1 HISTORICAL PAPERS Dent. Med. Probl. 2004, 41, 2, ISSN X BARBARA BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA At the Sources of the Academic Dental Circles in Wroclaw the History of a Scientific School U źródeł stomatologii akademickiej we Wrocławiu historia szkoły naukowej Department and Chair of Dental Prosthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland Abstract The author has presented broad outlines of the history of contemporary scientific school of dentistry in Wroclaw on the basis of archive resources from the Department of Special Collections of University Library and Medical University Library as well as from the University and Medical University Archives. The Wroclaw school of den tistry is a straightforward continuation of the Lvov school of dentistry created by Prof. Antoni Cieszyński at Jan Kazimierz University and the State Institute of Dentistry in Warsaw, enriched by the tradition of the Breslau Zahnarztliches Institut headed by Prof. Carl F. M. Partsch and Prof. Julius Bruck. The scientific school was developed creatively by the disciples of Prof. A. Cieszyński and Prof. A. Meissner: Prof. T. Owiński, Prof. J. Pietrzycki, Prof. H. Gorczyński and Prof. N. Wigdorowicz Makowerowa. Their work is our heritage as well as a significant contribu tion to Polish and European dentistry (Dent. Med. Probl. 2004, 41, 2, ). Key words: the Wroclaw school of dentistry, history of dentistry, Wroclaw academic circles. Streszczenie Autorka przedstawiła zarys historii szkoły naukowej stomatologii we Wrocławiu. W opracowaniu wykorzystano źródła archiwalne ze zbiorów specjalnych Biblioteki Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego i Akademii Medycznej oraz ar chiwów tych instytucji. Wrocławska szkoła stomatologiczna kontynuuje w prostej linii tradycję szkoły lwowskiej, której założycielem był prof. Antoni Cieszyński na Uniwersytecie Jana Kazimierza. Wyraźny wpływ wywarł na nią Państwowy Instytut Dentystyczny w Warszawie oraz Wrocławski Instytut Stomatologiczny kierowany przez profesorów Carla F. M. Partscha i Juliusza Brucka. Stomatologia Akademicka we Wrocławiu rozwijała się dzięki uczniom prof. A. Cieszyńskiego i prof. A. Meissnera w osobach: prof. T. Owińskiego, prof. J. Pietrzyckiego, prof. A. Gorczyńskiego i prof. N. Wigdorowicz Makowerowej. Ich praca jest naszym dziedzictwem oraz znaczącym wkładem w polską i europejską stomatologię (Dent. Med. Probl. 2004, 41, 2, ). Słowa kluczowe: wrocławska szkoła stomatologiczna, historia stomatologii, wrocławski krąg akademicki. To write what is possible and not to worry that something is missing here and there. Somebody else will come, and another one, and another, and they will complete. This is how all the histories have been created. Joachim Lelewel The contemporary Wroclaw school of den tistry, which has over 55 year tradition, took its origin at the Dental Department opened in 1948 at the Faculty of Medicine, Wroclaw University and Polytechnics. It is a continuation of a scientific tra dition of the Lvov school of dentistry created by Antoni Cieszyński, M.D. ( ) of Jan Kazimierz University in Lvov, a world famous dentist and a father of Polish dentistry. His disciples: prof. Tadeusz Owiński ( ), prof. Ignacy Pietrzycki ( ), prof. Henryk Gorczyński ( ) and dr Janina Piekarska ( ) were the founders of the Wroclaw University Dental Department. At the same time, Lower Silesian dentistry derived the scientific ideas from the State Institute of Dentistry opened in 1921 and the Warsaw
2 314 B. BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA Dental Academy founded by Prof. Alfred Meissner ( ) 1. The Warsaw school was represented by Prof. Noemi Wigdorowicz Makowerowa born on Nov 24,1912, at present living in Sweden; Oktawia Lubczyńska ( ), Tatiana Prajs Reinowa ( ) and Halina Kuszewska ( ) as well as Aleksander Rolecki ( ), a gra duate from Józef Piłsudski University in Warsaw. Moreover, the academic dental circles in Wroclaw are rooted in the 19 th century tradition of prof. Julius Bruck s ( ) Zahnarztliches Institut, the students of which from 1873 were enrolled in the Faculty of Philosophy (!) of the Royal University in Breslau. In their investiga tions, the dental scholars of Wroclaw also refer to newly uncovered research studies carried out by Professors honoris causa doctors of the Medical Faculty of Universitas Breslau: Carl F. M. Partsch ( ), Hans Riegner ( ) and Walther Bruck ( ). Per literas ad honores, the motto of the Breslau students Academic Dental Society Academische Zahnarztliche Verein from 1903 is still up to date nowadays. Present members of the Polish Dental Students Society founded in 1996 in Wroclaw still follow the idea expressed in the motto. They take part in research, produce valu able reports and obtain awards and distinctions at international Dental Students Conferences. As early as on May 10, 1945, a pioneer in Wroclaw, dr Tadeusz Owiński took over the German Zahnarztlische Institut and opened in it Wroclaw University and Polytechnics Dental Clinic. In September 1945 Oktawia Lubczyńska started to organize Lower Silesian Chamber of Physicians and Dentists. She was the President of the Wroclaw branch of the Regional Chamber of Physicians and Dentists until its dissolution on July 18, 1950 and organized the scientific Polish Dental Society, for 12 years being its Secretary and mem ber of the editorial committee of the Polish Stomatological Journal which was first published in 1948, as well as a newsletter, The Wroclaw Dentistry first published in The first post war dental students were admit ted to the University in the winter term of There were 600 applicants, 67 of them were enrolled. The number of students increased to 182 in the academic year 1947/48, in the year 1948/49 there were 400 students and in the year 1949/50 their number increased to 594. In 1950 the University and Polytechnics Medical Faculty was transformed into the Academy of Physicians, that was soon renamed University of Medicine. The Medical Faculty Division of Dentistry consisted of the Department of Conservative Dentistry, Department and Clinic of Oral Surgery and the Department of Dental Prosthetics combined with the Department of Orthodontics. The Division had about 657 students, 36 academic teachers and research workers, includ ing 2 associated professors, 1 assistant professor and 3 doctors who were promoted in Wroclaw. In the year 2003, the Faculty of Oral Medicine had 496 students. The Faculty included the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Paedodontics with the Dental Prophylaxis Unit, Department of Periodontology with the Oral Pathology Unit, Department and Clinic of Ma xillofacial Surgery, Department of Oral Surgery, Department of Dental Prosthetics including the Dental Materials Unit and the Functional Dis turbances of the Stomatognathic System Unit and last, but not least, the Department of Ortho dontics. The research and teaching staff numbers 107 academic teachers including 3 professors and 8 habilitation doctors. In the 55 years history of Polish dentistry in Wroclaw, in the years , 145 scholars defended their doctoral dissertations, 23 habilita tion dissertations were written, out of which 21 doctors were promoted to habilitation doctor s degree in all sort of dental disciplines. The list of dissertations for habilitation doctor degree in chronological order is given below: , Tadeusz Owiński: The significance of apical compression sign in oral and dental exami nation , Henryk Gorczyński: The influence of toothpastes: Entina, zinc oxide with eugenol, iodo form with camphenol on dental pulp in humans and animals in clinical and histological examinations , Noemi Wigdorowicz Makowerowa: Condition of dentition in children in Wroclaw as an indication to fluoride prophylaxis and its assess ment scientific degree of Candidate of Medical Studies, Fluoride in dentistry. Dental caries in chil dren statistical data. PZWL, monography , Adam Masztalerz: Vertical occlusal defects in view of assessment of a relative height of the frontal segment of the maxillary alveolar process , Stanisław Potoczek: Paradontal dis eases and diseases of the alimentary tract. 1 A. Meissner, being an Assistant at the Poznań Institute of Pathology, defended his Doctoral Dissertation Der Zahnwechsel in Dermoid Cysten der Ovarien ( On Primordial Teeth in Dermatoid Cyst of the Ovary ) at the Silesian Friedrich Wilhelm University in Wrocław in 1915.
3 At the Sources of the Academic Dental Circles in Wrocław , Jerzy Drozdowski: Two stage method as the basis in maxillary cyst surgery , Tadeusz Pawela: Eosinophilic granu loma in a maxillary gingival location , Mieczysław Jesionowski: The history of Polish dentistry , Stefan Flieger: Biochemical changes in blood in acute inflammations of facial skeleton , Bogumił Płonka: Prosthetic treat ment of edentulous patients Wrocław method , Czesław Grodzki: Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of functional disturbances of the masticatory organ and results of treatment of temporomandibular arthropathy , Anna Majewska: Salivary glyco proteins and dental caries , Franciszek Mraz: Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthropathy of temporomandibular joint, its differentiating with myoarthropathy, inci dence and complex treatment , Jerzy Brzeziński: Studies on the role of Meckel s cartilage in the development of the mandible, dental alveolus and interalveolar septa and its role in the formation of deciduous and permanent teeth buds , Feliks Ćwioro: Surgical treatment of mesiocclusion by means of a modified Dal Pont s technique , Urszula Kaczmarek: Fluoride and certain components of saliva and dental caries , Zdzisław Gajda: Studies on dental mandibular displacement , Marek Ziętek: The activity of neu trophilic granulocytes in post juvenile parodontitis , Tomasz Konopka: The role of cytokines of adhesive particles of thermal shock proteins and autoimmune response in parodontitis , Jan Wnukiewicz: The evaluation of diagnostic value of PCNA, Ki 67 AgNDR cell pro liferation markers as well as EGFr epidermal growth factor receptor in leukoplakia of the oral mucosa , Halina Panek: Investigations on the functional and morphological relationship within the stomatognathic system with special regard to the functional models of occlusion. Prof. Tadeusz Szczęsny Owiński ( ), a disciple of prof. Antoni Cieszyński, was the cre ator of Lower Silesian dentistry as well as a con tinuator of the Lvov School of Dentistry. He devel oped his own method of mesiocclusion surgery called Median osteotomy. He was the promotor of 19 doctors and 6 habilitation doctors: Tadeusz Pawela, Jerzy Drozdowski, Stefan Flieger, Franciszek Mraz, Mieczysław Jesionowski and Jerzy Brzeziński ( ). He was succeeded at the Department and Clinic of Oral Surgery in Wroclaw by prof. Tadeusz Pawela (the title was conferred in 1973), born on May 17, 1920, the cre ator of the Cracow Wroclaw school of treatment of cervico facial actinomycosis, surgical treatment of fractures of the facial skeleton, trigeminal neu ralgia, surgical treatment of oral sinusal fistula and treatment of cancers. He promoted 17 doctors of medicine and 1 habilitation doctor Feliks Ćwioro, who developed the Wroclaw school of surgical treatment of developmental defects of the facial skeleton and promoted 7 doctors of medical sciences and 1 habilitation doctor. His successor, hab. dr Jan Wnukiewicz has been involved in the continuation of the Wroclaw methods of surgical treatment of facial skeleton carcinoma since 2002, complementing them with cell proliferation mark ers and ceramic composite implants. Prof. Franciszek Mraz ( ), the degree of habilitation doctor was conferred in 1977, the creator of the Wroclaw school of management of rheumatoid arthropathy and peloid therapy in oral surgery, was the promotor of 6 doctoral disserta tions. He was succeeded as the head of the Department of Oral Surgery by Wiesława Szepietowska, M.D. and Adam Zawada, M.D., the present head of the department. Prof. Henryk Gorczyński ( ), habil itation doctor 1950, professor 1955, head of two departments: the Department of Dental Prosthetics and of Orthodontics in the years , continued the Lvov s traditions. He was the promotor of 9 doctors of medicine and 3 habilitation doctors. He was a master for his dis ciples: Prof. Adam Masztalerz and Prof. Bogumił Płonka. He was succeeded as head of the Department of Dental Prosthetics by Prof. Noemi Wigdorowicz Makowerowa (the title was con ferred in 1980), the creator of the Wroclaw school of morphological functional prosthetics. She was dealing with the prosthetic treatment restoring lost functions of mastication, speech and aesthetic appearance. She was also interested in distur bances of the stomatognathic system, TMJ arthropathy, epidemiology in dentistry as well as fluoride prophylaxis of dental caries. Prof. Wigdorowicz Makowerowa promoted 16 doctors of medicine and 3 habilitation doctors. She was succeeded by Prof. Bogumił Płonka, habilitation doctor since 1970 and professor since 1987, the creator of the Wroclaw methods of treatment of edentia and organizer of an independent Prosthetic Materials Laboratory. Prof. B. Płonka promoted 14 doctors of medicine and Halina Panek, Ph.M.D., his successor at the Department of Dental Prosthetics since 2003.
4 316 B. BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA Prof. Gorczyński was succeeded at the Department of Orthodontics by prof. Adam Masztalerz, hab. doctor since 1963, the creator of the Wroclaw school of maxillary orthopaedics and orthodontic anthropology. Prof. A. Masztalerz conferred the degree of medical doctor on 15 scholars and the degree of on Zdzisław Gajda Ph.M.D. from Cracow. When he retired, his disci ple, Barbara Warychowa, M.D. became the acting head of the Department of Orthodontics to be replaced by Teresa Matthews Brzozowska Ph.M.D. from Poznań in For 12 years prof. Gorczyński was deputized for by Aleksander Rolecki M.D. ( ) who was dealing with occupational diseases and dental materials. His research in those fields was contin ued by doctors of medicine: Jan Malik and Maciej Telmiński (at present in Germany) and, currently, by doctors: Danuta Nowakowska, Anna Sobolew ska and Artur Z. Bogucki. The Students Scientific Circle, which has been working continuously for the past 50 years (since 1954) at the Department of Dental Prosthetics, was tutored in turn by N. Wigdorowicz Makowerowa, B. Płonka, A. Dadun Sęk, T. Maślanka, H. Panek, J. P. Ligocki and for the past 12 years by B. Bru ziewicz Mikłaszewska 2. Prof. Ignacy Pietrzycki ( ), a disci ple of Prof. A. Cieszyński, since 1955 assistant Professor and since 1958 full Professor, contin ued the traditions of the Lvov school of conserva tive dentistry and parodontology. He was the author of the Polish term przyzębica to denote paradontosis. He promoted 5 doctors of oral med icine and in 1963 the first habilitation doctor who graduated from dental studies at Wroclaw Medical University, Stanisław Potoczek. Prof. S. Potoczek (the title was conferred on him in 1979) was the creator of the Wroclław school of conservative dentistry and parodontol ogy. He promoted 20 doctors of medical sciences and 3 habilitation doctors. Prof. Anna Majewska was involved in the research on the role of proteins and mucopolypro teins of human saliva in dental caries and its progress. He was the promoter of 3 doctoral thesis investigating this problem. Prof. Urszula Kaczmarek (the title was con ferred in 1997) continues the traditions of the Wroclaw school of conservative dentistry and pae dodontics created by Prof. S. Potoczek. She also succeeded prof. Potoczek as the head of the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Paedodontics. Prof. U. Kaczmarek deals with the epidemiology of dental caries, its prophylaxis as well as aesthetic dentistry. She is involved in the investigation of biochemical parameters of human saliva and their significance for dental caries. She promoted 8 doctoral dissertations. Prof. Marek Ziętek (the title was conferred in 1999) continues and develops the traditions of the Wroclaw school of periodontology in the facet of prosthetic treatment. He investigates immuno pathological mechanisms of the organism in perio dontal diseases as well as environmental condi tioning of periodontopathy. He promoted 8 doctors of medical sciences and 1 habilitation doctor. Prof. Tomasz Konopka (the title was conferred in 1999) is involved in the research on oral pathol ogy, dental immunology and guided regeneration of tissues. He promoted 3 doctors of medical sci ences. On October 3, 1991, Prof. Stanisław Potoczek promoted the only in the post war history of the Wroclaw Medical University Honoris Causa Doctor in Dentistry Prof. Eberhard Sonnabend from Luis Maximillian University in Münich. Thus the history came back to its starting point. Prof. Antoni Cieszyński studied Dentistry and graduated from the same Münich University in 1905, and then, in 1911, the same University conferred on him the degree of doctor of medicine with summa cum laude distinction on the basis of his doctoral thesis On Extraoral Pictures of the Maxilla by Means of Roentgen Rays. His disciples Professors Ignacy Pietrzycki, Henryk Gorczyński and Tadeusz Owiński took over and continued the charisma of their tutor and teacher as well as his life motto: Salus Poloniae suprema lex esto! These dedicated and devoted to their vocation academic teachers educated in turn the next gener ation of professors in dentistry. Such academic masters as Professors: Noemi Wigdorowicz Makowerowa, Stanisław Potoczek and Adam Masztalerz continued the scientific tra ditions of the Warsaw school of dentistry created by Prof. A. Meissner and the Lvov school of Prof. 2 The list of its active participants includes: Prof. B. Płonka, Zenon Olejniczak M.D., Prof. Urszula Kaczmarek, Ph.M.D. Maria Prośba Mackiewicz (Gdańsk), Ph.M.D. Tomasz Konopka, Ph.M.D. Jan Wnukiewicz, Ph.M.D., doctors Ewa Patkowska Indyka, B. Bruziewicz Mikłaszewska, Natalia Lipka, Władysław Buława, Włodzisław Radde, Emil Golenia (Germany), Danuta Nowakowska, Alicja Marczyk Felba, Teresa Stępniewska (Germany), Lidia Marczewska (Austria), Leszek Ptaszyński (Austria), Zbigniew Komorek (Canada), Paweł Bohater, Maciej Kawala, dentists Elżbieta Miazga, Piotr Grabowski, Joanna Indyka Markowska, Renata Cisek Skotnicka, Szymon Dudek, Michał Karolewski, Adrianna Nieć Grzegorz Badora, Ewa Mendrela Karolewska, Aleksandra Kraśnicka Ściborska, Justyna Łomnicka, and many others.
5 At the Sources of the Academic Dental Circles in Wrocław 317 A. Cieszyński. They created and developed the Wroclaw school of dentistry, with over 130 year history. Their work is our heritage as well as a valu able contribution to Polish and European dentistry. Nowadays the Wroclaw school of dentistry as well as the Faculty of Oral Medicine of the Wroclaw Medical University, opened in the year 2000, is led by the fourth generation of late sci entific grandchildren and great grandchildren of prof. Antoni Cieszyński with Prof. Marek Ziętek, Prof. Tomasz Konopka, Prof. Urszula Kaczmarek, Halina Panek Ph.M.D. and Jan Wnukiewicz Ph.M.D. at the top. References  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Profesor Antoni Cieszyński ( ) stomatolog światowej sławy i twórca stomatologii polskiej w 120 lecie urodzin. Stomat. Współczesna 2002, Suppl. 3, 37, 40.  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Stomatologia. W: Historia Wydziałów Lekarskiego i Farmaceutycznego Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego oraz Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu w latach Red. Waldemar Kozuschek. Wyd. Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis Nr 2434, Wrocław 2002,  PŁONKA B.: Stomatologia. W: Academia Medica Wratislaviensis Red. Leszek Paradowski. Akademia Medyczna im. Piastów Śląskich, Wrocław 2000,  KOSSOWSKA FUGIEL I.: Prof. dr Alfred Meissner Begrunder der polnischen Kieferchirurgie. Rozporawa doktorska, Düsseldorf 1999, 21, 23.  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Profesor Julius Bruck ( ) wrocławski stomatolog, lekarz i prekursor europejskiej endoskopii w stulecie śmierci. Adv. Clin. Exp. Med. 2003, 12, 1,  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Profesor Carl F.M. Partsch ( ) luminarz uniwersyteckiej stomatologii we Wrocławiu. Adv. Clin. Exp. Med. 2002, 11, 2,  Gelles R.: Doktorzy honoris causa Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego Acta Universitatis Wratislaviensis Nr 2503, Wrocław 2003, 83.  Betr. Aufstellung über die seit 1918 von der medizinischen Fakultät erfolgten Ernennungen der Ehrendokttoren z dn. 25 listopada Arch. U.Wr. Sygn. S 204, 99.  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Prof. dr med. dr h.c. Hans Riegner ( ) w 75 lecie śmierci. Gazeta Uczelniana, Miesięcznik Informacyjny AM we Wrocławiu, czerwiec lipiec 2003, nr 9/97,  KAROLONEK G., KAROLONEK M.: Życie studenckie na Uniwersytecie Wrocławskim w XIX i XX wieku ze szczegól nym uwzględnieniem korporacji studentów Instytutu Dentystycznego. Dent. Med. Probl. 2003, 40,  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Doktor Oktawia Lubczyńska Medium, Biuletyn Dolnośląskiej Izby Lekarskiej, kwiecień 2003, 8.  OWIŃSKI T.: Klinika Stomatologiczna Uniwersytetu. Arch. U.Wr. Sygn. R 52, XVIII, 18.  Pismo Dziekanatu Wydziału Lekarskiego Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego z dn. 25 lutego 1946 o utworzeniu w dniu 21 lutego 1946 r. 23 Katedr dla Wydziału Lekarskiego i dla Studium Farmaceutycznego. Arch. U.Wr. Sygn. R 52, XVII, 113.  Sprawozdanie z prac organizacyjnych Wydziału Lekarskiego we Wrocławiu podał prof. dr Ludwik Hirszfeld Arch. U.Wr. Sygn. R 52, XVIII, 65.  OWIŃSKI T.: Sprawozdanie Dyrektora Oddziału Stomatologicznego za rok akad. 1946/47 jako uzupełnienie spra wozdania Dziekana Wydziału Lekarskiego. Arch.U.Wr., Sygn. R 52, XIX,  Rozporządzenie Ministra Oświaty z dn. 18 lipca 1947, Nr IV SP 5774/47 w sprawie utworzenia Oddziału Stomatologicznego i przemianowania Katedry na Wydziale Lekarskim Uniwersytetu we Wrocławiu. Arch. U.Wr. Sygn. R 52, XIX, 158.  Skład osobowy w roku akademickim 2002/2003. Akademia Medyczna im. Piastów Śląskich we Wrocławiu, Wrocław 2003,  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B., DĄBROWSKI J., ORŁOWSKA M.: Prace doktorskie i habilitacyjne z zakresu stoma tologii złożone na Wydziale Lekarskim Uniwersytetu i Politechniki oraz w Akademii Medycznej we Wrocławiu w latach Dent. Med. Probl. 2003, 40, 1,  Biogramy prof. T. Owińskiego, J. Pietrzyckiego, H. Gorczyńskiego i N. Wigdorowicz Makwerowej. Curricula vitae, Archiwum AM.  WIGDOROWICZ MAKOWEROWA N.: Rozwój i osiągnięcia Zakładu Protetyki ISAM w czasie istnienia PRL. Prot. Stom. 1974, CCIV,  DADUN SĘK A.: Biuletyn Dolnośląskiej Izby Lekarskiej, Medium, styczeń 1996, 8.  KACZMAREK U.: Jubielusz 80 lecia prof. zw. dr. hab. Stanisława Potoczka. Dent. Med. Probl. 2003, 40,  BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA B.: Odsłonięcie tablicy pamiątkowej z okazji 130 lecia Uniwersytetu Stomatologii we Wrocławiu i 60 lecia śmierci prof. A. Cieszyńskiego. Gazeta Uczelniana AM, styczeń 2002, 15.
6 318 B. BRUZIEWICZ MIKŁASZEWSKA Address for correspondence: Barbara Bruziewicz Mikłaszewska Departmnent and Chair of Dental Prosthodontics, Wrocław Medical University Krakowska Wrocław Poland e mail: Received: Revised: Accepted: Praca wpłynęła do Redakcji: r. Po recenzji: r. Zaakceptowano do druku: r.