FROM THE HISTORY OF GEODESY AT THE LVOV TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

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1 POLSKA AKADEMIA NAUK- ODDZIAL W KRAKOWIE Prace Komisji G6rniczo-Geodezyjnej, Geodezja 30, 1983 ISSN ISBN X JERZY KRA WCZYK FROM THE HISTORY OF GEODESY AT THE LVOV TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Abstract. In the Technical Academy in Lvov, founded in the year 1844, the lectures on geodesy were given on the basis of substitution (suplentura). The regular chair of geodesy was founded only in 1871 and was given to Dominik Zbroiek and after him, to Seweryn Widt. In 1896 in the school, at that time known as a Polytechnic School, two-year course for land surveyors was started. At that time the chair of astronomy was given to Waclaw Laska. In 1911 the course of lectures on astronomy was taken over by Lucjan Grabowski and from 1912 land surveying was lectured by Kasper Weigel. In 1920 the name of the Polytechnic School has changed to Lvov Technical University (Po/itechnika Lwowska). In 1919 the course/or land surveyors was transformed into a three-year, and from 1929 into a four-year course of engineering studies~ The Lvov Technical University carried on until the year On November 1844 the Technical Academy (Akademia Techniczna) was created in Lvov by transformation of the Academy of Mathematical and Natural Sciences and of Trade (Akademia Realna i Handlowa). It was then the only academic technical school for Polish territory. The Russian sector of partitioned Poland had to wait for such a school until the year 1898 when the Warsaw Polytechnic Institute was founded. It is true that Cracow had its Technical Institute, but it never acquired the status of a university school. Some technical subjects in a limited range had earlier been included in the programme of philosophical studies of the Lvov University where the following were taught: physics with mechanics (8 hours weekly, agriculture and forestry- 5 hours, practical geometry, i.e. land surveying- 3 hours, and building- 5 hours, together with drawing - 10 hours [45]. These lectures enabled the supplementation of a technical knowledge, but by their nature were insufficient for a proper technical education. The newly founded academic school consisted of three sections: the former technical section of the Academy of Mathematical and Natural Sciences renamed the mathematical-natural sciences school; the technical faculty formed from the chairs of practical geometry, building, mechanics, and agronomy which had been separated from the Lvov University in addition to the newly created chairs of higher mathematics, physics and chemistry, and descriptive geometry. The third section was that of trade. The course of studies at the academy of mathematical 1*

2 4 and natural sciences and the technical faculty lasted two years while in the trade section it was one year. A pupil wishing to enter the technical faculty had first to graduate from the mathematical-natural sciences school [46]. In spite of this the low standard of knowledge of the young people enrolling at the Academy forced the authorities of the school to reorganize the technical faculty. The new curriculum of the faculty introduced in the academic year provided for a four-year course of studies. Practical geometry, i.e. land surwying was lectured three hours per week in the fourth year of studies by dr Ignacy Lemoch, professor of the Lvov University. For this his annual remuneration was 200 florins. Ultimately, no separate chair (department) of practical geometry was founded at the Academy and the lectures were delivered in the form of lectures on contract. Iri spite of this reorganization the educational level of graduates of the Lvov Academy was not comparable to that of students of the Polytechnic Institute in Warsaw in the years or with that of the Cracow Technical Institute founded in The lectures in the Academy of Lvov were delivered in German since the lectures were mainly foreigners; the curriculum was also much poorer than in both the institutes mentioned above. The year 1848 held out some hope of improvement thanks to the decree of the ministry of education which put decisions on to educational and pedagogical matters in the hands of the council of professors. At that time the duties of the head of Academy were taken over by professor Aleksander Reisinger who elaborated jointly with the council of professors the new curriculum for students of the technical faculty. The programme anticipated the creation of four faculties: engineering, machine building, chemical technology and land survey -ying. The first two faculties would have a five-year and the remaining two a threeear curriculum. In order to carry out this programme, among others the chair of practical geometry had to be founded. The ministry of education ratified the reorganization plan presented in 1852, however, sufficient means were not available to carry it out. The ministry permitted the extension of lectures on practical geometry from 3 to 5 hours weekly with 5-hours (instead of 2-hours) site drawing. Ultimately, Reisinger's project was not realized and reorganization of all kinds had to be postponed till later [45]. Although the graduates received only encyclopaedic knowledge they distinguished themselves in professional life. Almost all engineers employed at that time on the Gallicia railways, the majority of architects and state engineers graduated from this school. Many later professors of the Polytechnic School in Lvov were also graduates of the school, among others: Julian Bykowski, Jan Franke, Jozef Jagerman, Bogdan Maryniak, Julian Zachariewicz or D()minik Zbroi:ek [46]. The year 1866 was the next crucial year in the history of the Academy. At that time the council of professors had elaborated the next project for reorganizing the school based on the new organization of foreign technical institutes. The project assumed the creation of five faculties: construction engineering, machine building, chemo-technical, as well as agriculture and forestry, and of trade. The studies in the first three departments lasted five, and in the remaining three years. Among

3 other things, the project at last foresaw the creation of a regular chair of geodesy and spherical astronomy [45]. Previously, lectures on practical geometry had been delivered on the basis of substitution (suplent- assistant professor). However, the reorganization of the Academy proceded slowly and with difficulty. The reorganization of the school was started only in 1870 by organizing three new regular chairs with a salary of 1800 florins. The following year brought the creation of three further regular chairs, among them the creation of the chair of geodesy. From I 871 the Academy also obtained a permission to introduce Polish gradually as the official teaching language [45]. Dominik Zbrozek, assistant at the department of geodesy of the Polytechnic Institute in Prague was appointed to the newly created chair of geodesy and in 1871 he was appointed full professor [3]. In 1872 the post of professor's assistant with (!. salary of 600 florins was created in the department of geodesy [45]. After the reorganization had been finished in 1876 the Technical Acadeiny consisted of four schools (faculties): five-year engineering, four-year building, three-year machine building, and four-year technical chemistry studies. In the Engineering School during the second year of studies surveying was lectured and during the third year higher surveying. In the School of Building and the School of Machine Building only surveying was lectured in the curriculum of the second year studies. Besides, as a special subject lectures were given by professor Zbrozek on spherical astronomy [44]. In 1856 the mathematical-natural sciences school was separated from the Academy and transformed into a full six -class school while in accordance with the order of the ministry of education of I 6 VII 1875 the trade school was closed since its low standard of teaching did not fulfill the requirements of an academic school [45]. By the emperor's decree the imperial-royal Technical Academy acquired the title Technische Hochschule (which name was translated into Polish as Polytechnic School- Szkola Politechniczna) [47]. This gave it its equal status with technical academic schools in Austria. Owing to the efforts ofdominik Zbrozek an astronomical observatory was founded at the Lvov Polytechnic School. Zbrozek joined a meteorologic station with the observatory and from 1886 at the orders of the National Department supervised meteorological investigation. He elaborated the monthly and yearly tables from the reports of ombrometer, water-level indicator and meteorologic stations. He published, among others, a map of precipitation in Gallicia for the year His lectures on Geodesy noted by Z. Demianowski, M. Ebenberg, A Kevoss and A. Semkowicz were litographed in 1872 and the lectures on the Theory of least squares were noted by A. Witkowski in 1878 (11 ]. Moreover, he published several scientific papers, among other journals in the,memoirs of the Academy of Sciences" in Cracow and in,czasopismo Techniczne" (,Technical Periodical") (3]. Zbrozek watched over the progress of his assistants and guided their first steps in science. His assistants were: Placyd Dziwiriski, later full professor of mathematics in the Lvov Polytechnic School, August Witkowski, later professor of physics at the Jagellonian University, and Seweryn Widt, successor to the chair of geodesy of 5

4 6 the Polytechnic School. In recognition of his work, the council of professor elected him rector for the academic year 1888/1889, however, at the beginning of the second semester he. fell ill and died the 1st of July 1889 [3]. The council of professors was compelled to charge Seweryn Widt, the assistant at the department of geodesy, with the duty of delivering lectures. However, it appeared that it was impossible to. burden one person with such a wide range of duties, as those carried out by Zbrozek. Therefore the council of professors suggested to the ministry of education dividing the department into the department of surveying and the department of astronomy the more so that also at the Lvov University there was no department of astronomy [9]. However, the ministry preferred rather to appoint to the department another professor's assistant. The problem of dividing the department of geodesy into two separate units lasted for several years. In the meantime the council of professors arranged for a temporary substitute. In the academic year 1889/1890 the course of lectures on geodesy was delivered by professor Mieczyslaw Lazarski from the department of descriptive geometry; the course of lectures on higher geodesy by professor Maksymilian Thullie from the department of engineering, and that of astronomy by professor Placyd Dziwinski from the department of mathematics. In 1890/1891 professor Karol Skibinski from the department of engineering substituted professor Lazarski while in the next year all lectures on geodesy were taken over by Seweryn Widt, at that time assistant professor who had just returned to Lw6w after several years' study abroad. However, already in 1892/1893, after Widt was appointed professor at the Industrial School he had limited his lectures in the Polytechnic School lecturing only on higher geodesy. Geodesy was taken back by prof. Skibinski [45]. The situation became normalized in the academic year 1894/1895 when to the Department of geodesy Seweryn Widt had been appointed [41]. The department of geodesy was divided into two separate departments: department of surveying (practical geometry) including planar and spherical geodesy and the department of higher geodesy including spherical astronomy and higher geodesy together with meteorology and climatology. The department of surveying was taken over by Widt while the second department established the October 1st 1895 [38] was filled by Waclaw Laska [17], a Czech, at that time reader on higher geodesy at the Astronomical Observatory at the Charle's University in Prague. The new law for civil engineers which had come into force separated also a group of private land-surveyors. The polytechnic schools in Austria-Hungary did not train such professionals at that time. The examination rules for candidates for private land surveyors required the passing of exams in mathematics, descriptive geometry and geodesy and three years practice with a land-surveyor. However, the candidates for the practical examination for a state land surveyor were ma~nly people with practical experience, but no proper theoretical background. In exceptional cases these profesionals came from those students of the Polytechnic School who discontinued studies since according to the statute of the school one could take the exam in geodesy only after passing the first state exam at the Engineering Faculty i.e. after the second year of studies. The exam in higher geodesy could

5 only be taken after the third year. These students mostly continued their studies and did not seek work as land-surveyors. In order to meet the need of educating land-surveyors the council of professors of the. Polytechnic School in Lvov in 1893 submitted to the ministry of education a proposal to introduce a 2-year course for land-surveyors at the Engineering Faculty [13]. Ultimately, the ministry of education only by a rescript dated 22nd February 1896 permitted on the basis of the project of the Lvov polytechnic school, the opening of the first year of this course in all the polytechnic schools in the monarchy in the academic year 1896/1897. This rescript permitted the opening of the second year of this course on 1st October However, since in the Polytechnic School a considerable number of students wished to pass at once to the second year of the course, immediate efforts were made in 1896 to open two years of the course for land surveyors. The curriculum for the course of land surveyors was as follows: I year- mathematics, descriptive geometry, practical geometry I, physics, social economy; II year - mathematics, practical geometry 11, spherical astronomy, higher geodesy, 20-days classes in geodesy, as well as encyclopaedia of agriculture, soil quality classification, management, land registers, cadastral survey and law, encyclopaedia of forest~y [12]. In 1899 Waclaw Laska was appointed full professor [21]. Thanks to him, the astronomic observatory renewed its activity completed with apparatus from Vienna and from a private observatory at Przemysl which had been closed. The polytechnic school also owed to Laska the creation of a seismologic station. In the meantime the course for land surveyors was developing. During the first two years of its existence 15 students [10] graduated from it while in the winter semester 1898/ regular and 2 extraordinary students were studying on the course and in the summer semester 11 regular and 1 extraordinary students [6]. In 1899 Laska published for the needs of the course his first handbook in the Polish language entitled Spherical astronomy and higher geodesy. This was the 6th volume of the edition of the Polytechnic Library..In the same year Seweryn Widt published Land surveying in four parts. And in 1903 Laska and Widt published jointly the handbook Land surveying in two parts. Of course, geodesy was lectured not only in the surveyors' course. It had its place in the programme. of the Engineering Faculty (before the creation of the land surveyors' course the department of geodesy worked mainly for this faculty), where both geodesy and higher geodesy was also lectured as part of the programme of the Faculty of Civil Engineering, the Faculty of Machine Building and the mining course. Attempts were made to introduce geodesy in the Faculty of Industrial Chemistry. Such extended didactic duties in the field of geodesy required support for the work of both professors, Widt and Laska. Therefore in 1900, with the consent of the ministry, the post of senior research worker at the department of geodesy was created [22]. The rector's office announced a competition for the post of a lecturer whose duties included having classes and geodetic surveys and substitution in lectures on contract [8]. 7

6 8 Engineer Wladyshiw Wojtan was appointed in 1904 lecturer at the department of land surveying. He was then already (from 1903) assistant professor of forestry engineering in the Higher Forestry School in Lvov. Wojtan remained on the post of a lecturer until 1909, i.e. up to the time when he was appointed professor of land surveying in the Higher Forestry School [35]. In June 1905 Seweryn Widt was elected rector for the academic year 1905/1906 [43]. For the year 1907/1908 Waclaw Laska was elected, however, on account of the state of his health he did not accept this honour [I]. The land surveying course continued to develop. In the academic year 1905/ graduates had passed the second state (diploma) examination [40] while by October 31st 1907 as many as 222 students enrolled for the two years of the course [2]. During the academic year 1908/1909 three doctor's degree were conferred at the Polytechnic School. Among others, Kasper Weigel at that time assistant at the land surveying department, received the title of doctor of technical sciences for a thesis in the field of geodesy. In the same year dr Lucjan Grabowski was. made associate professor of land surveying [16]. Formerly he had been assistant and then assistant professor in the astronomical observatory of Jagellonian University. There he worked under professor M. P. Rudzki [7]. When in 1911 Waclaw Laska left Lvov to take up the post Of professor of mathematics at the Charle's University in Prague, the lectures on higher geodesy and astronomy were taken over by Lucjan Grabowski [23]. The Polytechnic School suffered a great loss the next year. On 11th March 1912 Seweryn Widt died in the Swiss health resort at Davos [4]. He was worthily succeeded by dr Kasper Weigel who already in 1911 on the basis of a habilitation act obtained,veniam legendi" i.e. the right to deliver lectures in an academic school and by rescript of the governor dated 20 VI 1912 he was appointed associate professor of land surveying. By the same rescript Grabowski was appointed full professor of astronomy and higher geodesy [24]. In the academic year 1912/ students enrolled for the course in land surveying and the number -of students in both years was 99 [25]. World War I outbroke out in 1914 and lectures were suspended twice: in 1914/ 1915 and 1918/1919. In the period from 1898 when the first students graduated from the course for land surveyors up till 1920 the Polytechnic School issued 405 diplomas for land surveyors [20]. In spite of the fact that lectures were suspended in the academic year 1918/1919 the council of professorial staff was not idle and passed several proposals for changes in the organization of particular faculties and the curriculum. These were introduced, beginning from the next academic year. The new organizational scheme divided the school into four faculties: -faculty of communication with the sections of: roads, of waterways and of land surveying lasting three years (in place of the two-year course of land surveyors);

7 - faculty of architecture with the sections of eonstruction and art; - mechanical faculty with the sections of mechanical engineering and electrotechnics. At this faculty also a preparatory mining course was conducted, transformed in 1921 into a four-year petroleum section; - chemical faculty. After the Higher Forestry School had been joined with the polytechnic school the agricultural-forestry faculty was created. Moreover, a general faculty was created training teachers of secondary schools and temporarily (for one year) a military faculty [26]. The academic year 1919/1920 was the first one inaugurated in independent Poland. Since by the decree of the Cabinet dated 8 XI 1919 the Agricultural Academy at Dublany had been joined with tlie Polytechnic School the Department of Land Surveying II was created to which full professor engineer Wladyslaw Wojtan was. appointed [27], formerly professor of land surveying at the Higher Forestry School in Lvov. Another reason of organizing a second department of surveying was the transformation of the two-year Course for Land-Surveyors into a three-year Section of Land Surveying. Thus the idea of professor Widt was fulfilled. As early as the beginning of the XX century he had aimed at extending the studies in land surveying and even prepared a curriculum [4]. Because of the course for hind surveyors had been transformed into a section of land surveying in 1919/1920, only the II year of the course and the I year of the section existed. The next year 1920/1921 the II and Ill year of the section of land surveying was initiated. The gniduates of the course for land surveyors could, on certain conditions, enroll for the third year of the section [26]. In 1920 the council of professors passed almost unanimously a resolution to change the name of the school. From that time it was known as the Lvov Technical University (Politechnika Lwowska) which underlined the equal status of this academic school with the Technical University of Warsaw [19]. Three years after the reorganization of surveying studies in 1922 the first diploma examination took place giving the right to the title of engineer. 7 persons passed this exam. The names of the first surveyor engineers from the Lvov Technical University: Wilhelm Chojnicki, Mieczyslaw Janowski, Ryszard Laskowski, Karol. Plucinski, Michal Wilczynski, Edmund Wilczkiewicz, Tadeusz Wereszczynski [5]. The board for the diploma examination in 1922 for the section of surveying consisted of: chairman- prof. Kasper Weigel, vice-chairman- eng. Jan Tobiczyk, members: profs.lucjan Grabowski, Maksymilian Huber, Artur Kiihnel, Otto Nadolski, Wladyslaw Wojtan [28]. Since lectures on land surveying were given not only for the section of land surveying, but also for the sections of roads, waterways and forestry, as well as. the sections of architecture, petroleum and agriculture at both departments there were post for lecturers and five professor's assistants at each. In order to pass from the first to the second year of land surveying studies it was necessary to have attended all obligatory lectures and to have passed exams in mathematics I and descriptive geometry or mathematics I and land surveying I. 9

8 10 Similarly, to receive credits for the second year of studies the requirements were attending all the obligatory lectures and passing the general exam (the first state -exam) or passing the ~ourse exams from mathematics I and 11, descriptive geometry, land surveying I and passing the general exam during the V semester. In the period from 1919 up till the end of the academic year 1929/1930,95 graduates <>btained engineer's diplomas i.n the land surveying section [20], including one woman- Maria Sigmund in the year 1925/1926 [29]. The studies were extended to four years from 1929/1930 [20]. Thus a suitable status was given to the surveying studies: formerly it had been the shortest course of studies. In the first place the curriculum was adjusted to the requirements of the profession by introducing new subjects. The reform of studies on behalf of the faculty board of the Civil and Hydro-Engineering Faculty was entrusted to a commision consisting of: profs Wladyslaw Wojtan and Lucjan Grabowski with Kasper Weigel as chairman [32]. The curriculum was extended by lectures among <>thers on surveying and regulation of towns, agricultural policy and law and land -surveying IV where the rules of surveying the country and triangulation were lectured while lectures on land surveyinglllwere supplemented by problems in mine surveying [31]. In the academic year 1932/1933 which was a diploma year for the first graduates of the reformed four-year surveying studies the title of a land surveying engineer was granted to 15 persons, including one woman - Krystyna Donsaft. At that time also graduated Czeslaw Kamela [32], at present professor of higher geodesy at the Warsaw Technical University. In 1936 the Lvov Technical University suffered a grevious loss. The 12th of February Wladyslaw Wojtan died at the age of 60. When he had been private assistant of professor Widt, he elaborated the professor's lectures which were rnimeographed and entitled Land Surveying. He collaborated in the work Laska - Widt: Land Surveying Lvov 1903, he cooperated in editing of the Stadtmiiller's Technical Vocabulary (Slownik Techniczny) Krak6w He was the author <>f the sections Land surveying I and Town surveying of the Engineering handbook in the field of civil engineering published in Lvov in the interwar period under the editionship of professor Stefan Bryla. He left in manuscript an extensive mono _graphy Land surveying comprising the whole of this science completed up to last moments of his life [35]. The lectures ascribed to the department of land surveying 11 were taken over 'by dr eng. Edmund Wilczkiewicz, till then lecturer at the department of la:o.d surveying I. In the academic year 1936/1937 he obtained,veiliam legendi" [36] and in September 1937 was appointed associate professor of land surveying [14]. Altogether from 1930/1931 till 1937/1938 the land surveying section provided the country with 128 new land surveying engineers [30-37]. In 1939 prof. Grabowski was awarded for his scientific attainments the honour <>f doctor honoris causa of the Warsaw Technical University [7]. After the outbreak <>f World War 11 he continued his scientific work. In the years he was professor of the Lvov Polytechnic Institute [39]. After Lvov was occupied by the

9 Germans, the apparatus and collection of books of the department of astronomy and observatory were devastated. These and other hardships of war caused deterioration of professor's health and in a short time he died at the age of 70 on 24 X Professor's Grabowski scientific achievements comprising scores of works on astronomy, higher geodesy, geophysics and affiliated fields has ensured him a leading place among the scientists and professionals both at home and abroad. He has poised the lectures on dynamic geodesy to a higher level than,at that time was presented at any academic school in the world". His lectures were more extensive than work written in this field ["/j. In 1941 Polish science suffered another severe loss. The. 4th July of that year professor Kasper Weigel was killed by the Nazis [15]; He belonged to the small number of the then outstanding representatives of Polish geodetic science. He was the author of valuable scientific works and handbooks in the field of geodesy and affiliated sciences, teacher and educator of a multitude of geodesists. His scientific works concerned mainly the problems of compensating computation, fotogrammetric researches and establishing and compensating triangulation grids [18]. With the outbreak of World War II the Lvov Technical University, the oldest Polish technical academic school existing uninterruptedly for 95 years, ended its activity. From the very beginning i.e. from 1844, lectures on geodesy were delivered there. Together with development of this do!jlain of technical sciences and the consecutive reorganizations of the school from a Technical Academy through a Polytechnic School up to the Technical University the role and importance of geodesy increased in the curriculum. From a lecture on the Faculty of Engineers through a Course for Land Surveyors up to full four-year studies in the interwar period. From a lecture on the basis of substitution (,suplentura") on practical geometry through the department of geodesy and spherical astronomy up to three departments in the final period. The staff of professors developed from: the scarcely known Ignacy Lemoch through Dominik Zbrozek, Waclaw Laska, Seweryn Widt to such outstanding experts on the subject as Kasper Weigel, Lucjan Grabowski or Wladyslaw W ojtan. The activity of these people in the field of science and didactics became an integral part of Polish science. 11 Delil>ered to the Editorial Board in October 198 /. REFERENCES [I] Berezowski E., Wac/aw Laska ( ) - szkic biograficzny,,przegl<td Geodezyjny" 1971, nr 7, s [2] Do c. k. Szkoly Politechnicznej we Lwowie...,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1907, nr 22, s [3] Dominik Zbroiek, rektor Szkoly Politechnicznej... (nekrolog),,czasopismo Techniczne" 1889, nr 13, s

10 12 [4] Dr W., Sp. ini. Seweryn Widt,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1912, nr 9, s. 117-l18. [5] Egzamin (iyp/omowy w Politechnice Lwowskiej...,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1923, nr 5, s. 58. [6] Inauguracja roku szkolnego I899/1900 na Politechnice Lwowskiej,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1899, nr 20, s [7] Kamela C., Szpunar W., W dziesifcio/etniq rocznict; smierci prof dr. Lt.cjana Kazimierza Grabowskiego,,Przegl!ld Geodezyjny" 1952, nr 1, s [8] (Karta ogloszeniowa).,czasopismo Techniczne" 1901, przed nr 1. [9] Katedra astronomii i wyiszej geodezji w c. k. Szko/e Politechnicznej we Lwowie,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1890, nr 2, s. 15. [10] Kornma nn S., 0 c. k. geometrach ewidencyjnych. Kilka slow do wniosku posla Vayhingera,,C z~sopismq Techniczne" 1898, nr 6, s. 76. [lt] Kucharzewski F., PiSmiennictwo miernicze po/skie,, Przegl!ld Mierniczy" 1926, nr 5, s. 2. [12] Kurs dla geometrow mierniczych,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1896, nr 11, s [13] Kursa d/a geometrow na Politechnice,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1893, nr 6, s. 47. [14] Nominacje profesorow,,przcgl!ld Mierniczy" 1937, nr 9, s [15] Olszewicz B., Lista strat kultury polskiej (1 IX Ill 1946), Warszawa 1947, s [16] Pa wlewski B., Przemowienie!ego Magnificencji Rektora [... ] dnia 16 X 1909 na otwarcie rokt. szko/ nego 1909/ /910 w Po/itechnice lwowskiej,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1909, nr 20, s [17] Pawlewski B., Sprawozdanie rektora Po/itechniki [... ] za rok szko/ny 1895/1896,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1896, nr 21, s [18] Piotrowski J., Posmiertne wspomnienia. Kasper Weigel ,, Przegl!ld Geodczyjny" 1951, nr 11, s [19] Politechnika Lwowska,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1921, nr 1/2, s. 7. [20] Politechnika Lwowska, jej stan obecny t potrzeby, Lw6w 1932, s. 7, 28. [21] Prof dr. Waclaw Laska...,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1899, nr 1, s. 16. [22] Program C. K. Szkoly Po/itechnicznej no rok naukowy 1900/1901,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1900, nr 19, s [23] Program Cesarsko-Krolewskiej Szkoly Politechnicznej we Lwowie na rok naukowy 1911/1912, L\vow 19lt, s. 27. [24] Program Cesarsko-Krolewskiej Szkoly Po/itechnicznej we Lwowie na rok naukowy 1912/1913, Lw6w 1912, s [25] Program Cesarsko-Krolewskiej Szkoly Po/itechnicznej we Lwowie na r~k naukowy 1913/1914, Lw6w 1913, s [26] Program Szkoly Politechnicznej we Lwowie na rok naukowy 1919/1920, Lw6w 1919, s. 74, [27] Program Szkoly Politechnicznej we Lwowie na rok naukowy 1920/1921, Lwow 1920, s. 84. [28] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na rok naukowy 1922/1923, Lw6w 1922, s. 44. [29] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na rok naukowy 1926/1927, Lw6w 1926, s [30] Program Politei:hniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1931/1932, Lw6w 1931, s [31] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1932/1933, Lw6w 1932, s. 69, 246. [32] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1933/1934, Lw6w 1933, s [33] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1934/1935, Lw6w 1934, s [34] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1935/1936, Lw6w 1935, s [35] Program Po/itechniki Lwowskiej na r~ akad. 1936/1937, Lw6w 1936, s , 218. [36] Program Politeclmiki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1937/1938, Lw6w 1937, s. 213, 220. [37] Program Politechniki Lwowskiej na r. akad. 1938/1939, Lw6w, 1938, s [38] Rozdzial katedr geodezji na Politechnice we Lwowie,, Czasopismo Techniczne" 1895, nr 1, s. 8. [39] Rybka E., Grabowski Lucjan Kazimierz ( ) [w:] Polski Slownik Biograficzny, T. VIII, s [40] Syroczynski L., Przemowienie profesora [... ] przy otwarciu roku szkolnego 1906/1907 w Szko/e Po/itechnicznej we Lwowie,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1906, nr 21, s [41] Thullie M., Sprawozdanie rektora Politechniki [... ] za rok szkolny 1894/1895,,Czasopismo Techniczne" 1895, nr 21, s. 185.

11 13 [42] Traczewska-Bialkowa z., Laska Waclaw Jan ( ) [w :] Polski Slownik Biograficzny, T. XVI, s [43] Wiadomosci osobiste,,czasopismo Techniczne" 1905, nr 11, s [44] Wyklady w Akademii Technicznej we Lwowie...,,Przeg!Qd Techniczny" 1876, z. 11, s [45} ZajQczkowski W., C. K. Szkola Politechniczna we Lwowie. Rys historyczny jej zaloienia i rozwoju mdziei stanjej obecny, Lw6w 1894, s. 21,37-39,48-53,.62, 72-74, 75, 120, 88, 56. [46] Zaj11czkowski W., Szkola Politechniczna lwowska,,przeg!qd Techniczny" 1878, z. I, s. 2, 4. [47) Zmiana tytulu,,dzwignia" 1877, nr 3, s. 23. JERZY KRA WCZYK Z DZIEJOW GEODEZJI NA POLITECHNICE LWOWSKIEJ STRESZCZENIE Szersze zainteresowanie geodezjq jako dyscyplinq. naukowll nastq.pilo dopiero w XIX w. Wykladano jq. w kieleckiej Szkole Akademiczno-G6rniczej ( ), a takze w lnstytucie Politechnicznym w Warszawie_ ( ) oraz w powstalej w 1844 r. we Lwowie Akademii Technicznej. Byla to przez dlugi czas jedyna wyi:sza uczelnia techniczna dla ziem polskich. Dopiero bowiem w 1898 r. zorganizowano Warszawski lnstytut Politechniczny, gdzie geodezja wykladana byla w formie wykladu zleconego. Po kilku latach dzialalno8ci studia w Oddziale Technicznym Akademii Technicznej we Lwowie przedlu:zono do czterech!at. Geometric;; praktycznl\, czyli miernictwo, w wymiarze trzech godzin tygodniowo wykjadal na czwartym roku studi6w dr Jgnacy Lemoch, profesor Uniwersytetu Lwowskiego. W 1852 r. kolegium profesor6w pn.edstawito ministerstwu oswiaty. nowy plan studi6w i organizacji Aka:demii, przewidujqcy m. in. utworzenie 3-letniego wydzialu miernictwa. Z braku odpowiednich funduszow plan ten nie zostal zrealizowany, rozszerzono jedynie wyklad geometrii praktycznej do 5 godzin tygodniowo. W latach przeprowadzono reorganizacjc;; uczelni. M. in. w 1871 r. uzyskala Akademia pozwolenie na stopniowe wprowadzanie do wyklad6w jc;;zyka polskiego (wcze niej wykladano w jc;;zyku niemieckim). W tym samym roku utworzono zwyczajnq. katedrc;; geodezji, kt6r11 objql Dominik Zbrozek ( ), wczesniej asystent przy katedrze geodezji Instytutu Politechnicznego w Pradze. W 1877 r. Akademia Techniczna dekretem cesarskim otrzymala tytul,technische Hochschule". Uczelnia zacz~la ui:ywac jako swej nowej nazwy spolszczonego tytulu,szkola Politechniczna". Dzic;;ki staraniom Zbro:Zka utworzono przy Szkole Politechnicznej obserwatorium astronomiczne oraz stacjc;; meteorologicznlj. Po jego smierci w 1889 r. katedra byla przez kilka!at nieqbsadzona, a wyklady prowadzili w zaste<pstwie profesorzy: Skibinski, Dziwinski, Lazarski oraz Seweryn Widt ( ), kt6ry objlll katedrc;; w 1894 r. Nowa ustawa o technikach cywilnych, kt6ra w6wczas weszla w zycie, wyodrc;;bniala ril.. in. grupc;; cywilnych geometr6w. Tymczasem :Zadna ze szk61 politechnicznych w Austro-We<grzech takich fachowc6w nie ksztalcila. W zwiq.zku z tym kolegium profesor6w lwowskiej Szkoly Politechnicznej w 1893 r. do ministerstwa oswiaty z projektem utworzenia przy Wydziale Iniynierii Kursu Geometr6w. Ministerstwo zezwolilo, opierajqc sico na owym projekcie, na otwarcie kursu w roku akademickim 1896/1897 we wszystkich politechnikach w monarchii. Dla potrzeb tego kursu zorganizowano osobnq katedrco astronomii sferyczncj i geodezji wyi:szej, kt6r11 objlll Czech - Waclaw Laska, w6wczas docent geodezji wy:zszej w Obserwatorium Astronomicznym Uniwersytetu.Praskiego. W 1911 r., w zwiq.zku z powolaniem Laski na stanowisko profesora matematyki w Uniwersytecie Karola w Pradze, wyklady z astronomii objlli profesor Lucjan Grabowski ( ). W 1912 r. politechnikct dotknctla wielka strata, zmarl Seweryn Widt. Godnie go Kasper ~eigel ( ), kt6ry w6wczas objq.l katedrco. W okresie od 1898 r., kiedy to kurs opu8cili

12 14 pierwsi abso)wenci, do roku 1919/1920 wydala Szkola Politechniczna 405 dyplom6w mierniczych (geometr6w). W 1919 roku przeprowadzono w uczelni szereg zmian organizacyjnych. Utworzono drug!! katedr~t miernictwa, kt6r11 obj!li prof. Wladyslaw Wojtan ( ), wczesniej profesor Wy:Zszej Szkoly Lesnej we Lwowie. Ponadto zamiast dotychczasowego dwuletniego kursu geometr6w utworzono trzyletni Oddzial Mierniczy przy Wydziale Komunikacyjnym. Absolwentom przyslugiwal tytui inzyniera. W 1920 r. kolegium profesorskie podj~tlo uchwal~t o zmianie nazwy szkoly. Odt!ld uc;zelnia ta nosila nazw~t Politechniki Lwowskiej. W okresie od 1919 r. do konca roku akademickiego 1929/1930 na oddziale mierniczym dyplomy iniynierskie uzyskalo 95 absolwent6w. Od tego tez roku studia miernicze przedluzono do czterech lat. W 1936 r. zmarl prof. Wojtan. Prowadzenie wyklad6w w II katedrze miernictwa rozpqcz!ll wtedy dr Edmund Wilczkiewicz, dotychczasowy adiunkt przy I katedrze miernictwa, mianowany w r profesorem nadzwyczajnym. Og61em, od roku akademickiego 1930/1931 do 1937/1938 dyplomy iniynierskie na studiach czteroletnich uzyskalo 128 os6b. Wraz :z. wybuchem 11 wojny swiatowej zakonczyla sw11 dziewi~dziesi~<ciopi~tcioletni!l dzialalnosc Politechnika Lwowska. MCCnE~OBAHMR TIO MCTOPMM reo~e3mm B ITOnMTEXHMqECKOM MHCTMTYTE BO nbbobe PE3IOME Eom.woif HHTepec B reo.r~e3hh I<aJ< Haytrnoif.r~ncr.uumHHe CTaJI npo.llbji.iltbc.il JIHlllb B XIX Bei<e. reo,!le3h.il npeno.r~asaha 6hma B Kem.11ax B AI<a,!leMnqeci<o-ropHoif illi<one ( ), a TOH<e B no JIJITeXHHt{eci<oM HHCTHTYTe B Bapwase ( ), a c 1844 r. B TeXHHqeci<oH Al<a,!leMHH so Jl1>sose.,IJ;onroe BpeM.Il 3TO 6bma e,!ihhctbehha.ll BbiCWa.ll TeXHHt{eCI<a.ll Wl<OJia AJI.Il liojlbci<oh 3eMJIH, JIHW&. B 1898 r. 6hm oprahh30bah BapwaBCI<HH TioJIHTeXHHqecKHH MHcTHryT, r.r~e reo.r~e3h.il 6hma npeno.n:a BaHa B <l>opme nopyqehhofo,!ioi<jla,!la. qepe3 HeCKOJlbKO JieT yqe6a B TeXHHt{eCKOM OT,!IeJieHHH aka,!lemhif so JlbBOBe npoajihjiacb,110 qethrpex net. Tipal<TH't{ecKyro reometpnro, TO ectb 3eMJieMepHoe.r~eno, B o6'heme TPif qaca B He.r~em.ro npeno.r~asaji Ha qetseptom I<ypce,!IOKTop MrHallhi JleMox, npo<l>eccop JlbBOBCKOrO YlfHBepCHTeTa. B 1852 r. npo<peccopci<a& I<oJIJierH.Il npe,!ictabhjia MHHHCTepCTBY npocbelllehh& nnah yqe6hr n oprahh3al.ihh aj<a,!lemhh, npe.n:snah:ilihh o6pa3obahhe TPeXJieTHero 3eMJieMepHoro <PaKym.TeTa He.!IOCTaTKa <l>oh,!ia nnah 3TOT HHKOr,!la He 6hiJI peajih30bah, pacwhpehbl 6biJIH TOJlbKO JleKI.IHH DO npai<th qeckoh reometphh,110 n&th qacos B He.r~em.ro. B r hrna npose.r~c;ha peoprahh3al.ih& aha,!lemhh, C 1871 DOCTeneHHO JieKI.Uffi t{jit3jihcb Ha DOJlbCI<OM.H3hiKe (pahi>we Ha Hel\lel.IKOM). l>bijia TOH<e o6pa3osaha I<a<Pewa-reo.r~e3HH, KOTopyro nphhh:ji.ii;omhhhi< 36poH<eK ( ), pahbwe accncreat B nonntexhhqeci<om HHCTHTYTe B Tipare. B 1877 r. nojihtexhht{ecka.ll ai<a,!lemh.il 11apcKHM,!leKpeTOM no JiyqlfJla Ha3BaHne,TeXHnwe Xoxwyne". Enaro.r~ap& xnonotam 36poH<I<a 6bma 3,!1eCL OTKphiTa acrpo HOMH't{eCKa.ll o6cepbatoph.h H MeTeOpOJIOrHt{eCI<a.ll CTaHI.IH.H. fiocjie ero CMepTH B l889:r. JieKI.IHH t{htajih npo<peccopa: CKH6HHCKH,,II;3HBHHCKH, JlasapcKH n CesepbiH BnAT ( ), I<OTOphiH nphhh:ji Ka<l>e.r~py B 1894 r. B 1893 r. JlbBOBCKaH: DOJIIITeXHHt{eCKa.ll Wl<OJia DOJIYt{HJia pa3pewehhe o6pa30bahh.il Ha HHH<eHepHOM <l>aj<yjlbtete,l<ypcob 3eMJieMepoB",,!IJIH: l<otopblx 6hiJia oprahh30baha.ot,!iejlbhah: Ka<Pewa c<l>epnqeci<oif actpohomhh n Bhicweii: reo.r~e3hh. Ka<Pe.r~py 3TY nphhh:ji qex: B311JlaB Jl&cKa. C 1911 r. neki.uffi no actpohomhh t{htaji npo<l>eccop JIIOI.IHaH rpa6obckh ( ). B 19i2 r. ymep npo<p. C. BHAT, a MeCTo ero 3aHH:JI Kacnep Benrem. ( ), I<OTOphiH Tor.r~a nphhh:ji I<a<Pe.r~py. C 1898, r. nonnrexhhqeci<ah WI<ona H3,!1aJia 405.r~nnnoMOB 3eMJieMepoB. B 19J9r. B WI<one 6hr-

13 15 JIH npoae~ehbi oprahh38qhohhbie H3MeHeHHH - OOp330BaHa 6bma BTOpaH Ka<IJe~pa reo~e3hh, Koropyronpmum npoq,. B~CJiaB BoiiTaH (1876-l936). BMeCTO ~ByxneTHero J<YPca 3eMJieMepoa 6bm OTKpbiT" TpeXJienrnii: 3eMJieMepHbW OT~eJI Ha KOMM)'HHK~OHHOM <IJa.KYJibTeTe. BhlnycKHHKaM nphh~e>kajio aaahhe HH>KeHepa. C l920 r. npo4>eccopckah KOJIJierHH nphhhjia pewehhe nepehmehobahhh WKOJibi Ha ~ojjhtexhh'ieckhif HHCTHTYT so Jl&aoae. B 1936 r. ymep npo<ij. BoiiTali, a JieKIIHH CTaJI 'lhtati> ~OK- rop 3~M~ BHJibtD<eBH'I. B r. l ~rmom HH>KeHepa nojiy'lhjio l28 cry~ehtob. Kor~a scnhix HYJia BTOpaH MHpoBaH BOiiHa DOJIHTeXHH'IecKlfii HHCTHTYT BO JI&BOBe OKOH'IHJI 95 JieT caoeii ~ehtejib HOC'rR,

14

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