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1 S TUDIA C AROLIENSIA (X.) JOLANTA KARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ KONCZ JUDIT MARIUSZ GRABOWSKI SUPPORTING SENIORS AT THE BEGINNING OF THE THIRD MILLENNIUM THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACH Terminology is an important issue in every science. Words reflect thoughts, things we talk about and an imprecise conceptual device makes the communication difficult. Pedagogical terminology is characterised by inaccuracy and changeability of the meaning of words. Many years ago it was believed that pedagogical thought can not be raised to a higher level without making serious changes in its terminology. 1 Social (public) policy is an interdisciplinary science, which has direct adjacency with fields like demography, economy, philosophy, history, pedagogy, political science, law, psychology, sociology and statistics. It has a double meaning when perceived by scientists. On one side, it is seen as a sphere of action of the state, other public subjects and social non-governmental organisations, aiming to create dignified life conditions of the population and proper interpersonal relations. 2 Social policy is perceived as not only a social-interventional activity, but also a tool to create desired social attitude. 3 On the other side it is understood as a science. It is called a science about social policy to emphasize a distance in the practice of sociopolitical actions. 4 In the pedagogical literature of the former German Democratic Republic different categories are used, which enable clear visualisation of problems. These are: public policy and social policy. It is believed that social policy (Sozialpolitik) should, as a system and autonomic science investigate all actions, which are aimed at improving social situation of population unconditionally or relatively weak or at securing against risk. On the other hand public policy (Gesellschaftspolitik) is definitely a broader term. It includes not only detailed social issues, but also issues connected with controlling social development and problems of changes in social structures. 1 K. Baranowicz, Zakres pojęcia integracja w pedagogice specjalnej, [w:] Forum Pedagogów Specjalnych XXI wieku tom 1, red. J. Pańczyk, Łódź 2002, s T. Kowalak, Polityka społeczna: wybrane zagadnienia, Białystok 2002, s J. Auleytner, A. Kuzynowski, Polityka społeczna w Polsce po 1945 r. [w:] Polityka społeczna: stan i perspektywy, red. J. Auleytner, Warszawa 1995, s Brdárné Dr. Illés Zsuzsanna Hidasi Tiborné Ruminé Szijártó Ildikó Dr. Zentai László: Szociális jóléti ismeretek. Szókratész Külgazdasági Akadémia, Budapest, and Forgó Györgyné Dr. Veres Gábor: Szociális-jóléti ismeretek. Szókratész Külgazdasági Akadémia, Budapest, Studia Caroliensia

2 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI Main object of interest of the social (public) policy are social issues, circumstances creating state of tension, evoking common uneasiness and motivating to solve a problem. They symbolise the need to thorough searching of various means and methods of action (social, economic, institutional, political), removing reasons of wrong functioning of certain sphere or a whole social system, serving in solving investigated social issue. 5 Social issue can be analysed in different dimensions. It exists in a local, (commune, administrative distinct, regions etc.) national and supranational dimension, respectively Subjects in social policy are institutions of a formal and informal character, which refer to shaping and realisation of this field. Social policy as a science is not uniform, never was and is not today shaped by only one doctrine. For this reason it requires showing various, systematised opinions on the social reality. Previous doctrines regarding this discipline were not sufficiently presented in terms of humanistic influence and its role. This is why the science about social policy can be on one side an integrated system of knowledge about the theories which valuate social reality and on the other side, any doctrine determine autonomic direction of social policy theory, resulting from individuality of accepted system of values. 6 The scope of interest of social policy science includes policies like civil and family policy, policy towards elderly and handicapped, employment policy, education and occupational policy, equal opportunities policy, migration policy, health care policy, policy against poverty (social marginalisation), social security, social pathologies and its overcoming. Europe is demographically the oldest territory on the terrestrial globe. Every fifth person in Europe is over 60 years old. The process of ageing is in progress. Ageing of the society is becoming one of the most important social problems; it influences the economy of the countries, its social structure, social security systems, health care systems and intergenerational relations. EU countries show a declining tendency in the growth of the population The lowest population grow rate was observed in 1997 in Germany (-0,8 on every 1000 people s population) and the highest in Ireland (5,4). According to demographical forecast a low rate of population growth, decrease in the birth rate and increase in the rate of people over 65 is going to be a long-term process. Demographical forecasts till 2020 assume that EU society will be an ageing society. People over 65 years old and more will constitute 25% of society. 7 5 K. Głąbicka, Polityka społeczna w Unii Europejskiej: Aspekty aksjologiczne i empiryczne, Warszawa 2001, s J. Auleytner, Polityka społeczna: Teoria a praktyka, Warszawa 1997, s and Gosztonyi Géza & Pik Katalin: A szociális munka szótára. Szociális Munkások Magyarországi Egyesülete, Grafit Kiadó, Legibility of Hungarian references: Dr. Kovács János: Társadalompolitika szociálpolitika. Agroinform, Budapest, Studia Caroliensia

3 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM Poland does not have a separate subsystem of social policy addressed to the oldest part of society, there is a need to take new European Union standards into account while negotiations. They should include issues like health care of the elderly, their employment, equality of the incomes of elder women, aid for bedridden, social work with elderly, creation of proper accommodation standards, institutional help and financial assistance for the seniors. 8 Dynamics of changes in population seems to inevitably lead to create social work as an institution of social life. 9 Social work is a form of social help, with a great tradition. In many legal systems its professionalism and continuing adaptation to social needs is highly important. 10 Nowadays, literature offers many different definitions of this term. According to American Education in the scope of social work, the aim of this field is to support functioning of individuals alone and in groups through activities directed to social relations, which influence interactions between people and surrounding. These actions can be divided into three functional groups: renewing lost or weakened abilities, ensuring individual or group resources and preventing social dysfunction. 11 A different approach is presented by the European Council Committee, which states that it is a specific professional activity, which task is to make mutual adaptation of individuals, families, groups and social surrounding easier and to develop own individual value through the use of people possibilities, interpersonal relations and resources made accessible by community. 12 According to E. Marynowicz-Hetka, at the beginning social work has been presented in United States and in Europe as a form of activities helping in adapting to society. 13 Nowadays it can be stated that social work is a professional social action realized in a specified area and time, regardless of its character its aim is to help to individuals and groups. 14 This area mainly refers to: solving problems of individuals and social groups, improving interaction and relation between people, helping others: poor, discriminated, disabled and weak, improving systems of support in institutional welfare, 8 Tamże, s J. Szmagalski, Praca socjalna w poszukiwaniach skutecznych metod, [w:] Praca socjalna służbą człowiekowi, red. L. Malinowski, M. Orłowska, Warszawa 1998, s I. Sierpowska, Prawo Pomocy społecznej, Kraków 2006, s R. A. Skidmore, M. G. Thakeray, Wprowadzenie do pracy socjalnej, Warszawa 1996, s Gosztonyi Géza & Pik Katalin: A szociális munka szótára. Szociális Munkások Magyarországi Egyesülete, Grafit Kiadó, A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Praca socjalna z ludźmi starszymi, [w:] Badania w pracy socjalnej/społecznej przegląd dokonań i perspektywy, red. E. Marynowicz-Hetka, M. Granosik, D. Wolska-Prylińska, Łódź 2007, s E. Kantowicz, Elementy teorii i praktyki pracy socjalnej, Olsztyn 2001, s. 18. Studia Caroliensia

4 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI stimulating development of individuals and social groups. Social work in health care and rehabilitation definitely enables disabled people and elderly to remain, gain or recover a way of life, which makes them happy and help them to be useful for groups of people of the society they constitute a part of. 15 According to W. Lorenz, the place and function of the social work in a society concentrates on creating internal, not compulsory, social peace, which is based on a sound knowledge, intended and systematic negotiations of differences and inequalities. Social work has a double mandate to those negotiations, from individuals, from society, through state institutions or non-governmental organizations. 16 Actions realized in the scope of social work with seniors should be conducted with respect of dignity and rights to self-determination. Elderly people should have the possibility to make their own decisions and demonstrate their own preferences. It is also of great importance to show respect for the elder, enable them to be initiative and encourage them to work. It is essential to offer various forms of help to enable seniors to have a free choice. Social work with seniors should be a so called social-educational work, leading to ensure optimal conditions to full development, and also to make the process of getting older satisfactory, to make them conscious of possibility to constant further development and possibility of receiving help form institutions and individuals. This work should not be based only on guaranteeing them financial welfare and care but should also include different needs. 17 Nowadays social service is a sphere of social policy. 18 According to B. Matyjas, social service in a pedagogical sense is a help for individuals or a group in launching their potential possibilities (strengths), the effect of which is to strengthen own competencies in problem solving. Act of social service from 12 March 2004 (Dz. U. 2004, nr. 64) defines social service as a state social policy institution, which aim is to enable people and families to overcome tough situations with the help of authorizations, resources and abilities. 19 Social service is said to be a method of achieving aims of the social policy. It is an activity, technique, system which serves to solve social problems. Legal depiction of social service as an element of social policy underlines its role a state has in 15 T. O. Carlton, Clinical social work In health settings, New York: Springer 1984, s W. Lorenz, Social work in a changing europe, Routledge, London 1994, s A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Praca socjalna z ludźmi starszymi, [w:] Badania w pracysocjalnej przegląd dokonań i perspektywy, red. E. Marynowicz-Hetka, M. Granosik, D. Wolska-Prylińska, Łódź 2007, s A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn 2007, s and Gosztonyi Géza & Pik Katalin: A szociális munka szótára. Szociális Munkások Magyarországi Egyesülete, Grafit Kiadó, B. Matyjas, Dzieciństwo w kryzysie. Etiologia zjawiska, Warszawa 2008, s Studia Caroliensia

5 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM organizing and providing this service and also show states responsibility for the lot of the society members. Social service is granted for individuals and families due to: poverty, orphanage, homelessness, long term sickness, helplessness in care-educational issues and in running a household, especially in incomplete and numerous families, alcoholism and drug addiction, problems in adapting after leaving prison, natural disaster. 20 Furthermore it should: 1. support individuals and families in actions aimed at ensuring their basic needs, 2. enable people to live in proper conditions, 3. prevent tough family situations through implementing actions aimed at helping the families to become independent and to integrate with surrounding. Social service is one of the elements of social function of the state, an important sphere of social security. 21 According to article 15 of the Social Security Act from 2004, territorial institutions and governmental administration organizations are responsible for realization of tasks in the scope determined in the act. Basic principle of social security for seniors is to make them stay in their environment as long as possible and to ensure them environmental help. This principle is based on an assumption that help in the natural surrounding is the best and most effective for health and is cheaper than institutional help it makes social integration easier. This form of help is realized by social workers and social services organizations. In the scope of social service, likewise the whole system, we deal with two types of institutions: organizing and providing service. Organizing institutions perform curriculum, have controlling and administrative functions, service institutions provide services to society. Organizing institutions can be divided into two structures: governmental and self-governmental. Governmental institutions are resorts like: 20 I. Sierpowska, Prawo Pomocy Społecznej. Kraków 2006, s A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn 2007, s. 143.; Ágoston Magdolna: A szociális munka önmeghatározása. and Dr. Kovács János: Társadalompolitika szociálpolitika. Agroinform, Budapest, Studia Caroliensia

6 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI Ministry of Work and Social Policy, Social Issues Departments, Social Services Organizations, Institutions ensuring services to society are: Social welfare homes, shelters for homeless, educational-protective and rehabilitation establishments, foster families, family emergencies, support centers, crisis intervention centers. Most important institutions supporting the elderly are: 1. stationary welfare homes, 2. day foster homes (day-stay homes), 3. senior clubs, 4. universities of the third age. 22 Old people are present clients of social services including institutional welfare. Literature gives very small attention to this problem. 23 Social welfare homes are establishments of a closed type, also known as stationary welfare homes. Social welfare homes provide care services. People may stay here for short or longer periods of time. Social welfare homes were previously known as veterans home, social care homes or a social care establishment. Nowadays only the term social welfare home is used. Changes in terminology was intentional as it should sound closer to a real home. Acts currently in force state that these institutions should be defined as homes, and not as establishments and their guests residents. 24 The above stated term is reserved only for care institutions, which have permission from the province governor. Institutions of this type function on certain legal acts. Basic documents are: Act of Social Welfare and current Social Policy Minister decree. In the decree of Minister of Labour and Social Policy from April 1997 regarding social welfare homes different types of homes have been mentioned. 25 They are as follows: a) for elderly, b) for chronic patients, 22 Hungarian approach: Dr. Kovács János: Társadalompolitika szociálpolitika. Agroinform, Budapest, M. Halicka, Człowiek stary w instytucji opiekuńczej na przykładzie badań w domach pomocy społecznej na Podlasiu, [w:] Starość i starzenie się jako doświadczenie jednostek i zbiorowości ludzkich, red. J. Kowalski, P. Szukalski, Łódź 2006, s A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn 2007, s L. Dąbrowski, Senior w domu pomocy społecznej,,, Pielęgniarka i Położna 1999, nr 12, s Studia Caroliensia

7 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM c) for mentally ill, d) for intellectually handicapped, e) for physically handicapped. Types presented above belong to a state sector. State welfare houses are mainly of communal, district and regional scope. In an institutional social service system for elderly state institutions are dominant. However, there are also homes which belong to the non-governmental sector. Among them we may encounter homes which are financed and supported by Caritas organization, monastic congregations, sector trade unions. 26 Private institutions are also available in this field. They are based mainly on western pensions, designed for elderly. Social welfare homes function in accordance with the Act from regarding social welfare and Minister of Labour and Social Policy decree from Basic aims of a social welfare are: ensuring all-day care for the residents, satisfy living conditions, health care, social and educational needs, create high security standards and ensure privacy and independence to residents, enable individual development. People advanced in years have the opportunity to find a real home in such institutions. Adapting to new home mainly means adapting to new surrounding and living conditions. Literature describes that moving to a social welfare home is a traumatic experience, which leads to deterioration of physical health, apathy, passivity, sometimes protests, malevolence, decline in psychological processes. 27 What results from above paragraph is the fact that elderly have serious problems to adapt to new standards of living. Day care homes are called day stay homes. These are open social care institutions, which main aim is to help elderly to organize their life. These institutions are financed mainly by welfare center (MOPS Miejski Osrodek Pomocy Spolecznej). They are supported by different kinds of charity and denominational foundations. Day care centers have their own regulations and ensure full board. Aim of such homes is also to satisfy educational and cultural needs. Residents are under health and nursing care. Apart from that they also have rehabilitation and occupational therapy offered. Day care homes are designed only for people from local region. They are attended by lonely, old and handicapped people. The functioning of day care homes enables people to maintain contact with other people and to compensate their life shortage. Staying there helps them to forget about loneliness, to overcome all difficulties and to enhance chances to become independent. Senior 26 A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn 2007, s A. Nowicka, (red.) Wybrane problemy osób starszych, Kraków 2006, s Studia Caroliensia

8 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI clubs are cultural, educational, sociable and recreational institutions for elderly. They function under names such as senior clubs, gold age clubs or gold autumn clubs. In the 70 s and 80 s, the activity of those clubs was aimed at ensuring care. Nowadays, they function also in congregations, housing estates, factories or in community centers. The main aim of senior clubs is to ensure and organize free time activities, such as spending time with others, entertaining and developing interests. Clubs should favor establishing new social contacts, creation of relations and prevention from loneliness. They offer all kinds of activities, different in form and content. Apart from organizing talks, lectures and courses, which regard different fields and culture, senior clubs also offer social evenings, artistic performs, trips, plays and psychotherapeutic exercises. Among educational institutions for the elderly important are also Universities of Third Age. 28 These are institutions which belong to continual education system, they take care of education of the elderly. First institution of this type was set in 1973 in Toulouse in France. Its initiator was professor P. Vellas. The first Polish university of third age was established in 1975 in Warsaw from initiative of Professor H. Szwarc. Main purpose of Universities of Third Age is vastly understood education. Particularly it regards individual development, dissemination of knowledge from new fields, stimulation of creative attitude, improvement of living standards and facilitation of getting to know new people of similar interests and aspirations. Realization of those aims is achieved on the ground of audit lectures and film projections. Apart from that they also offer motivation classes, foreign language courses and choir. Education is diverse and adjusted to individual needs; class schedule is set by the university union and the program council. Classes are run by specialists from different fields (medical science, pedagogy, psychology, philology, art, economy and sport). After completing a course, every student receives a diploma. University of Third Age has 3 basic functions: educational preventing from loneliness and isolation, psychotherapeutic influences mental state and enriches students life, integrating based on helping each other. The presented institutions are aimed only at the elderly. Their common purpose is to organize free time. People taking active part in classes have possibilities to develop their interests. Among organizations supporting and helping people of old age we may differentiate: Polish Red Cross (PCK) Polish Social Welfare Committee, 28 B. Boczukowa, Edukacja trzeciego wieku jako czynnik procesu kształcenia i wychowania dorosłych,,,edukacja Dorosłych 2004, nr 3-4, s Studia Caroliensia

9 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM Caritas. 29 Those institutions belong to non-governmental sector (non-profit sector). The above mentioned organizations offer the following support: financial, material: meals, clothes, chemistry cleaners, medical: taking care of people. They also offer educational services (like health education, legal counseling), recreation and cultural (organizing free time trips, dancing s etc.). Help for the elderly also includes psychological and ethical support, creating social contacts, interest defense, and pastoral help. International organizations supporting the elderly are: EURAG, AGE, AIUTA. EURAG (European Federation of the Elderly) is a European Federation for seniors. It was established in 1962 in Luxembourg. Since 1995 to EURAG belongs also Central and Eastern Europe countries including Poland. 30 It is a non-profit organization, inter religious and apolitical. EURAG belongs to European Platform of Social Nongovernmental Organizations. 31 Apart from that, EURAG cooperates with institutional organizations like: European Commission, European Parliament, Council of Europe, World Health Organization and United Nations. The main aim of the federation is to support intergenerational solidarity, help to remain life independence of elderly in decision making process and support democracy development. Its purpose is also to coordinate, cooperate and exchange opinions with experts, servicing organizations and self helping groups, organization of international congresses dedicated to issues connected with seniors. EURAG is actively involved in realization of EU projects, which main aim is to promote health. 32 Actions undertaken by EURAG refer to constructing special preventive programs for people of gold age. AGE (European Older Peoples Platform) is an international association focusing on other European organizations aimed at helping the elderly. It is called the European Older People Platform. AGE was established as a combination of 3 29 Hungarian organizations: Dr. Teleki Béla: Szociális munka elmélete. A szociális segítés megalapozása. Korda Kiadó, Kecskemét, W. Hemmerling, Rola samopomocy wśród starszego pokolenia [w:] Ludzie starzy w warunkach transformacji ustrojowej, red. B. Synak, Gdańsk 2000, s Z. Szarota, Gerontologia społeczna i oświatowa: zarys problematyki, Kraków 2004, s G. Daye, Promowanie zdrowia seniorów w krajach Unii Europejskiej, źródło: // dane z dnia Studia Caroliensia

10 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI associations: FIAPA, EPSO and EUROLINK AGE. 33 The main goal of this association is presenting every important views, needs, interests of the elderly on the state and European level. 34 AGE leads to finding new solutions concerning issues like: social security systems (seniors and social security welfare), medical care. All AGE have to fulfill following criteria: 1. Represent and/or work for elderly in EU Countries. 2. Act according to AGE statue. 3. Are non-profit organizations. 4. They have legal entity congruent with regulations binding in the country they were established. 35 AIUTA (International Association of Universities of the Third Age) is an international association of Universities of the Third Age. The decision of establishing this institution was taken in Activity of AIUTA began in 1975 and its first leader was P. Vellas. 36 According to O. Czerniawska, it is an organization of international scope. 37 It associates educational institutions, mainly Universities of Third Age and Senior Academies. 38 In the first years of work its aim was to ensure cooperation between universities in the world as well as gerontology institutions. AIUTA is an important expert in gerontology, participates in different international organizations, which deal with older people community. This association still tries to activate and respect elderly rights to education, access to culture, rest and to use senior rights regardless of sex, education and social status. 39 It is an organization which deals with demographic problems of the community. Every 2 years it organizes and promotes a so called gerontology congress which is directed to subjects like education, needs and rehabilitation of elderly. The first congress was organized in 1990 in Canada, next in Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, Poland, Finland and Germany. Actions undertaken by AIUTA bring closer knowledge concerning: methods of new theoretical and practice skills acquisition, role and activity of international associations, 33 AGE Europejska Platforma Ludzi Starszych, źródło: // dane z dnia Tamże, źródło: // dane z dnia AGE Europejska Platforma Ludzi Starszych, źródło: // dane z dnia E. Różycka (red.) Encyklopedia pedagogiczna XXI wieku Tom VI, Warszawa 2007, s O. Czerniawska, Edukacyjne przesłanie kongresów AIUTA,,, Edukacja Dorosłych 2001, nr 2, s A. A. Zych, Słownik gerontologii społecznej, Warszawa 2001, s E. Trafiałek, Edukacja, integracja i aktywizacja ludzi w starszym wieku. Polska a Europa, [w:] Seniorzy w rodzinie, instytucji i społeczeństwie, red. A. Fabiś, Sosnowiec 2005, s Studia Caroliensia

11 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM main needs of the elderly, expectations of the elderly, dimensions of active ageing of the European community. Thanks to its members, this dynamic organization is available in the whole world. 40 In comparison to other organizations, AIUTA has as an international association an important function in promoting the education of the elderly and researches in the field of adult education. It is a vital source of information. Apart from that it has a mission of involving seniors in a socially-cultural, economic and educational life. Every human is unique and deserves to be treated in a unique way. 41 From the above presented statement of M. Jaworska we understand that homo sapiens is a creative, understood and valuable individual. As a result of civilization progress the life of the people is longer and on the same times its last stage is longer old age. 42 It is a very important stage in life of every person. In his existence, each individual has many tasks to perform. It is vital to adjust to new situation and to search for new sense of life. People of gold autumn stage is a generation which has rights to own interests and own way of life. According to L. Dyczewski, old people are another link in the generation chain, without which it cannot exist. According to data presented by United Nations, demographic ageing of the society was a problem for rich and well developed countries. Nowadays, it is also problem in poor countries. 43 G. Orzechowska states that Poland belongs to countries demographically affected by ageing, which implies at least 7% of people over 65 years or 12% of the community. By the year 2030, the percentage of old people in the urban population will increase to 26,5%, while the percentage of people over 65 in rural district will be 20,3 %. Despite the increase in number of old people in both surroundings, the percentage of elderly in the rural population will decrease from 40,4% in year 2002 to 36,2 % in year 2030, and in urban districts will increase from 59,65 to 63,8%. Demographic changes of today s world require policy towards elderly. 44 Thanks to resorts like health care and social welfare, the institutional supporting of the elderly is possible. Old people require help and care from family and closest friends. Constant support is required by almost 30% of people above 60 years old. 40 Z. Szarota, Gerontologia społeczna i oświatowa: zarys problematyki, Kraków 2004, s M. Jaworska, Człowiek stary jako beneficjent pomocy społecznej, [w:] Ludzie starzy w warunkach transformacji ustrojowej, red. B. Synak, Gdańsk 2000, s A. Chabior, Aktywność życiowa i jakość życia seniorów, [w:] Seniorzy w rodzinie, instytucji i społeczeństwie, red. A. Fabiś, Sosnowiec 2005, s A. Zych, Formy opieki i pomocy dla ludzi starszych w olsce i innych krajach, [w:] Starzenie się populacji wyzwaniem polityki społecznej: materiały konferencyjne, Kraków 2003, s.41, 44 A. Zych, Formy opieki i pomocy dla ludzi starszych w Polsce i innych krajach, [w:] Starzenie się populacji wyzwaniem polityki społecznej: materiały konferencyjne, Kraków 2003, s. 42. Studia Caroliensia

12 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI The welfare system of Poland includes services for the benefit of representative of this generation and is based on cooperation of different institutions of governmental, self and non governmental sectors. Common characteristic of today s social services implies deep humanization and supportive attitude. 45 Among institutions supporting the oldest social group in Poland we may find above all social welfare homes, day care homes, senior clubs and universities of the third age. 46 International organizations which are active in Poland are: EURAG, AGE and AIUTA. The comparison of Hungarian and European models of social work is accurately treated in Teleki s work. 47 As a summary, it can be stated that social services are a vital social policy instrument.by means of their actions they intensively and firmly support the elderly in different life situations. They do not abandon people in neediness,but give them a helping hand. This treatise is the result of the common reasoning and fruitful connection of two institutions of higher education: Wyższa Szkoła Filozoficzno-Pedagogiczna IGNATIANUM w Krakowie and Károli Gáspár University of the Reformed Church in Hungary. Literature AGE Europejska Platforma Ludzi Starszych, internet site: Ágoston Magdolna: A szociális munka önmeghatározása. Auleytner J., Polityka społeczna: Teoria a praktyka, Warszawa Auleytner J., Kurzynowski A., Polityka społeczna w Polsce po 1945 roku [w:] Polityka społeczna: stan i perspektywy, red. J. Auleytner, Warszawa Baranowicz K., Zakres pojęcia integracja w pedagogice specjalnej [w:] Forum Pedagogów Specjalnych XXI wieku, Tom 1, red. J. Pańczyk, Łódź Boczukowa B., Edukacja trzeciego wieku jako czynnik procesu kształcenia i wychowania dorosłych,,, Edukacja Dorosłych 2004, nr 3-4. Brdárné Dr. Illés Zsuzsanna Hidasi Tiborné Ruminé Szijártó Ildikó Dr. Zentai László: Szociális jóléti ismeretek. Szókratész Külgazdasági Akadémia, Budapest, Carlton T. O., Clinical social work in hsettings, New York Tamże, s A. Leszczyńska-Rejchert, Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn 2007, s Dr. Teleki Béla: Szociális munka elmélete. A szociális segítés megalapozása. Korda Kiadó, Kecskemét, Studia Caroliensia

13 S UPPORTING S ENIORS AT THE B EGINNING OF THE T HIRD M ILLENNIUM Chabior A., Aktywność życiowa i jakość życia seniorów [w:] Seniorzy w rodzinie, instytucji i społeczeństwie, red. A. Fabiś, Sosnowiec Czerniawska O., Edukacyjne przesłanie kongresów AIUTA,,, Edukacja Dorosłych 2001, nr 2. Daye G., Promowanie zdrowia seniorów w krajach Unii Europejskiej, internet site: Dąbrowski L., Senior w domu pomocy społecznej,,, Pielęgniarka i Położna 1999, nr 12. Encyklopedia pedagogiczna XXI wieku Tom VI pod red. E. Różycka, Warszawa Forgó Györgyné Dr. Veres Gábor: Szociális-jóléti ismeretek. Szókratész Külgazdasági Akadémia, Budapest, Głąbicka K., Polityka społeczna w Unii Europejskiej: Aspekty aksjologiczne i empiryczne, Warszawa Gosztonyi Géza & Pik Katalin: A szociális munka szótára. Szociális Munkások Magyarországi Egyesülete, Grafit Kiadó, Halicka M., Człowiek stary w instytucji opiekuńczej na przykładzie badań w domach pomocy społecznej na Podlasiu, [w:] Starość i starzenie się jako doświadczenie jednostek jednostek zbiorowości ludzkich, red. J. Kowalski, P. Szukalski, Łódź Hemmerling W., Rola samopomocy wśród starszego pokolenia, [w:] Ludzie starzy w warunkach transformacji ustrojowej, red. B. Synak, Gdańsk Jaworska M., Człowiek stary jako beneficjent pomocy społecznej, [w:] Ludzie starzy w warunkach transformacji ustrojowej, red. B. Synak, Gdańsk Kantowicz E., Elementy teorii i praktyki pracy socjalnej, Olsztyn Dr. Kovács János: Társadalompolitika szociálpolitika. Agroinform, Budapest, Kowalak T., Polityka społeczna: wybrane zagadnienia, Białystok Leszczyńska Rejchert A., Człowiek starszy i jego wspomaganie - w stronę pedagogiki starości, Olsztyn Leszczyńska Rejchert A., Praca socjalna z ludźmi starszymi, [w:] Badania w pracy socjalnej/społecznej przegląd dokonań i perspektywy, red. E. Marynowicz- Hetka, M. Granosik, D. Wolska-Prylińska, Łódź Lorenz W., Social work In a changing Europe, London Matyjas B., Dzieciństwo w kryzysie. Etiologia zjawiska, Warszawa Sierpowska I., Prawo pomocy społecznej, Kraków Skidmore R. A., Thakeray M. G., Wprowadzenie do pracy socjalnej, Warszawa Szarota Z., Gerontologia społeczna i oświatowa: zarys problematyki, Kraków Szmagalski J., Praca socjalna w poszukiwaniu skutecznych metod, [w:] Praca socjalna służbą człowiekowi, red. L. Malinowski, M. Orłowska, Warszawa Dr. Teleki Béla: Szociális munka elmélete. A szociális segítés megalapozása. Korda Kiadó, Kecskemét, Studia Caroliensia

14 K ARBOWNICZEK GYÖRGYINÉ GRABOWSKI Trafiałek E., Edukacja, integracja i aktywizacja ludzi w starszym wieku. Polska a Europa, [w:] Seniorzy w rodzinie, instytucji i społeczeństwie, red. A. Fabiś, Sosnowiec Wódz K., Praca socjalna w środowisku zamieszkania, Katowice Wybrane problemy osób starszych pod red. A. Nowicka, Kraków Zych A. A., Formy opieki i pomocy dla ludzi starszych w Polsce i innych krajach, [w:] Starzenie się populacji wyzwaniem dla polityki społecznej: materiały konferencyjne, Kraków 2003, tekst dostępny na stronie internetowej: Zych A. A., Słownik gerontologii społecznej, Warszawa Wyższa Szkoła Filozoficzno-Pedagogiczna IGNATIANUM w Krakowie 266 Studia Caroliensia

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