia Polska

Bardziej szczegółowo

Cracow University of Economics Poland. Overview. Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005

Cracow University of Economics Poland. Overview. Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 Cracow University of Economics Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 - Key Note Speech - Presented by: Dr. David Clowes The Growth Research Unit CE Europe

Bardziej szczegółowo

Financial support for start-uppres. Where to get money? - Equity. - Credit. - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł)

Financial support for start-uppres. Where to get money? - Equity. - Credit. - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł) Financial support for start-uppres Where to get money? - Equity - Credit - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł) - only for unymployed people - the company must operate minimum

Bardziej szczegółowo

Angielski Biznes Ciekawie

Angielski Biznes Ciekawie Angielski Biznes Ciekawie Conditional sentences (type 2) 1. Discuss these two types of mindsets. 2. Decide how each type would act. 3. How would you act? Czy nauka gramatyki języka angielskiego jest trudna?

Bardziej szczegółowo

Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism

Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism Projekt finansowany Fundusze Europejskie z budżetu państwa dla rozwoju oraz ze Polski środków Wschodniej Unii Europejskiej

Bardziej szczegółowo

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers 1 z 7 2015-05-14 18:32 Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl Back Twoje konto Wyloguj magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers Tworzenie ankiety Udostępnianie

Bardziej szczegółowo

Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713

Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713 Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713 Piąte spotkanie grupy partnerskiej w Katowicach (Polska) 19-20 maj 2015 Program Uczenie się przez całe życie Grundtvig Tytył projektu: Osoby 50+ na rynku

Bardziej szczegółowo

A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY

A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY ODMIENNE PODEJŚCIE JAK NAWIGOWAĆ W OBECNYCH NURTACH I RUCHACH, KTÓRE

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Global Marketing. on the study program: Management

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Global Marketing. on the study program: Management Poznań, 2012, September 20th Doctor Anna Scheibe adiunct in the Department of Economic Sciences PROJECT Syllabus for course Global Marketing on the study program: Management I. General information 1. Name

Bardziej szczegółowo

No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need

No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need CSR STRATEGY KANCELARIA FINANSOWA TRITUM GROUP SP. Z O.O. No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need Kancelaria Finansowa Tritum Group Sp. z o.o. was established in 2007 we build trust among

Bardziej szczegółowo

Working Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Jobseeker s Allowance

Working Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Jobseeker s Allowance Benefits Depending on your residency status (EU citizen or not) there are various benefits available to help you with costs of living. A8 nationals need to have been working for a year and be registered

Bardziej szczegółowo

Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project can respond.

Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project can respond. Project CARETRAINING PROJECT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE Projekt CARETRAINING KWESTIONARIUSZ EWALUACJI PROJEKTU Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project

Bardziej szczegółowo

KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE - GLIWICE SUBZONE

KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE - GLIWICE SUBZONE KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy Definition: WHAT DOES THE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE MEAN? THE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE IS THE SEPERATED AREA WITH ATTRACTIVE TAX

Bardziej szczegółowo

Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach

Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu Wydział Zarządzania Specjalność: Inwestycje Kapitałowe i Strategie Finansowe Przedsiębiorstw Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach Michał Goc Praca

Bardziej szczegółowo

Egzamin maturalny z języka angielskiego na poziomie dwujęzycznym Rozmowa wstępna (wyłącznie dla egzaminującego)

Egzamin maturalny z języka angielskiego na poziomie dwujęzycznym Rozmowa wstępna (wyłącznie dla egzaminującego) 112 Informator o egzaminie maturalnym z języka angielskiego od roku szkolnego 2014/2015 2.6.4. Część ustna. Przykładowe zestawy zadań Przykładowe pytania do rozmowy wstępnej Rozmowa wstępna (wyłącznie

Bardziej szczegółowo

Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates

Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates POLAND a) National eligibility criteria Funding Organisation National Contact Point National Center for Research and Development (Narodowe Centrum

Bardziej szczegółowo

THE PROFILE OF PRIMARY LANGUAGE TEACHER. Mariola Bogucka Warszawa, 29.9.2011

THE PROFILE OF PRIMARY LANGUAGE TEACHER. Mariola Bogucka Warszawa, 29.9.2011 THE PROFILE OF PRIMARY LANGUAGE TEACHER Mariola Bogucka Warszawa, 29.9.2011 Cross European Studies quality FL teaching & learning for YLs Nikolov M., Curtain H. (2000) An early Start: Young Learners and

Bardziej szczegółowo

BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation. operation good practices presentation

BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation. operation good practices presentation BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation operation good practices presentation Polites association was founded in 2002 in Szczecin Stowarzyszenie POLITES w Szczecinie Starszy Brat Starsza Siostra

Bardziej szczegółowo

Planowanie zrównoważonego transportu miejskiego w Polsce. Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning Poland. Wprowadzenie. Introduction

Planowanie zrównoważonego transportu miejskiego w Polsce. Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning Poland. Wprowadzenie. Introduction Planowanie zrównoważonego transportu miejskiego w Polsce Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning Poland Wprowadzenie Introduction Wyzwania polityki UE w zakresie transportu miejskiego Zatłoczenie centrów miast

Bardziej szczegółowo

TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH

TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH INŻYNIERIA W ROLNICTWIE. MONOGRAFIE 16 ENGINEERING IN AGRICULTURE. MONOGRAPHS 16 WIESŁAW GOLKA TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH TRANSPORTATION IN RURAL FAMILY FARMS Falenty 2014 WYDAWNICTWO

Bardziej szczegółowo

Polska Szkoła Weekendowa, Arklow, Co. Wicklow KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM

Polska Szkoła Weekendowa, Arklow, Co. Wicklow KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM 1. Imię i nazwisko dziecka / Child's name... 2. Adres / Address... 3. Data urodzenia / Date of birth... 4. Imię i nazwisko matki /Mother's name... 5. Adres

Bardziej szczegółowo

Cracow University of Economics Poland

Cracow University of Economics Poland Cracow University of Economics Poland Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 - Keynote Speech - Presented by: Dr. David Clowes The Growth Research Unit,

Bardziej szczegółowo

18. Przydatne zwroty podczas egzaminu ustnego. 19. Mo liwe pytania egzaminatora i przyk³adowe odpowiedzi egzaminowanego

18. Przydatne zwroty podczas egzaminu ustnego. 19. Mo liwe pytania egzaminatora i przyk³adowe odpowiedzi egzaminowanego 18. Przydatne zwroty podczas egzaminu ustnego I m sorry, could you repeat that, please? - Przepraszam, czy mo na prosiæ o powtórzenie? I m sorry, I don t understand. - Przepraszam, nie rozumiem. Did you

Bardziej szczegółowo

Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami

Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami Seweryn SPAŁEK Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami MONOGRAFIA Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej Gliwice 2004 SPIS TREŚCI WPROWADZENIE 5 1. ZARZĄDZANIE PROJEKTAMI W ORGANIZACJI 13 1.1. Zarządzanie

Bardziej szczegółowo

ANKIETA ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA

ANKIETA ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA Przedszkole Nr 1 w Zabrzu ANKIETA ul. Reymonta 52 41-800 Zabrze tel./fax. 0048 32 271-27-34 p1zabrze@poczta.onet.pl http://jedyneczka.bnet.pl ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA Drodzy Rodzice. W związku z realizacją

Bardziej szczegółowo

Informal Support in Ageing Societies

Informal Support in Ageing Societies Informal Support in Ageing Societies The Elderly, the Family and the Welfare State Dependency Ratios Myth and Reality The Elderly as Providers and Recipients Future Challenges Policy Implications 1 Dependency

Bardziej szczegółowo

Implementation of the JEREMIE initiative in Poland. Prague, 8 November 2011

Implementation of the JEREMIE initiative in Poland. Prague, 8 November 2011 Implementation of the JEREMIE initiative in Poland Prague, 8 November 2011 Poland - main beneficiary of EU structural funds - 20% of allocation within cohesion policy (EUR 67 bln) Over EUR 10 bln of NSRF

Bardziej szczegółowo

Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe

Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe Rural Non-Governmental Organisations Editor Maria Halamska Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw 2008 Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe

Bardziej szczegółowo

Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in. (MSE) programme in Telecommunications and Computer Science

Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in. (MSE) programme in Telecommunications and Computer Science Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in (MSE) programme 1 Topic: Monte Carlo Method used for a prognosis of a selected technological process 2 Supervisor: Dr in Małgorzata Langer 3 Auxiliary supervisor: 4

Bardziej szczegółowo

Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International

Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International Edycja 5. kwiecień 2015 5 th Edition APRIL 2015 Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International The Most Desired Employers 2014 in the Opinion of Professionals

Bardziej szczegółowo

UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ

UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ Zaproponowany dla krajów Unii Europejskiej oraz dla wszystkich zainteresowanych stron wzór Umowy wypożyczenia między muzeami i instytucjami kultury opracowany został przez

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROGRAM STAŻU. Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o.

PROGRAM STAŻU. Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o. PROGRAM STAŻU Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o. Miejsce odbywania stażu / Legal address Muchoborska 8, 54-424 Wroclaw Stanowisko, obszar działania/

Bardziej szczegółowo

Perspektywy PDF. ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0

Perspektywy PDF. ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0 Perspektywy PDF ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0 Perspektywy PDF By 0 - Are you searching for Perspektywy pdf Books? Now, you will be happy that Perspektywy PDF is available at our online library

Bardziej szczegółowo

How much does SMARTech system cost?

How much does SMARTech system cost? 1. How much does an intelligent home system cost? With over six years of experience in construction of Intelligent Home Systems we have done a value analysis of systems and services usually purchased by

Bardziej szczegółowo

THE ADMISSION APPLICATION TO PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOL. PART I. Personal information about a child and his/her parents (guardians) Child s name...

THE ADMISSION APPLICATION TO PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOL. PART I. Personal information about a child and his/her parents (guardians) Child s name... THE ADMISSION APPLICATION TO PRIVATE PRIMARY SCHOOL PART I. Personal information about a child and his/her parents (guardians) Child s name... Child s surname........ Date and place of birth..... Citizenship.....

Bardziej szczegółowo

Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia

Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia Katedra Rynku Transportowego Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia dr Marcin Wołek Department of Transportation Market University of Gdansk Warsaw,

Bardziej szczegółowo

WYDZIAŁ NAUK EKONOMICZNYCH

WYDZIAŁ NAUK EKONOMICZNYCH Studia I stopnia stacjonarne i niestacjonarne Kierunek Międzynarodowe Stosunki Gospodarcze Specjalność PROGRAM OF BACHELOR STUDIES Graduate profile Graduate has a general theoretical knowledge in the field

Bardziej szczegółowo

Employment. Number of employees employed on a contract of employment by gender in 2012. Company

Employment. Number of employees employed on a contract of employment by gender in 2012. Company Im not found /sites/eneacsr2012.mess-asp.com/themes/eneacsr2012/img/enea.jpg Employt Capital Group is one of the largest companies in the energy industry. Therefore it has an influence, as an employer,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Trend in drug use in Poland

Trend in drug use in Poland Prevalence and patterns of drug use among general population Indicator (GPS) Annual Expert Meeting 214 Trend in drug use in Poland Janusz Sierosławski Institute of Psychiatry i Neurology Warsaw Lisbon,

Bardziej szczegółowo

European teens speaking through art. Europejscy nastolatkowie wypowiadają się poprzez sztukę.

European teens speaking through art. Europejscy nastolatkowie wypowiadają się poprzez sztukę. European teens speaking through art. Europejscy nastolatkowie wypowiadają się poprzez sztukę. The schools which participate in the project are from: Szkoły uczestniczące w projekcie są z: POLAND POLSKI

Bardziej szczegółowo

I webinarium 18.02.2015

I webinarium 18.02.2015 I webinarium 18.02.2015 Współfinansowany ze środków Europejskiego Funduszu Rozwoju Regionalnego w ramach Programu Operacyjnego Współpracy Transgranicznej Republika Czeska - Rzeczpospolita Polska 2007-2013.

Bardziej szczegółowo

Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm

Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm The realization of the programme "The Whole World is One Big Chelm" March 2006 We have completed yet another stage of our programme.

Bardziej szczegółowo

LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES

LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES The Student First and last name(s) Nationality E-mail Academic year 2014/2015 Study period 1 st semester 2 nd semester Study cycle Bachelor Master Doctoral Subject area,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Model for Youth Monitoring in the Regional Labour Markets: Practical Results of Soft Modelling (Polish regions example)

Model for Youth Monitoring in the Regional Labour Markets: Practical Results of Soft Modelling (Polish regions example) Model for Youth Monitoring in the Regional Labour Markets: Practical Results of Soft Modelling (Polish regions example) Marta Sosnowska Regional Labour Office in Białystok, Poland 24 th September 204,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Steps to build a business Examples: Qualix Comergent

Steps to build a business Examples: Qualix Comergent How To Start a BUSINESS Agenda Steps to build a business Examples: Qualix Comergent 1 Idea The Idea is a Piece of a Company 4 2 The Idea is a Piece of a Company Investing_in_New_Ideas.wmv Finding_the_Problem_is_the_Hard_Part_Kevin

Bardziej szczegółowo

Zarządzanie sieciami telekomunikacyjnymi

Zarządzanie sieciami telekomunikacyjnymi SNMP Protocol The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. It is part of the Transmission

Bardziej szczegółowo

The list of 20 abstracts, prepared in March 2005 CIS (994-1013) [Nr 31]

The list of 20 abstracts, prepared in March 2005 CIS (994-1013) [Nr 31] The list of 20 abstracts, prepared in March 2005 CIS (994-1013) [Nr 31] 994. pracy w Polsce do standardów Unii Europejskiej : Część A. Program realizacji badań naukowych i prac rozwojowych 1.01 31.12.2002.

Bardziej szczegółowo

Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI

Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI O tym, dlaczego warto budować pasywnie, komu budownictwo pasywne się opłaca, a kto się go boi, z architektem, Cezarym Sankowskim, rozmawia

Bardziej szczegółowo

Wikimedia Polska Conference 2009 You too can create... not only Wikipedia!

Wikimedia Polska Conference 2009 You too can create... not only Wikipedia! Wikimedia Polska Conference 2009 You too can create... not only Wikipedia! 1 st -3 rd May, 2009, Jadwisin by the Jezioro Zegrzyńskie Wikimedia Polska Conference 2009 is a fourth event organized by the

Bardziej szczegółowo

Tytuł projektu: Osoby 50 + na rynku pracy Project title: People over 50 on the labour market

Tytuł projektu: Osoby 50 + na rynku pracy Project title: People over 50 on the labour market Dzień dobry Good morning Hyvää huomenta Buenos dĺas Projekt Partnerski Grundtviga Spotkanie w Katowicach 26-29 Listopad 2013 Grundtvig partnership project Kick off meeting in Katowice 26 29 November 2013

Bardziej szczegółowo

Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego

Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego Imię i Nazwisko Kandydata/Kandydatki Proszę wstawić X w pole zgodnie z prawdą: Brak znajomości języka angielskiego Znam j. angielski (Proszę wypełnić poniższy

Bardziej szczegółowo

A n g i e l s k i. Phrasal Verbs in Situations. Podręcznik z ćwiczeniami. Dorota Guzik Joanna Bruska FRAGMENT

A n g i e l s k i. Phrasal Verbs in Situations. Podręcznik z ćwiczeniami. Dorota Guzik Joanna Bruska FRAGMENT A n g i e l s k i Phrasal Verbs in Situations Podręcznik z ćwiczeniami FRAGMENT Dorota Guzik Joanna Bruska Autorzy: Dorota Guzik, Joanna Bruska Konsultacja językowa: Tadeusz Z. Wolański Lektorzy: Maybe

Bardziej szczegółowo

ALA MA KOTA PRESCHOOL URSYNÓW WARSAW POLAND

ALA MA KOTA PRESCHOOL URSYNÓW WARSAW POLAND ALA MA KOTA PRESCHOOL URSYNÓW WARSAW POLAND Ala ma kota is a network of non-public education preschools which are entered into the register of non-public schools and institutions of the Capital City of

Bardziej szczegółowo

Tworzenie zintegrowanych strategii miejskich. Creation of integrated urban strategies? the example of the Krakow Functional Area

Tworzenie zintegrowanych strategii miejskich. Creation of integrated urban strategies? the example of the Krakow Functional Area ZRÓWNOWAŻONY ROZWÓJ OBSZARÓW MIEJSKICH W KRAJACH CZŁONKOWSKICH UE W LATACH 2014-2020 29 września 1 października 2015 r. Sesja warsztatowa - Zintegrowane Strategie Miejskie tworzenie i realizacja Tworzenie

Bardziej szczegółowo

PORTS AS LOGISTICS CENTERS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS - CASE OF SASSNITZ

PORTS AS LOGISTICS CENTERS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS - CASE OF SASSNITZ Part-financed by EU South Baltic Programme w w w. p t m e w. p l PROSPECTS OF THE OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND - OFFSHORE WIND INDUSTRY IN THE COASTAL CITIES AND PORT AREAS PORTS AS LOGISTICS

Bardziej szczegółowo

Wstęp... 9. Część 1. Sytuacja rodzin i wyzwania wobec polityki rodzinnej a sytuacja na rynku pracy wybrane aspekty

Wstęp... 9. Część 1. Sytuacja rodzin i wyzwania wobec polityki rodzinnej a sytuacja na rynku pracy wybrane aspekty Spis treści Wstęp... 9 Część 1. Sytuacja rodzin i wyzwania wobec polityki rodzinnej a sytuacja na rynku pracy wybrane aspekty Adam Kubów: Bariery aktywności zawodowej rodziców wychowujących dzieci... 13

Bardziej szczegółowo

An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic of Poland

An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic of Poland Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy Annotation Główny Inspektorat Pracy ul. Barska 28/30 02-315 Warszawa Rzeczypospolita Polska Polska An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic

Bardziej szczegółowo

Adam Kozierkiewicz JASPERS

Adam Kozierkiewicz JASPERS Adam Kozierkiewicz JASPERS Europa 2020 Flagship initiatives Priorities Targets Digital agenda for Europe Innovation Union Youth on the move Resource efficient Europe An industrial policy for the globalisation

Bardziej szczegółowo

Zwiększanie Potencjału Na Rzecz Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Drogowego Building Road Safety Capacity

Zwiększanie Potencjału Na Rzecz Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Drogowego Building Road Safety Capacity Zwiększanie Potencjału Na Rzecz Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Drogowego Building Road Safety Capacity Training and certification of Road Safety Experts for the application of Road Safety Audit and Road Safety Inspection

Bardziej szczegółowo

Iwona Nurzyńska. Fundusze Unii Europejskiej a system finansowania inwestycji ze środków publicznych w Polsce

Iwona Nurzyńska. Fundusze Unii Europejskiej a system finansowania inwestycji ze środków publicznych w Polsce Iwona Nurzyńska Fundusze Unii Europejskiej a system finansowania inwestycji ze środków publicznych w Polsce Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa Polskiej Akademii Nauk Warszawa 2011 Iwona Nurzyńska European

Bardziej szczegółowo

Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie

Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie Czy rodzice mogą uniknąć swego wpływu na własne dzieci? Nie,

Bardziej szczegółowo

ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland

ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland OECD Przegląd krajowej polityki miejskiej National Urban Policy Review of Poland 17-19 19 March 2010 ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland Zygmunt Ziobrowski Instytut Rozwoju Miast The

Bardziej szczegółowo

Gmina Pruszcz Gdański. Przyjazna Oświacie Commune education friendly

Gmina Pruszcz Gdański. Przyjazna Oświacie Commune education friendly Gmina Pruszcz Gdański Przyjazna Oświacie Commune education friendly Gmina logistycznie idealna Gmina Pruszcz Gdański od kilku lat kładzie duży nacisk na inwestycje w oświacie. To szczególnie ważna dziedzina

Bardziej szczegółowo

Agile at Capgemini. Marek Majchrzak, Andrzej Bednarz Wrocław, 11.10.2011

Agile at Capgemini. Marek Majchrzak, Andrzej Bednarz Wrocław, 11.10.2011 Agile at Capgemini Marek Majchrzak, Andrzej Bednarz Wrocław, 11.10.2011 AGENDA Agile as a strategic direction Examples of Agile Projects Agile Community 2 A strong presence in more than 30 countries Group

Bardziej szczegółowo

III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE 26 29.04.2015 POLAND European Ecotourism: facing global challenges

III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE 26 29.04.2015 POLAND European Ecotourism: facing global challenges www.european-ecotourism.pl registration: office@european-ecotourism.pl enquires: biuro@sie.org.pl tel. +48 725 994 964 Social Ecological Institute is pleased to invite to III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE

Bardziej szczegółowo

WYDZIAŁ: PSYCHOLOGIA KIERUNEK:

WYDZIAŁ: PSYCHOLOGIA KIERUNEK: Lp. I Introductory module 3 Academic skills Information Technology introduction Intellectual Property Mysterious Code of Science Online surveys Personal growth and social competences in the globalizedintercultural

Bardziej szczegółowo

Presented by. Dr. Morten Middelfart, CTO

Presented by. Dr. Morten Middelfart, CTO Meeting Big Data challenges in Leadership with Human-Computer Synergy. Presented by Dr. Morten Middelfart, CTO Big Data Data that exists in such large amounts or in such unstructured form that it is difficult

Bardziej szczegółowo

Formularz dla osób planujących ubiegać się o przyjęcie na studia undergraduate (I stopnia) w USA na rok akademicki

Formularz dla osób planujących ubiegać się o przyjęcie na studia undergraduate (I stopnia) w USA na rok akademicki Formularz dla osób planujących ubiegać się o przyjęcie na studia undergraduate (I stopnia) w USA na rok akademicki 2017-2018 Zanim zaczniesz wypełniać formularz, zapoznaj się z Instrukcjami! Imię i nazwisko:

Bardziej szczegółowo

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning

Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Adult Education and Lifelong Learning Adult Education Centers can provide a number of courses many of which are free to the learner. For information on the courses they provide visit www.lincolnshire.gov.uk/

Bardziej szczegółowo

Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca

Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca Impact Economics Relations Transformation Warszawa, 4 listopada 2015 Kolejność ma znaczenie Put your staff first, customers second, and shareholders third

Bardziej szczegółowo

I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE

I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE EU SECURITY AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT FLOOD-2010 ATENEUM UNIVERSITY IN GDANSK P FUNDATION PRO POMERANIA NOTICE NO. 1 I International Scientific Conference EU SECURITY

Bardziej szczegółowo

Patient Protection in Clinical Trials

Patient Protection in Clinical Trials Patient Protection in Clinical Trials Marek Czarkowski Bioethic Committee Warsaw Chamber of Physicians Factors affecting security and rights of research participants International regulations Domestic

Bardziej szczegółowo

Why choose No Hau Studio?

Why choose No Hau Studio? Why choose No Hau Studio? We ve been perfecting our skills for over 10 years. Branding and Communications are the core of our activities. B2B is our speciality. Customer s Satisfaction is our priority.

Bardziej szczegółowo

SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA N R 4 IM. WŁADYSŁAWA SZAFERA W EŁKU W LADYSLAW SZAFER S PRIMARY SCHOOL N O. 4 IN ELK. EŁK, 10.10.2012r.

SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA N R 4 IM. WŁADYSŁAWA SZAFERA W EŁKU W LADYSLAW SZAFER S PRIMARY SCHOOL N O. 4 IN ELK. EŁK, 10.10.2012r. EŁK, 10.10.2012r. STRUKTURA SYSTEMU EDUKACYJNEGO STRUCTURE OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM WYCHOWANIE PRZEDSZKOLNE PRE-PRIMARY SZKOŁA PODSTAWOWA PRIMARY SCHOOL WIEK AGE 3 (6)7 WIEK (6)7 13 AGE GIMNAZJUM LOWER SECONDARY

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Principles of Marketing. on the study program: Administration

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Principles of Marketing. on the study program: Administration Poznań, 2012, September 20th Doctor Anna Scheibe adiunct in the Department of Economic Sciences PROJECT Syllabus for course Principles of Marketing on the study program: Administration I. General information

Bardziej szczegółowo

NAUCZYCIELE/TEACHERS Nauczyciele z Polskiej Szkoły Sobotniej z Liverpool:

NAUCZYCIELE/TEACHERS Nauczyciele z Polskiej Szkoły Sobotniej z Liverpool: NAUCZYCIELE/TEACHERS Nauczyciele z Polskiej Szkoły Sobotniej z Liverpool: posiadają odpowiednie kwalifikacje, przygotowanie pedagogiczne oraz doświadczenie w pracy z dziećmi i młodzieżą, stosują w swojej

Bardziej szczegółowo

POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY

POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY TeleTrade DJ International Consulting Ltd Sierpień 2013 2011-2014 TeleTrade-DJ International Consulting Ltd. 1 Polityka Prywatności Privacy Policy Niniejsza Polityka

Bardziej szczegółowo

FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW. Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Wydział Humanistyczny. dziedzina nauk społecznych - psychologia,

FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW. Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Wydział Humanistyczny. dziedzina nauk społecznych - psychologia, FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW INSTYTUCJA: MIASTO: STANOWISKO: DZIEDZINA: Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika w Toruniu, Wydział Humanistyczny Toruń asystent dziedzina nauk społecznych - psychologia, DATA OGŁOSZENIA:

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Techniques of negotiations and mediations in administration. on the study program: Administration

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Techniques of negotiations and mediations in administration. on the study program: Administration Poznań, 2012, September 20th Doctor Anna Scheibe adiunct in the Department of Economic Sciences PROJECT Syllabus for course Techniques of negotiations and mediations in administration on the study program:

Bardziej szczegółowo

Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych

Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych Dlaczego powstało? - świat przeżywa dziś rewolucję w obszarze edukacji, - naszym celem jest promocja śląskiego jako regionu opartego na wiedzy, i najnowszych technologiach,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Wyjaśnienie i ilustracje: Wyliczenie kwoty straty dla Wnioskodawcy zmarłego, który złożył wcześniej Wniosek dla osób z uszkodzeniem ciała

Wyjaśnienie i ilustracje: Wyliczenie kwoty straty dla Wnioskodawcy zmarłego, który złożył wcześniej Wniosek dla osób z uszkodzeniem ciała Wyjaśnienie i ilustracje: Wyliczenie kwoty straty dla Wnioskodawcy zmarłego, który złożył wcześniej Wniosek dla osób z uszkodzeniem ciała Wyjaśnienie i ilustracje: Wyliczenie dotyczące Wniosku dla osób

Bardziej szczegółowo

XT001_ INTRODUCTION TO EXIT INTERVIEW PYTANIE NIE JEST ZADAWANE W POLSCE W 2006 ROKU. WCIŚNIJ Ctrl+R BY PRZEJŚĆ DALEJ. 1.

XT001_ INTRODUCTION TO EXIT INTERVIEW PYTANIE NIE JEST ZADAWANE W POLSCE W 2006 ROKU. WCIŚNIJ Ctrl+R BY PRZEJŚĆ DALEJ. 1. Share w2 Exit Questionnaire version 2.7 2006-09-29 XT001_ INTRODUCTION TO EXIT INTERVIEW 1. Kontynuuj XT006_ PROXY RESPONDENT'S SEX 1. Mężczyzna 2. Kobieta XT002_ RELATIONSHIP TO THE DECEASED IF XT002_

Bardziej szczegółowo

Cel szkolenia. Konspekt

Cel szkolenia. Konspekt Cel szkolenia About this CourseThis 5-day course provides administrators with the knowledge and skills needed to deploy and ma Windows 10 desktops, devices, and applications in an enterprise environment.

Bardziej szczegółowo

WYKLUCZENIE CYFROWE NA RYNKU PRACY. redakcja naukowa Elżbieta Kryńska i Łukasz Arendt

WYKLUCZENIE CYFROWE NA RYNKU PRACY. redakcja naukowa Elżbieta Kryńska i Łukasz Arendt WYKLUCZENIE CYFROWE NA RYNKU PRACY redakcja naukowa Elżbieta Kryńska i Łukasz Arendt Warszawa 2010 SPIS TREŚCI WYKAZ UŻYWANYCH SKRÓTÓW 9 V WPROWADZENIE - ZARYS PROBLEMATYKI BADAWCZEJ (Elżbieta Kryńska,

Bardziej szczegółowo

SYLLABUS. Human Resources Management Nazwa jednostki prowadzącej przedmiot/department Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego Kod przedmiotu/course CODE

SYLLABUS. Human Resources Management Nazwa jednostki prowadzącej przedmiot/department Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego Kod przedmiotu/course CODE SYLLABUS Nazwa przedmiotu/course TITLE Human Resources Management Nazwa jednostki prowadzącej przedmiot/department Wydział Wychowania Fizycznego Kod przedmiotu/course CODE Studia/DEGREE PROGRAMME Europejczyk

Bardziej szczegółowo

Procedura oceny wniosków kryteria kwalifikowalności projektów i kryteria oceny

Procedura oceny wniosków kryteria kwalifikowalności projektów i kryteria oceny Procedura oceny wniosków kryteria kwalifikowalności projektów i kryteria oceny Aleksander Kędra Dyrekcja Generalna ds. Badań Naukowych Komisja Europejska Aleksander.Kedra@ec.europa.eu Przygotowanie wniosku

Bardziej szczegółowo

Doświadczenia z wymiany menedżerskiej Polskiej Federacji Szpitali JACEK DOMEJKO POZNAŃ 2013

Doświadczenia z wymiany menedżerskiej Polskiej Federacji Szpitali JACEK DOMEJKO POZNAŃ 2013 Doświadczenia z wymiany menedżerskiej Polskiej Federacji Szpitali JACEK DOMEJKO POZNAŃ 2013 ZAGADNIENIA: POLSKA FEDERACJA SZPITALI WYMIANA KADRY SZPITALNEJ W RAMACH PROGRAMU HOPE PRZYKŁAD WYMIANY SZPITAL

Bardziej szczegółowo

ETHICS IN COACHING. Axiological foundations supporting changes of consciousness

ETHICS IN COACHING. Axiological foundations supporting changes of consciousness ETHICS IN COACHING Axiological foundations supporting changes of consciousness Lidia D. Czarkowska PhD & Bożena Wujec MA Agenda What coaching is and what is not History of Coachig Ethics in coaching Telic

Bardziej szczegółowo

Umowa o współpracy ponadnarodowej

Umowa o współpracy ponadnarodowej Wzór minimalnego zakresu umowy o współpracy ponadnarodowej w ramach PO KL Umowa o współpracy ponadnarodowej Nazwa Programu Operacyjnego w Polsce: : Numer i nazwa Priorytetu: Numer i nazwa Działania: Numer

Bardziej szczegółowo

POLISH ELEVATOR MARKET ONE YEAR AFTER JOINING EU

POLISH ELEVATOR MARKET ONE YEAR AFTER JOINING EU POLISH ELEVATOR MARKET ONE YEAR AFTER JOINING EU by Marek Oppeln-Bronikowski, 17 of March 2005, Brussels POLISH ECONOMICAL SITUATION POLISH ECONOMICAL SITUATION REAL ECONOMY: YEAR GDP CPI year-end Investment

Bardziej szczegółowo

ZMIANY W FUNKCJONOWANIU SYSTEMU SZKOLNICTWA WYŻSZEGO WE FRANCJI JAKO PRZYKŁAD DOSTOSOWANIA SYSTEMOWEGO DO ZAŁOŻEŃ PROCESU BOLOŃSKIEGO

ZMIANY W FUNKCJONOWANIU SYSTEMU SZKOLNICTWA WYŻSZEGO WE FRANCJI JAKO PRZYKŁAD DOSTOSOWANIA SYSTEMOWEGO DO ZAŁOŻEŃ PROCESU BOLOŃSKIEGO mgr Justyna Sobolewska-Noël ZMIANY W FUNKCJONOWANIU SYSTEMU SZKOLNICTWA WYŻSZEGO WE FRANCJI JAKO PRZYKŁAD DOSTOSOWANIA SYSTEMOWEGO DO ZAŁOŻEŃ PROCESU BOLOŃSKIEGO Artykuł porusza kwestię reformy systemu

Bardziej szczegółowo

Recent Developments in Poland: Higher Education Reform Qualifications Frameworks Environmental Studies

Recent Developments in Poland: Higher Education Reform Qualifications Frameworks Environmental Studies 544524-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-PL-TEMPUS-SMHES Qualifications Frameworks for Environmental Studies at Ukrainian Universities Recent Developments in Poland: Higher Education Reform Qualifications Frameworks Environmental

Bardziej szczegółowo