1 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2010, 17, Review paper CULTURAL, IDENTITY-RELATED AND GLOBALIZING CHANGES AS NEW CONTEXTS OF LOCAL TOURISM Cultural changes and local tourism JOANNA FEMIAK, PIOTR RYMARCZYK The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Chair of Social Sciences Mailing address: Joanna Femiak, The Josef Pilsudski University of Physical Education, 34 Marymoncka Street, Warszawa, tel.: , fax: , Abstract This paper attempts to answer the question about the humanity values of local and regional tourism in the conditions of contemporary cultural and civilizational changes. These changes are mainly, occurring in the conditions of postmodern society, the processes of globalization that lead to the displacement of older forms of identity by a globalized consumer culture. In summing up, the authors conclude that the local tourism as a means of developing local identity could be an alternative to consumerism. But it is not about unreflective return to unchanged local traditions, but a dialogue with them and making them available to the global culture. Key words: cultural and civilizational transformation, local tourism, globalization, glocalisation Local tourism and contemporary socio-cultural transformation Local tourism in the long process of globalization reveals to the contemporary man the opportunities to root, to define his small homeland, the awareness of joint events and history. Also it becomes, like everything else in postmodern society, one of the many products that will arouse the need to have or not. The question that we ask in our paper is: How important for a man can be the tourism-oriented local and regional changes in the conditions of contemporary cultural and civilization changes? We suggest defining the local tourism as an action of individuals oriented on unbiased exploration of their own sphere of life activity, the environment, in which every day they play their social roles, but which they often overlook, being absorbed by activities of instrumental nature. Commercialized forms of tourism are often not accompanied by a genuine understanding of social life and culture of visited places. Tourists are really only dealing with the reality arranged for their use, and taking the form of the product put up for sale. Instead of finding out how people live in the places they visit, they learn only what the hotels look like and monuments furnished for the public, and instead of getting to know local customs and behavior, they watch performances of folk bands, constituting an element of tourist offer. Meanwhile, local tourism, while not being a prestigious form of activity, which could serve as a manifestation of the financial status, is commercialized to a limited extent. Therefore, it is a better chance to explore the cultural and social life of visited places, which despite the fact that they are a part of the environment of our life are often largely unknown for us. The process of globalization has launched such phenomena as commercialization, unification, creation of identities through the aesthetic values and prestige. Perhaps in light of these phenomena locality is unattractive? Maybe it is only a place where we are physically present? We do not participate in local social life, we do not know the history of this place and cultivate in ourselves a conviction of not having to get used to the land and people. After all, reality forces to adapt to continuous change - in an era of globalization. Therefore, in this paper authors look at the locality, not only as an effect of globalization, but they want to identify the mechanisms that may pose a specific cure for the effects, which are carried by life in postmodern society. The concepts of postmodernity and globalization The concept of postmodernity, as it is not difficult to note, was created based on the concept of modernity (in English: modernity; French: modernité). The latter has long been rooted in sociology and typically means the model of life characteristic for the nineteenth and early twentieth-century Western industrial societies. At some point, researchers of culture and social life came to the conclusion that social phenomena are regarded as a modern belong to the pas, and the world or at least the most developed parts entered a new historical period. So they began to identify it as postmodernism (in English: postmodernity, French: postmodernité). The concept of postmodernity in the literature of social sciences spread over the last decades of the last century. Postmodern society is usually attributed with the following features: In terms of economy, it is described as a post-industrial and information society. So it is a society in which the industry ceases to play the leading role in the economy, and services, banking, stock market, media and information technology take over. Copyright 2010 by Josef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Biala Podlaska
2 208 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2010, 17, Femiak and Rymarczyk: CULTURAL CHANGES AND LOCAL TOURISM In terms of social forces system, postmodern society is described as dominated by the new middle class, and therefore the group whose members handle specialist and managerial professions and achieve higher income in this respect. In terms of culture, postmodern society is described as saturated with media. With the technological development, mass media, which used to provide information only, turned into a source of great sensual and often interactive communications (television, computer games, techniques for creating the so-called virtual reality), resulting in increasingly becoming competitors for the real world. Baudrillard  known theorist of postmodernity to describe this situation uses the metaphor of maps in scale of 1:1, which covered and replaced reality. Postmodern culture is also described as a consumer culture. Postmodern society is thus a society in which ascetic work ethics is being replaced by hedonistic ethics of consumption, according to which the use of the provided pleasures and amusements is a condition of life fulfillment [2, 3, 4]. In turn, globalization can be defined as the process of tightening and intensification of relations between human collectivities living in different parts of the globe. As a result, the world increasingly begins to form a whole and what happens in one corner of the globe inevitably affects what happens in others. There also occurs intensification of sensing the world as a whole . The concept of globalization is relatively new in the social sciences, it became the most popular in the 80s of the past century but it describes the processes which are not new. The origins of globalization can be seen at the dawn of the modern era. There is no doubt, however, that in recent decades, this process was markedly accelerated. The reasons for this acceleration must be searched, among others, in the development of global media (satellite TV, Internet), an increasing social mobility, including the intensification of migration, as well as in the development and strengthening of the economic relations taking place between different parts of the globe. The emergence of modern theories of globalization was significantly affected by two slightly earlier concepts. The first of these was the concept presented in 1960 by McLuhan , in accordance with which the world as a result of the development of mass media particularly television changed to the global village where residents can immediately find out what is happening in all of its corners. The second was presented in the 70s of the twentieth century theory of Wallerstein, according to which the economies of individual countries in the area of the globe are now setting up a single global system. Its performance is, according to Wallerstein, based on the exploitation of weaker economies by the economies of developed countries, leading to the consolidation and deepening the economic gap between the rich West and poor peripheral and semi-peripheral areas . Contemporary globalization is the process taking place in many interrelated dimensions. However, one can divide them, it seems, to five basic: the political, economic, scientific-technical, ecological and cultural globalization. Political globalization means the development of political organizations and political bodies of transnational and global nature (such as the UN) and the conclusion of interstate agreements that provide coverage over a large part of the globe (such as the Kyoto Protocol on reducing greenhouse gas emissions). The development of world-wide coverage of non-governmental organizations and social movements (such as Amnesty International, Greenpeace and Doctors without Borders) can be treated as its manifestations, and the globalization of certain political ideas (such as democracy and human rights), which in the modern world are beginning to be seen as universally binding. Economic globalization means the development of commercial relations linking the different parts of the world and the globalization of the investment and the labor markets. Its manifestations are, inter alia, migration of workers from poorer to richer countries and the transfer of production from the richer countries to poorer ones. Advances in modern economic globalization are associated with proliferation of the neoliberal doctrine calling for the abolition of customs and legal barriers that hinder the development of world trade and investment. The effect of the current phase of economic globalization is the weakening of states particularly those smaller and poorer and a partial loss of their sovereignty to the sponsors and investors: transnational corporations, institutions like the World Bank and International Monetary Fund or the stock market . The scientific and technological globalization is the process that in the recent centuries formed in Western societies the empirical-rational model of technology and science, which has achieved world-nomination. Its success results from greater practical usefulness and effectiveness compared with based on religion and magic systems of translation of reality and traditional techniques used by non-western premodern society. In addition, the acquisition of scientific and technological solutions as opposed to the takeover of values, lifestyles, moral standards from the outside is a form of cultural borrowing encountering a relatively small opposition, as in case of members of the community engaged in borrowing, it does not arouse fear of general loss of identity. Islamic terrorists may reject Western values, but they do not feel any reluctance to use the western weapons, cars or computers. Ecological globalization is the process of technological civilization development, in consequence of which the impact of humans on the environment in some parts of the world increasingly affects the circumstances in which people live in other parts of the world, or even may be a threat to the stability of the entire global ecosystem. The concept of cultural globalization refers in this case to the culture in a narrow sense, as a sphere of patterns and values with relatively autotelic nature including, inter alia, the arts, entertainment, religion and roughly the same as what is Kłoskowska called symbolic culture . At the core of modern cultural globalization lies enabling it development of global media. This form of globalization is manifested primarily by the global spread of Western patterns of mass culture, mainly of American origin. An important factor of cultural globalization is undoubtedly tourism also serving as a seedbed of Western values and morals in places visited by Western tourists. Processes of globalization in their different aspects are sometimes faced with criticism and the recognition in terms of threat. Critics of the current forms of economic globalization see it as a form of exploitation of the poor by the richer world. They accuse the rich shareholders and managers of transnational corporations originating from the West of gathering money from the exploitation of underpaid workers from Third World countries, and passing on the population of these countries the hidden costs of development, such as the destruction of the environment. The fact that economic globalization is seen by many as the exploitation of non-western societies by the rich West, led at the turn of the century to development of the socalled anti-globalization movement. The global nature of this movement, however, causes that it itself should be treated as a manifestation of globalization. Besides, the participants themselves often emphasize that it is not so much the rejection of globalization, but implementation in a different fairer model, which is expressed by rejecting of anti-globalists name by them and calling themselves alter-globalists.
3 Femiak and Rymarczyk: CULTURAL CHANGES AND LOCAL TOURISM Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2010, 17, Globalization vs. identity Not only economic but also cultural globalization is the object of criticism. Opponents of the cultural aspects of globalization see it as a process of global diffusion of American commercial popular culture macdonaldization or cocacolonization of the world sometimes defined here as a form of cultural imperialism This phenomenon meets on their part, it seems, the criticism on two main fronts. The first criticism form of the cultural globalization, typical for the authors of a more conservative orientation, is denouncing them as leading to the separation of representatives of different populations of local cultural traditions that under the influence of the expansion of globalized mass culture are marginalized or even forgotten. This process of uprooting is condemned as leading to the annihilation of real identity and convicting the individual affected by it to the meaningless and shallow existence. This kind of criticism is as controversial, however, as not everyone would agree with the recognition of the said uprooting phenomenon as undesirable effect. Thus, for example, in the light of anthropological concepts presented by Fromm  in Escape from freedom it should be considered as tantamount to a kind of process of reaching adulthood from breaking primary ties, which provided individuals with a sense of security and orientation by identifying patterns of mindlessly accepted local culture, but also prevented the development of individuality. Another way to criticize the effects of cultural globalization referring more to the value of a pluralistic liberal society is presenting it as a destruction of wealth that results from the existence of a multitude of different cultures. Cultural globalization is thus presented here as a process of destruction of global cultural diversity and being replaced by a uniformity of mainly American popular culture. We should also mention that some authors pointing to the dangers of cultural globalization are concerned not so much with the processes of globalization, as with the reaction to them, illustrating the described by Fromm escape from freedom precluding a sense of security that they believe can take the form of aggressive xenophobia. In the words of Appadurai : leaky financial boundaries, moving identification and fast technologies of communication and transactions together give rise to conflicts, both within national borders as well as across the borders between nations, bringing with it new threats of violence violence which, according to the author may take the form of terrorist attacks such as those of 11 September 2001 or slaughters of minorities one makes the scapegoats. Xenophobic reactions to globalization, although widespread, however, are somewhat unfounded. The influx from outside patterns and values does not have to mean the destruction and displacement of local cultures by a uniformed global culture, but can lead to increasing cultural diversity. This happens when local communities subject to external influences, do not resign their own culture in favor of what comes from outside, and do not reject external patterns in a xenophobic manner, but mix what is local and external, leading to emergence of new standards. This process is known as creolization, glocalisation or cultural hybridization . As pointed out by Watson, even this aspect of globalization symbolizing the uniforming globalization aspectof company as McDonald's in different countries and different continents develops in different forms, reflecting local specificity . Of course, despite the presence of these glocalisation trends, globalization critics may rightly note that the fact that the recipients of cultural patterns can modify them, does not change the situation, which consists in the fact that cultural content flows taking place in the world have so far been largely of unilateral nature. The West had opportunity to influence the physical culture of less developed countries, but these countries (except the area of South East Asia) have had little opportunity to influence Western culture. In recent decades, however, there were signs of change of this situation. Thanks to the development of the global media especially the Internet marginal cultures obtain an opportunity to present their patterns in the global forum, and the increasing migration makes modern societies become increasingly multicultural and multiethnic . The process of cultural globalization today means not only Americanization of non-western cultures, but also the worldwide process of cultures that have not yet had a chance to come together coming into contact with each other, their influence on each other and their mixing. This phenomenon entails deterritorialization of ancient local cultures. Which means that one can refer to local traditions, without being physically connected with the place. You do not need to be Celt today to listen to Celtic music, or a Thai to be a lover of Thai cuisine. Participation in the culture transforms from illustration of social conformism to a form of self-realization. This kind of cultural deterrtitorialized diversity seems more desirable than the original pre-globalization diversity, the value of which was limited by the fact that in a sense, nobody knew about it. Each of the local cultures lived then with his own standards and tried to deny or ignore values carried by the other. Of course, the process of deterritorialization of values carried by ancient local cultures is connected with the risks, the most important of which seems to be erroneous in nature and often superficial interpretations borrowed from foreign cultures of values resulting from ignorance of the cultural context in which they were originally set. Thus, for example, Europeans and Americans fascinated by the art of Australian Aborigines cannot understand its relationship with their worldview, with their vision of man s place in the universe, which in turn creates the risk that it will be reduced to the exotic ornament. And even though one agrees with the opinion of Salman Rushdie, that with errors in the translation the cultural transmission may not only lose, but gain, such errors can lead to the fact that the values carried by the marginal, sometimes disappearing cultures will be lost perhaps forever. Undoubtedly, globalization has forced a change and the need for a new determination of the individual in relation to a changing world. That determination is the search for an answer to the question: Who am I? In a globalized postmodern society we have to do with advancing of started in the modern era process of weakening of older forms of identity religious, national or class. The old identity forms are replaced by new, associated with the consumer fashions and lifestyles. This identity generating nature of consumption combined with the growing role of the media makes the postmodern consumerist activity cease to use of goods as objects with specific physical properties, but is increasingly becomes the consumption of images, fantasies and patterns associated with the goods via advertising and making up the personality of the brand. Thanks to their consuming we get the feeling that we are somebody people whose existence is sensible, valuable and enviable [2, 4]. Another source of identity in postmodern society that becomes more important (indeed closely related to the first) is to have an attractive body, shaped and adorned in accordance with the applicable standards in mass culture. As pointed out by several authors [14, 15, 16, 17], care about the aesthetics of the body in modern highly developed societies becomes a social obligation, from the implementation of which depends on the erotic, social, and often individual and professional success and thus the sense of meaningfulness of one's own life. Both these forms of identity both that referring to the consumption and that referring to the body are, however, for pursuing individuals a frequent source of frustration. Self-fulfillment based on the
4 210 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2010, 17, Femiak and Rymarczyk: CULTURAL CHANGES AND LOCAL TOURISM first of them requires that the individual s success in the rat race, in which inevitably only a few win, and self-fulfillment based on the second would require the fulfillment of unrealistic beauty standards established by the mass culture. Melosik and Szkundlerek  also point to another consequence of overestimation of the aesthetics of modern man it is a continuous movement, rejecting the settlement. These aesthetic substitutes of the identity provide the man with apparent determination, which enforces the instability, exploration, desire for exploration, crossing landscapes, borders. In its consequences, this mechanism drives the market and its support is a source of income. According to the authors, our concern is absence of settling down, absence of determination prohibiting permanent settlement in dream locations, relationships, relations it is a fuel for the economy no longer having to produce anything. The economy continues to produce new needs for new things, and satisfies the needs of a different kind of identity, belonging, determination. Aesthetics of identity forces us to question that the authors ask  whether along with aesthetic values, there are moral values in us? Is the aesthetic relation toward another subject to education? Does excluding from one s company, from among the beautiful things, mean including in a group of others, worse? Here the authors see their sources of violence, show that young people are subject to criminalization in television campaigns. Renewed local identity as an alternative to consumerism An alternative to the proposed by postmodern consumer society forms of identity may be the renewed forms of local identity. These forms do not have to involve unreflective identification with local tradition, which was criticized by Fromm . They may involve a rather reflexive relation to one s own biography through contact with the place that shaped me. The way in which shaped me, does not need to please me, but nevertheless it must be understood and taken into account if I want to understand myself. It should be noted that this place should not be understood only in a geographical sense. Movies that we watched as a child and books that we read then, formed our personality as well as homes where we lived, or the streets, which we walked. Territoriality, however, remains here by invariably present dimension, and the people living in a given place can form a community. Community is located at the intersection of what is the collective and individual, it is free from the tragic conflict of values. Community is a state of being with others, it is a state of blurring the boundaries between I and not I dismissing the problem of self-identification. Community experience remains for years the model of being with others, being in the world of unquestioned importance in the individual hierarchy of values. The community is the basis for orientation in the world. Today these communities are local, ethnic communities and religious groups, friends, fans which are opposed to global, planetary, cosmic communities. Melosik and Szkudlerek  suggest that there occurs gradual expulsion of the national communities. Dispersal of identity, separation from its place, authority, relationships, shared experiences, moving into the world of media, advertising causes concern. A man without constancy, the backrest, can easily give up under the care of those who know everything and give the answer for everything, looking for the prophets, a fanatical religions that will impose the sense of the world and one s own on him without a shadow of burdensome doubt. Building of local identity is a process in which local cultures, stories are revealed anew, reflexively, not in order to close to the changes in the world, but in order to adapt to them. It is worth recalling, for further consideration, the concept of tradition of Thompson [as per 19], which will determine the status, including local history, in view of changes in the modern world. Thompson identifies four functions of the tradition, connecting on a daily basis: the hermeneutic, normative, legitimistic, and identity function. In its hermeneutic function, the tradition constitutes a scheme of world interpretation. Its normative function is to provide a set of values to individuals and patterns of conduct in everyday life. Legitimistic function can provide support to power exercised. Tradition can also be a source of symbolic material (beliefs, behavior patterns, legend), which may give rise to the creation of identity and at both the individual and collective levels. Nieroba  points out that if we accept, after Weber, the opposition between the traditional and the modern society, thus we would have to accept tradition only as a part of the past, which does not provide for individual and group identity. However, social processes, which are described under the term glocalisation indicate not so much to the total absence of tradition, social life, but to change in its status and role of the individual. In view of the social processes that accompany globalization, the need for naming, describing, local traditions and values increases, because they are a source of individual identity. Considering the erosion of cultural and national belonging, ties of the individual with the social system units, national, the identity need of modern man can be met by rebuilding the awareness of local history and roots. According to Synak , small homelands become an important determinant of identity. In the global village the renaissance of localism and regionalism and ethnic revival are the most distinctive cultural phenomena of the modern world . The author points out that the global village resident feels an increasing need for the territorial basis for the integration of activities and his own self-determination. This is because in the process of globalization, different territorialities become a major source of social stigmatization. This means that globalization entails not only a change in lifestyle, but it affects who we are, how we define ourselves. The revival of local cultures is seen as a reaction to the economic and cultural uniformity, strengthening of the institutions of a transnational nature. In local communities, modern man is looking for support, a cure for the chaos that emerges from the multiplicity of information, goods. The pace of change in the global world forces the units to continuously protect their own integrity, to define themselves, define themselves against the constant suggestions of the surrounding world. In the growth of the importance of small homelands Synak sees forms of psychotherapy that counteract the effects of technological and civilization progress. The unit needs good places, which as Synak says, ensure its authentic sense of individual and collective subjectivity. This need increases with tension brought by the modern world. Synak cites after Giddens, the sources of the tensions, they are phenomena of polar nature: unification fragmentation, powerlessness control, authority the uncertainty, personal experience market experience . Giddens also describes the phenomenon of return of repressed content, which occurs during conscious, reflexive exploration of one s identity. A manifestation of such content is the growing importance of faith, religious beliefs, also the reconstruction of tradition, cultural heritage, local communities. What until recently was a sign of backwardness, pejoratively understood folk, today is the individual s response to the question Who am I? That rootedness in tradition protects against sterile universalism and spatial affiliation, knowledge about one s own origins, shapes the sense of individual s identity and allows to answer the question not only who I am? but also, where am I from? Regional communities become a source of sense of iden-
5 Femiak and Rymarczyk: CULTURAL CHANGES AND LOCAL TOURISM Pol. J. Sport Tourism 2010, 17, tity, they protect the individual human image from popular culture seeking the domination . Szczepanski  defines regional identity in the following way: it is a special case of social (collective) and at the same time cultural identity, based on regional tradition, referenced to a clearly defined and delimited territory, region, its unique social, cultural (symbolic), economic or even topographic features, distinguishing it from other regions . As noted by Nieroba  despite the deterritorialization processes, a commitment to small homelands is the supreme value, which affects the regional identity. The space, in which the community is placed, becomes symbolic and represents an area of identification with the region. Description of location, home, region in the context of one's own territory, its symbolism, is present in the work of Yi-FuTuan . Today, return to the roots is not aimed at rebuilding the tradition as it stands, this is impossible, as the Synak notes . Today the return often means a change of approach to the local heritage, modern individual with the different attitudes and needs analyzes its past. In the era of the collapse of grand narratives, the tradition also loses the unique character of unrepeatable truth. Tradition is not something given once and for all, but is the subject of dialogue, flexible, actively created, verified and modified by individual and collective is a cultural construct. Depending on the social conditions, current needs and knowledge, modern man dynamically shapes his traditions, and thus his own identity, which gives him a sense of belonging to a group and place . Synak  clearly points out that globalization and the local movements are not competitive processes. Location is the answer, adaptation to globalization. Confirmation of the specificity of local against other communities, and therefore the rebirth of local patriotism is not a movement against globalization, it is a manifestation of the identity of a newly built identity, or rather sense of identity. Identity, according to Grzegorek , is not the same as a sense of identity. Despite the complexities of the concept of identity and a sense of identity there emerges a fundamental difference. Identity is always someone else's, but ascertained by someone; a sense of identity is available only to the entity, and is recognized in three ways: 1. My sense of separateness from the rest of the world. 2. Consider themselves of today and yesterday the same person. 3. Sense of self-consistency. Sense of identity is an act, confirmation of the existence of one s own identity. It is an emotional feeling, the act of an entity in which inner experience is incorporated. Sense of identity is for the entity, identity is for others. As pointed out by the author, there is a specific situation at a time when we ask ourselves about our own identity, Who am I?. Searching for one s own nature, i.e. the essential properties (as opposed to casual), that is without which one would not be what he in the depths of the soul is. But whatever a man believes to be his nature, the essence that is his own conviction and not necessarily coinciding with how others see it. If we are looking for our identity inside us, we are limited in our search tour own autobiographical memory. This understanding of identity is present in psychology and defined the identity consists of elements of knowledge about oneself, which are extremely characteristic for myself, to which the individual attributes the unique value ; one can also recall the definition of Ericson, recognizing identity as a kind of theory (not necessarily conscious) that the entity has about itself; this way of thinking about identity conflicts, psychiatric approach to identity. Identity here refers to certain properties of a given person the validity of which is not recognized by the said person, but by others, such as someone from outside, e.g. the public, science. Grzegorek is inclined to such understanding of identity, it is a set of characteristics recognized by somebody and it is the identity for someone [as per 23]. Therefore, the processes associated with the development of local identity, will increase along with the processes of globalization, because the need for the community grows in conditions that reduce the stability of collective forms of life and their cultural specificity . Synak evokes the concept of glocalisation which describes the sociology of mutual conditioning between the two processes. The development of local cultures creates an opportunity to preserve one s own identity in the perspective of European integration. Mutual determination, according to some authors, allows for an understanding of shared values and differences. Synak writes, only he who loves his country and regional culture is able to fully feel the beauty of his great homeland and culture of the entire world . The essence of contemporary regionalism on the one hand means maintaining the local identity, but on the other enriching it with new content and value, even for the sake of economic and cultural life of the region. Nieroba writes  that for modern man the material for conscious constructed identity is not just a local tradition, but also the culture supermarket. The author emphasizes, the concept of supermarket culture was first put forward by S. Hall in the Question of Cultural Identity. Today s regionalism, so that it would not be just another version of xenophobia, must be aware, reflective. The processes of anchoring the unit in the modern world were reflected in the so-called phenomenon of discovering the tradition, which according to Nieroba, was first used in the work The Invention of Tradition, edited by Hobsbawm and Ranger, and originally involved the construction of tradition to the needs of nation-states and establish their continuity with the past. Discovering the tradition involves construction of visions of the past to justify current existences of population . Today, tradition discovered in such way is often regarded not only as a cultural asset, but also as a resource which brings profits. Nieroba cites the views of Gross, who in his work The Past in Ruins: Tradition and the Critique of Modernity points to two ways of cultivating the tradition. The tradition can survive thanks to activities from the bottom, that is, determination, perseverance of its supporters . The second way is manipulating the tradition by political and economic forces. The tradition becomes a product, fabricate, yet another product of mass culture. True and authentic tradition may survive only in the case of spontaneous activities of small groups, as Nieroba says after Gross, the direct interaction of their members related to the practices of everyday life. This view, however, has its critics who point out that one cannot deny the authenticity of the tradition just because it is not communicated directly, but indirectly through various forms of communication. This is exactly the communication of tradition that allows it to survive, even if it is depersonalized and transformed under the influence of mass communication. As noted by Nieroba, independence of the tradition from the direct communication and the practice of symbolic contents for indirect communication, e.g. in the form of books . Hence, even on the basis of the affirmation of former local cultures deterritorialization, an important role can be attributed to the interpreters located in the local cultural contexts, whose role would be to explain the content of such cultures to outside world and deepening of local identity. It is thanks to them that the past events imprint stigmata on the present. Because the city does not become historical by the mere fact that it occupies the same place for years, but by being recalled in the books, rituals, customs, holidays its history; the Old Town although the rich with resources of the facts in its