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1 nr 1 (4) 2006 r. Spis treści Contents Jakub Pająk, Jan Golonka & Michał Krobicki Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development... 5 Atrakcje przyrody nieożywionej północnego Wietnamu jako podstawa dla rozwoju turystyki Jakub Pająk, Jan Golonka, Michał Krobicki, Nguyen Van Giang & Witold Zuchiewicz Exploring the northwestern mountain area of Vietnam. Ancient and modern orogens, geotouristic objects and geological processes Eksploracja górskiego obszaru północno-zachodniego Wietnamu. Dawne i współczesne orogeny, obiekty geoturystyczne i procesy geologiczne Michał Krobicki, Jan Golonka, Jakub Pająk, Tadeusz Słomka & Ngo Van Hung Karst regions and processes in the north Vietnam and their geoturistic significance Krasowe regiony i procesy w północnym Wietnamie i ich geoturystyczne znaczenie Zofia Mortimer The seismicity of Vietnam Sejsmiczność Wietnamu Witold Zuchiewicz & Nguyen Quoc Cuong Young faults in northern Vietnam: a case study of the Red River Fault Zone Młode uskoki w północnym Wietnamie: przykład ze strefy uskoku Rzeki Czerwonej

2 (Geoturism) jest czasopismem naukowym Stowarzyszenia Naukowego im. Stanisława Staszica, wydawanym wspólnie z Wydziałem Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej, ukazującym się jako jeden tom rocznie w kolejnych zeszytach. adres owy: Redaguje zespół w składzie: Tadeusz Słomka (redaktor naczelny), Marek Doktor (sekretarz), Mariusz Szelerewicz (redaktor techniczny), Andrzej Joniec, Alicja Kicińska-Świderska, Wojciech Mayer, Paweł Różycki, Elżbieta Słomka Rada Redakcyjna: Tadeusz Burzyński, Janusz Dąbrowski, Henryk Jacek Jezierski, Anna Nowakowska, Krystian Probierz, Pavol Rybar, Tadeusz Słomka, Antoni Tajduś, Janusz Zdebski Adres Redakcji: Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska, Zakład Geologii Podstawowej i Ochrony Środowiska; al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków Na ten adres należy wysyłać rękopisy, korekty i wszelką korespondencję dotyczącą redagowania pisma. Skład i łamanie: Firma Rysunkowa Szelerewicz, Wydano ze środków Stowarzyszenia Naukowego im. Stanisława Staszica z pomocą finansową Wydziału GGiOŚ Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej i Ministerstwa Środowiska Copyright by Stowarzyszenie Naukowe im. Stanisława Staszica, Kraków 2006 PL ISSN

3 Drodzy Czytelnicy Oddajemy Państwu do rąk kolejny numer Geoturystyki, nieco inny od dotychczasowych, ponieważ poświęcony walorom geoturystycznym, egzotycznego ale bliskiego nam kraju Wietnamowi. Polscy turyści docierają tam rzadko, ale zawsze wracają urzeczeni niezwykła gościnnością, pięknem bujnej przyrody i egzotyką starożytnej cywilizacji. Dla geologów to kraj o nadzwyczaj interesującej budowie geologicznej, której synteza została właśnie opublikowana w oddzielnej monografii ( Global Plate Tectonics and Paleogeography of Southeast Asia ). Turyści wielu krajów europejskich dawno już odkryli walory Wietnamu, największą atrakcję geoturystyczną zatokę Ha Long odwiedza rocznie blisko 3 miliony turystów i liczba ta szybko rośnie. Trudno się dziwić, fantastyczny świat wapiennych skał wysp, jaskiń, setki znakomitych hoteli, intrygująca kuchnia i wspaniały klimat przyciągają jak magnes. Mamy nadzieję, że reminiscencje z wyprawy do Wietnamu grupy polskich geologów zainteresują Państwa i skłonią do wybrania się w ten fascynujący, także geoturystycznie, rejon świata. Tadeusz Słomka Redaktor Naczelny Dear Readers, We are very happy to hand to you the subsequent issue of Geotourism. It is different from the previous ones because is dedicates to the geotouristic values of the exotic but close to our hearts country Vietnam. Polish tourists seldom arrive there but they always return enchanted by unusual hospitality, beauty of the lush vegetation and exotic ancient civilization. For geologists it is a country of the extraordinarily interesting geological structure, which synthesis was recently published in the separate book Global Plate Tectonics and Paleogeography of Southeast Asia. The tourists from many European countries discovered the geotouristic values of Vietnam long time ago their main attraction the Ha Long bay was visited by millions tourist yearly and this number is quickly increasing. It is no surprise, the fantastic world of carbonate rocks; island, caves as well as outstanding hotels intriguing cuisine and magnificent climate magnetically draw their attention. We hope that reminiscences of the Polish geologists expedition to Vietnam will attract your interest and prompt to visit the fascinating, geoturistically as well, region of the World. Tadeusz Słomka Chief Editor

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5 Geoturystyka 1 (2006) 5-25 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Atrakcje przyrody nieożywionej północnego Wietnamu jako podstawa dla rozwoju turystyki Jakub Pająk, Jan Golonka & Michał Krobicki Faculty of Geology, Geophysics and Environmental Protection; AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, al. Mickiewicza 30, Poland Abstract: The most impressive, geological features in N Vietnam s landscape are karsts formations. Mainly Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic limestones have been modeled since more than 350 Ma by karstification, weathering and erosion, tectonic and other processes. The effects are limestone cliffs, mogots, sinkholes, caves and shelters, underground rivers etc. made by nature. In this regard the most interesting and splendid is the northern part of Vietnam where many karst areas are recognized, especially the Ha Long Bay, Bai Tu Long Bay and Ninh Binh areas. Besides splendid coastline, all other parts of Vietnam are topographically diversified and very interesting for geotourism. The country is extraordinarily diversified and includes a variety of cultures and ethnic groups such as hilltribes communities: the Dao, the H mong, the Jarai, the Muong, the Nung, the Tay and the Thai. The landscape displays interesting examples of land usage, traditional architecture and colorful folk costume mosaic, especially that of women. The paper presents both the geological and the touristic attractions of NE Vietnam. Key words: geological phenomena, karst regions, Vietnam, ethnic minorities, geoturism. Fig. 1. Map of national parks of Vietnam Mapa parków narodowych Wietnamu Treść: Z geologicznego punktu widzenia najbardziej imponujące krajobrazy północnego Wietnamu związane są przede wszystkim z tropikalnym krasem. Przeważnie dewońskie, karbońskie, permskie i triasowe wapienie są modelowane przez tektonikę, wietrzenie i erozję, zjawiska krasowe oraz inne procesy geologiczne, w niektórych przypadkach zachodzące od ponad 350 milionów lat. Efektem ich działalności są wapienne urwiska, mogoty, ponory, niezliczone schroniska i jaskinie, podziemne rzeki itp. Najciekawszy pod tym względem jest północny Wietnam, gdzie zostało rozpoznanych wiele rejonów krasowych takich jak: Zatoka Ha Long, Zatoka Bai Tu Long czy Ninh Binh. Obok urzekającego wybrzeża, pozostałe części kraju są równie urozmaicone topograficznie i interesujące dla turystyki. Około ¾ powierzchni Wietnamu stanowią malownicze wzgórza i obszary górskie, z najwyższym szczytem Fansipan (Phan Si Pang) położonym na dalekim północnym-zachodzie i sięgającym 3143 m n.p.m. Obok iście alpejskich krajobrazów, wzgórza i góry pokryte są dżunglą, lasami mgielnymi, wykorzystywane jako pastwiska bądź przekształcone w charakterystyczne tarasowe pola uprawne. Dodatkowego kolorytu tym obszarom dodaje ogromne zróżnicowanie etniczne i bogactwo kulturowe. Niniejsza praca prezentuje zarówno geologiczne jak i turystyczne walory północno-zachodniego Wietnamu. Słowa kluczowe: zjawiska geologiczne, regiony krasowe, Wietnam, mniejszości etniczne, geoturystyka.

6 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Introduction The Socialist Republic of Vietnam is located in the Far East, about 8,000 km from Poland, in south-east Asia. The country is S-shaped, broad in the north (up to 600 km) and in the south (up to 350 km) and very narrow in the centre, where at one point it is only 50 km wide. Vietnam s covers more than 326,000 km 2 (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005), making it a bit bigger than Poland, but in its shape the country is clearly longer, stretches more than 1,600 km from north to the south along the eastern coast of the Indochinese Peninsula. The South China Sea with the Gulf of Tonkin surrounds Vietnam from south and east making a diversified, 3,260-km-long coastline, excluding islands and countless, uninhabited, rocky islets protrude from the sea. The country borders Cambodia and Laos in the west, and China in the north. Besides splendid coastline, all other parts of Vietnam are topographically diversified and very interesting for tourism. Three-quarters of the country is picturesquely undulated, hilly and mountainous, with the highest point in the far northwest Fansipan Peak (Fan Si Pan, Phan Si Pang), that reaches 3,143 m above sea level. Besides typical alpine landscapes, the mountains and the rolling hills are covered with jungle, misty forests, or are used as pastures, or typically transformed and cultivated as stepped fields. Extraordinary diversified are rich cultures of ethnic groups such as hill-tribes of the Dao, the H mong, the Jarai, the Muong, the Nung, the Tay and the Thai. The landscape displays interesting examples of land usage, traditional architecture and colorful folk costume mosaic, especially that of women. Highlander s minorities constitute 10%, significant part of about 83-million Vietnamese population. Some of these minorities number more than a million members, while the others, extremely small groups, counted even less than 100 people. The diversity of clothes, even within the same ethnic group in the different living areas, makes the way through the mountains and uplands of Vietnam a journey through a fabulous, colorful and changeable world, like the kaleidoscope in which cultural and landscape exotics complete one another. The most impressive geological features in Vietnam s landscape are karsts formations. Since more than 350 Ma mainly Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian and Triassic limestones have been modeled by karstification, weathering and erosion, tectonic and other processes. The effects are limestones cliffs, mogots, sinkholes, caves and shelters, underground rivers etc. made by nature. The most interesting and splendid is the northern part of Vietnam where many karst areas are recognized, especially the Ha Long Bay, Bai Tu Long Bay, and Ninh Binh areas. The most populated parts of Vietnam are the two biggest river valleys: the Mekong and the Red River. They have created immense, flat, alluvial lowland transformed into rise fields and quickly growing cover of mangrove forests. This area tends to be subjected to floods. Vietnam s fauna and flora is abundant and diversified, thus, it is so exotic for the Europeans. Subtropical climate, abundance of water and a wide range of habitats from equatorial lowlands to even alpine peaks, make Vietnam an ideal environment for thousands of species, particularly 275 species of mammals, more than 800 species of birds, 180 species of reptiles, 80 species of amphibians, hundreds of species of fish and thousands species of invertebrates (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). Previously unknown species of large animals, even mammals (like muntjac deer) are still being discovered. Unfortunately, 54 species of mammals and 60 species of birds are recognized as endangered. Vietnam s forests are believed to contain more than 12,000 species of plants, however, only about 7,000 of which have been identified. Recently, in the islands and caves of the Ha Long Bay several new plant species have been discovered, the most conspicuous of which is the Ha Long Fan Palm (Tien Hiep & Kiew, 2000). About 2,300 plant species are known to be valuable for humans. Protected areas in the northern Vietnam as geotouristic sites There are around 200 protected areas existing throughout Vietnam and many more are proposed. Precisely, there were 25 national parks at the beginning of 2003 (following the Forest Protection Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) (Fig. 1). According to the World Database of Protected Areas, 138 areas have been protected, besides 25 national parks; further 113 are nature reserves of other type. Among these protected areas were established: cultural and Fig. 2. The Black Thai Woman Kobieta mniejszości Czarnych Thai

7 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development historical sites (43), marine protected areas (24), special-use forests (2), coastal protected forest, divide protected forest and rhinoceros refuge. Besides, some sites were recognized on a global scale as particularly unique and valuable, and included into the international conventions and protection programs. The UNESCO approved 9 sites in Vietnam, from which 4 in the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme and a further 5 as the World Cultural and Natural Heritage sites. The World Heritage List mentions: the Complex of Hué Monuments, the Ancient Town of Hoi An and My Son Sanctuary as cultural heritage, the Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park as natural heritage. The Ha Long Bay has been appreciated in both categories (http://www.whc.unesco.org). Additionally, 4 sites have been noticed as heritage by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (http://www. arcbc.org.ph/), and 2 more areas have been protected in the frame of the Wetlands of International Importance Programme (Ramsar) (http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/). Both the number and the area of protected regions in Vietnam constantly increase. The areas include a great variety of ecosystems and landscapes, which are special due to their scientific and esthetic value. The UNESCO and the ASEAN wonder sites, national parks and the majority of other protected areas compose an ideal background for tourism where a lot of attractions wait for visitors: from a variety of cultures up to animate nature attractions. In these areas we can meet one of more than 50 ethnic minorities which live in Vietnam (Vietnam Museum of Ethnology leaflet) (Fig. 2), we can watch rare and exotic animal species e.g., in their jungle, mountain or seashore habitats. Some sites are easy to entry while access to the others, located in remote areas, can be problematic. In the northern Vietnam tourists can visit e.g., the World Heritage site Ha Long Bay, with thousands of limestone islands protruding over a blue waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, and wonders mentioned by the ASEAN: the Ba Be and the Hoang Lien Sa Pa national parks, and 7 more national parks: Ba Vi, Bai Tu Long, Cat Ba, Cuc Phuong, Tam Dao, Xuan Son and Xuan Thuy. Moreover, the UNESCO MAB Reserves have been established: the Cat Ba and the Red River Delta as well as the area protected by the Ramsar Program the Xuan Thuy Natural Wetland Reserve (http://sea.unep-wcmc. org), 15 nature reserves and 11 cultural and historical sites. The next 5 sites were proposed for preservation (Momberg & Rambaran, 2004). In some regions inanimate nature sites are directly protected as integral elements of other forms of nature preservation. International Protected Areas One of a must-visit sites in Vietnam is the Ha Long Bay (Vinh Ha Long) that has been recognized by World s Heritage Commission of the United Nations for its world-wide outstanding values in karst geology, geomorphology and history. This meeting point of sea and land is famous in the world for its unique scenery of thousands of limestone islands and islets protruding from the emerald waters (Fig. 3). It is also a habitat Fig. 3. The Ha Long Bay one of thousands rocky islands Jedna z tysięcy skalnych wysp w zatoce Ha Long

8 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 4. The Ha Long Bay floating village Pływająca wioska Zatoka Ha Long Fig. 5. The Fighting Cocks Walczące Koguty Fig. 6. Sandy beach of the Ti Top Island Piaszczysta plaża na wyspie Ti Top for many plant and animal species, even rare or endemic (some species of palm and other plants have just been discovered), and is a worth-visiting site because of its historical and cultural values (Tien Hiep & Kiew, 2000). Exotic sandy beaches with coconut palms, beautifully illuminated caves and many more touristic amenities (e.g. kayaking) may certainly satisfy even the most demanding visitors. Floating villages (Fig. 4), shops installed on small boats selling fruits and drinks for tourists, a labyrinth of rocky or forested islands and water passages (sometimes incredibly hidden), all make this seascape magical and surreal. The Ha Long UNESCO Reserve comprises 775 islands which totally cover 434 km 2 and nearly 2,000 more in whole surrounding region (Tien Hiep & Kiew, 2000). The most remarkable and well known are: the Dau Go Island with two wonderful caves Dong Thien Cung and Hang Dau Go, the Dao Bo Hon Island with other caves, among them Hang Sung Sot that is characterized by its abundant dripstones and, first of all, amazing, carved ceiling. In addition, many more sites can be mentioned, like Hang Bo Nau, Hang Trong (Drum Cave), Dong Tam Cung or Dong Me Cung caves and rocky islet named the Fighting Cocks for its shape (Fig. 5) or the Ti Top Island with small, sandy beach (Fig. 6) and stairways to the top of the limestone hill, from which a delightful panorama can be appreciated (http://www.ha Long.com/) (Fig. 7). Ha Long means where the dragon descends into the sea. The legend says that the islands of Ha Long Bay were created by a huge dragon. It happened long time ago, soon after the Viet people established their country when the invaders attacked the country. The Viet people needed help to fight against the enemy. The Jade Emperor (one of the most important gods of the Taoist pantheon, the ruler of Heaven) sent Mother Dragon and her Baby Dragon down to the Earth (Fig. 8). At the same time invader s boats were rushing to the shoreline. The dragons landed down on the Earth and spouted a lot of pearls from their mouths. The pearls turned into many rocky islands emerging suddenly from the sea. The boats crushed against the rock walls and broke into pieces. The place where the Mother Dragon descended is known nowadays as the Ha Long Bay and that where the Baby Dragon landed is now the Bai Tu Long Bay (http://www.ha Long.com/). The real history of such exceptional landscape reminds a legend except it were not dragons who rised the islands but a series of geological processes starting with sedimentation and diagenesis throughout tectonics up to karstification. Riftingtriggered marine transgression that took place about 400 Ma deposited Devonian-Early Carboniferous formations including continental and sub-continental molasse grading upward into terrigenous-carbonate-siliceous sediments. This sequence, up to 1,400 m thick, forms a syncline, which plunges under the Ha Long Bay and which is particularly important for stratigraphy due to the presence a conformable boundary between the Upper Devonian and the Lower Carboniferous, as proven by an assemblage of Fammenian (Late Devonian) fossils changing upward into the set of Tournaisian (Early Carboniferous) ones (Tuyet et al., 2004). In the Late Paleozoic, between Ma, a shallow sea covered vast areas in Indochina and South China bringing favorable conditions for sedimentation of a series of 1,500-meters-thick, terrigenous, terrigenous-carbonate and carbonate rocks. The limestones sequnce of that age built the present relief of the Ha Long Bay and the nearby Cat Ba Island. We can see horizontal, inclined or undulating layers of limestones (Fig. 9) that include 13 forams biozones (Tuyet et al., 2004). During the next millions of years the region was shaped tectonically by both the rifting and subduction of the Earth crust. Strong, Late Triassic collision and compressional

9 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 7. Islands and isletes of the Ha Long Bay Wyspy i wysepki Zatoki Ha Long tectonic regime resulted in granite intrusion, as well as folding and faulting activity that included most of Vietnam territory. As a result, a huge graben was formed, filled with 3,400-meters-thick succession with numerous hard-coal seams and abundant fossil flora (192 species). Then, during the Late Jurassic-Cretaceous, intensive subduction took place at the contact between the Pacific and the European-Asian plates. It created the East Asian active continental margin, which is responsible for mountain topography and numerous intrusives distributed along the Tonkin Gulf shoreline (Tuyet et al., 2004). In the Cainozoic the Himalayan orogenic movements strongly influenced the Indochinese geostructure. Due to the collision of the Indian subcontinent with the European-Asian plates, shear faulting accompanied by subsidence occurred further to the east, of which the Red River fault and the Tonkin Gulf depression are typical examples. This fault was active during the whole Cainozoic resulting in a compensational basin filled with fluvialdeltaic-lagoonal sequences as thick as 5,000 m in the Red River delta and up to 18,000 m in the centre of the Tonkin Gulf. At present, the area is a part of the Quang Ninh anticlinorium that borders the An Chau intra-continental, rift-type, superimposed depression in the north and the Red River-Tonkin Gulf young subsidence region in the south. The Ha Long Bay area is divided into three blocks: the Van Don monoclinal uplifted block to the east, the Ha Long subsided synclinal block plunging into the sea and the Cat Ba anticlinal uplifted block. Finally, about 40,000 years ago, the sea invaded the mainland, forming the Ha Long Bay (Tuyet et al., 2004) (Fig. 10). A few words about karst marvels in the Ha Long Bay The landscape of the Ha Long Bay is a result of geological events mentioned above, but what we can see at first glimpse is a humid tropical karst system sculptured by the sea. The karstification process could have started after the marine regression that happened certainly in the Late Triassic (around 195 Ma). Since that time the Ha Long Bay and surrounding areas have remained under continental conditions and denudation could have proceeded, including karstification processes. Karstification connected with pulsating uplift during the whole Mesozoic and Cainozoic produced dolines, closed depressions and valleys with sinkholes surrounded by Fig. 8. Dragon roof Dach Smoka

10 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development conical and pyramidal peaks, sometimes forming clusters and ranges. Finally, in the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene, the sea began to fill the Tonkin Gulf reaching the southern Ha Long Bay about 8,000-7,000 years BP. We can now admire the seascape of thousands of rocks towering above the emerald waters due to subsidence of the synclinal Ha Long Bay block (Tuyet et al., 2004). In fact, these rocks are summits of limestones hills, carved with karren and microkarren on their surfaces (Fig. 11). Other karst wonders are numerous caves with incredible dripstones (Fig. 12). Caves formed at 3 levels are full of stalactites and stalagmites, some meeting each other and becoming columns, flowstones and others speleothemes made by calcite or aragonite (Tuyet et al., 2004). World-famous, classic examples of flutes cover ceilings of some caves, modeling them in a cuppy and wavy style (Fig. 13). A C B D Fig. 9. (A) Recent oysters and monoclinally dipping Paleozoic limestones beds in the Ha Long Bay; (B) horizontal beds of Paleozoic limestones in the Ha Long Bay; (C,D) monoclinal beds of Paleozoic limestones in the Ha Long Bay (A) współczesne ostrygi i zapadające monoklinalnie warstwy wapieni paleozoiku Zatoka Ha Long; (B) Poziome ławice wapieni paleozoicznych w zatoce Ha Long; (C, D) monoklinalnie zapadające warstwy wapieni paleozoicznych zatoka Ha Long 10

11 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 10. The sea invaded the mainland forming the Ha Long Bay Morze wkroczyło na ląd tworząc zatokę Ha Long You can easily reach the Ha Long area from Hanoi with organized, bus or even helicopter tours or by traveling independently by bus or train. There are more than 100 hotels in the Ha Long City and a large number of cafes, restaurants, drink-bars, souvenir shops and many others facilities. To visit the bay with its islands and caves you can choice at least 5 boat cruise trips (Fig. 14). If traveling independently, you should visit the Ha Long Bay Management Departament (http://ha Long.org.vn), which regulates prices for cruis trips and has an office at the Bai Chay tourist dock. You don t need to hire a whole boat. Prices vary between 280,000 and 1,400,000 dongs depending on boat size (10 to 80 seats) and trip duration (4-8 hours). A single seat costs from 20,000 to 35,000 dongs (10,000 VND = 0,62 USD) for 4 to 8 hours trip, however, more expensive, 2-days-long cruises are also available. For more active visitors it is possible to kayak between limestones cliffs of the Ha Long Bay. In the city and in the surrounding areas you can hike (e.g. the Bai Tho Mountain) (Fig. 15), you can visit many historical places or even arrange a trip to the open pit, hard-coal mines. The Ba Be National Park is located in the limestone mountains and includes the largest mountain lake in the country. Freshwater, 8-km-long lake is connected to the Nang River by a channel. During the rain season, at high water levels, the lake drains into the river via this channel, while during the dry season water flows from the river into the lake. The lake is surrounded by tropical rainforest and unforgettable scenery Fig. 11. Limestone hill carved with karren and microkarren on surface Rzeźbione formami krasowymi powierzchnie wapiennych skał 11

12 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 12. The incredible dripstones of the Thien Cuong Cave Niesamowita szata naciekowa Jaskini Thien Cuong of limestone hills that rise from to 1,546 m a.s.l. towards southeast, along the distance of 13 km. The famous Dau Dang group of waterfalls extends for about 10 km in the north-western part of the park. The highest fall measures 45 m. There are also numerous caves and shelters with the most notable the Phuong Grotto, m high, in which the Nang River lows underground along 300 meters. The Ba Be National Park protects the flora assemblage which is unique at national level. Moreover, approximately 100 species of birds and 30 species of mammals have been recorded. Several of them are rare or endemic, e.g. gibbons and Francois leaf monkey. In summer a colorful kaleidoscope of 300 species of butterflies surely gives an inspiration to everyone. The park area is a home for 5 ethnic minorities. The Ba Be area is accessible by road from Hanoi that is located 150 km south-south-east (in straight-line). The journey by road takes about eight hours. The Ba Be town is located south from the lake, approximately 5 km from Cho Ra District Town in the Cao Bang Province. The caves, waterfalls and lake are accessible either by boat or by foot. Spectacular mountain scenery and many sites directly connected with geology provide enormous potential of the area for national and international tourism development. Plans have already been made to develop the area for tourism, which would enhance the income of local people. Nowadays, there are a guesthouse, bungalows, restaurants and bars including 2 stilt guesthouses in the ethnic Tay village (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). The Hoang Lien National Park, like the Ba Be described above, has been appreciated by the ASEAN organization as a Heritage Park. The site is located in the far northwestern part of Vietnam, in the Hoang Lien Son mountains range (Fig. 16) and includes the highest peak of the country - Fansipan (Fan Si Pan, Phan Si Pang, Phang Xi Pang), that reaches 3,143 m a.s.l. The slopes of the mountains are very steep but covered below 1,000 m a.s.l. with stepped rice paddies cultivated by the Black H mong and other 5 ethnic minorities living in the park. Trek from Sa Pa to Fansipan takes 2-4 days. After passing by terraced fields, grassland and bamboo scrubs we climb through gullies covered with evergreen forest up to 1,800 m, which supports a richness biodiversity of fauna and flora. Especially around 2,500 m we enter the amazing flower s kingdom and, further, the subalpine forest called elfin forest due to its mysterious, gnarled and twisted dwarf rhododendrons and pine trees overgrown with mosses, lichens and orchids (Momberg & Rambaran, 2004). The summit provides spectacular panorama over the Sa Pa valley and the edge of Chinese Yunan Province to the north, and the view of mountainous Lao Chau Province in other directions. Besides one of the best trekking opportunities in Vietnam, the Hoang Lien National Park with its mountain capital Sa Pa (equivalent of our Zakopane) is famous worldwide for cultural and ethnic tourism. Apart from the H mongs (Mong), there live the Tay, the Dao (Dzao, Mien), the Thai and the Phu La (Xa Pho) minorities (Momberg & Rambaran, 2004) (Fig. 17). In Sa Pa tourist will certainly notice their diverse and colourful 12

13 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development 13

14 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 13. Cuppy and wavy style of ceiling in the Hang Sung Sot Cave Rzeźbiony przez naturę strop Jaskini Hang Sung Sot Fig. 14. Tourist boats in the Ha Long Bay Łodzie turystyczne w Zatoce Ha Long dresses, where the women from surrounding nearby villages come down to do their business at the marketplace (especially on Saturdays). Patterned shirts, trousers, skirts and blankets, hand-made jewellery, original musical instruments and many other home-made goods are offered (Fig. 18). In order to look at everyday life of those people the visitor can take a motorbike trip or just walk to their villages. The closest one is Cat Cat village and the other popular sites are Ta Phin or Sin Chai ones where one can stay overnight in H mongs traditional house, learn about textiles, listen to their music or watch the dance. Another opportunity to learn something about the culture of the minorities living here is to visit Sa Pa during one of many festivals (http://www.sapa-tourism.com). Moreover, there are numerous waterfalls in the park area with the best-accessible, 100-m-high Silver Waterfall or others, located near Sa Pa: the Love and the Cat Cat Waterfalls. Another geotouristic site is the Ancient Sacred Stones area, with large boulders carved with ritual reliefs scattered near the Ta Van stream and the old Rattan Bridge. The best way to get to Sa Pa is an overnight travel by train from Hanoi to Lao Cai (65, ,000 dongs), and changing to a bus, car or motorbike. Sa Pa is also accessible from the west through the Tram Ton Pass (1,900 m a.s.l.) (Fig. 19) that is a line dividing two climatic zones and offers wonderful views from the hairpin road. In some parts of the park and surroundings the 4WD or motorbike transport is available, but most of the area is accessible by walk. There is plenty of guesthouses and hotels, but the prices are relatively high and 14

15 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 15. The Bai Tho Mountain Góra Bai Tho it is better to book in advance, especially during the season (March to May and September to mid-december), (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). Another protected site of international importance is located in the coastal area. The Wetlands of International Importance Programme (Ramsar) protects consists of the Xuan Thuy National Park and the Tien Hai Nature Reserve, forming together the Xuan Thuy Natural Wetland Reserve (http://sea. unep-wcmc.org). National parks The Cat Ba National Park is occupies the island of the same name and adjacent inshore waters of the Gulf of Tonkin, bordered from the east by the Ha Long Bay UNESCO Reserve. The main island, covering 345 km 2, and 366 smaller islands form an archipelago. There is a great diversity of landscapes and ecosystems including offshore coral reefs, sandy beaches, mangrove forests, freshwater swamp forests, small freshwater lakes and forested hills (http://www.reefbase.org/). The karstified limestone areas on the main island are distinguished by spectacular scenery, with numerous waterfalls and caves. Stone tools and bones found in some sites indicate that primitive man had been living in these caves between 6,000 and 7,000 years ago, e.g. in the Cai Beo Cave. Most of the rainwater flows into caves and then underground, to the sea. There are several small lakes and ponds in the hills, the largest of which is the Ech Lake. The highest hills rise to 331 (Cao Fig. 16. Outcrop along Hanoi Son La road Odsłonięcie przy drodze Hanoi Son La 15

16 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 17. The Black H mong girl Dziewczyna mniejszości Czarnych Hmong Fig. 18. Home-made crafts are offered by women from mountain tribes Góralki oferują swoje rękodzieła Vong) and 302 m a.s.l. (Hien Hoa). Altitudes of much of the main island are between 50 and 200 m a.s.l., however, some places in the interior, such as Ang Tom in Viet Hai Village, are below sea level. It is popular among tourists to hike to this minority village but if you need something more challenging, like hiking to the top of the island, it is better to rent a guide (5 USD per day). The principal beaches are at Cai Vieng, Hong Xoai Lon and Hon Xoai Be. The interesting feature of the surrounding waters is their salinity that fluctuates seasonally and range from 31 ppt in the dry season to almost 9 ppt in the wet season. It is directly connected with the tropical monsoonal climate where in the wet season annual rainfall reaches 1,800 mm, temperature is between 25 and 28 o C and relative humidity is around 85%. In the dry or cold season that lasts from November to March rainfall is low and temperature varies and between 16 and 19 C (http://www.birdlifeindochina. org/source_book). In total, 745 species of plants have been recorded in the archipelago, also found are 118 tree species and 160 of medicinal plants species. The endemic fauna includes e.g. a subspecies of Francois monkey and global rarity the Golden-Headed Langur, which is a critically endangered animal (Fig. 20) (http://www.primatecenter.org/prim.htm). Other mammals include leopards, macaques, sambars, otters, civets, squirrels, rats and Horsfield s leaf-nose bats. The islands lie on a main migration route for many species of waterfowl. The beaches and mangrove forests provide feeding and roosting sites for a large number of birds during the migration season. One small island is occupied by breeding turtles and another by breeding rhesus (small monkey species). Summarizing, the wildlife includes more than 100 bird species, some 200 species of fish, 500 species 16

17 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 19. The road to the Tram Ton Pass Droga przez Przełęcz Tram Ton of molluscs and 400 species of arthropods (http://www. birdlifeindochina.org/source_book). The Cat Ba is situated in the Ha Long Bay, about 30 km east of Hai Phong City and about 8 km from the coast. There are several piers on the Cat Ba Island, two of which are located near Cat Ba town. You can get there by hydrofoil from the Hai Phong Port (45-km-long travel takes only 45 minutes at the cost of 90,000 dongs) or by tourist boat from Ha Long City (20 km in 5 hours, for 70,000 dongs) (Fig. 21). Another pier is situated on the eastern periphery of the island, in Phu Long and offers a connection to the Cat Hai Island, closer to the mainland. Moreover, there are plenty of slow, chartered boats running across the Ha Long Bay. The entrance fee to the Cat Ba National Park is 15,000 dongs. The other attractions are floating restaurants serving seafoods on the Cat Ba Harbour, although Cat Ba town has many quality land-restaurants and offers a wide range of accommodation in guesthouses and hotels (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). A bit northeast to the Ha Long Bay lies one of the youngest Vietnamese National Parks the Bai Tu Long (Ba Mun, Dao Ba Mun). It is a karstified limestone area with heaps of islands and islets surrounded by marine waters. This type of shoreline extends for the next 100 km beyond the park territory, up to the Chinese border. There is one geological feature of the Bai Tu Long Bay, which distinguishes it from the Ha Long Bay: the main island of the preserve area - Ba Mun (18 km long and almost 1 km wide) - is not composed of limestones but of schists, sands and gravels. Fig. 20. Golden-Headed Langur Langur Złotogłowy This narrow strip of land reaches 307 m a.s.l. (the Cai Quyt Peak). Other differences are: the lack of tourist facilities in the area and the abundance of mangrove forests. The Ang Valley on the Tra Ngo Island contains the largest mangrove forest in the national park that can be accessed through the Cai De Cave, a 2-km-long tunnel connecting the valley to the sea. Considering the lack of tourist infrastructure and poor knowledge of foreign languages, it is really difficult to travel around the Bai Tu Long (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). 17

18 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 21. Tourist s boat cruises to the Ha Long Łódź turystyczna kursująca po Zatoce Ha Long Fig. 22. Tropical karst and exotic plants Tropikalny kras i egzotyczne rośliny However, it can be wonderful to visit these quiet and unpolluted, remote areas. The Cuc Phuong National Park is the first national park established in Vietnam. Similarly to the protected areas described above, its scenic landscapes are directly connected with limestones and humid, tropical karstification. The park is located in the foothills of the northern Annamite Mountains. The central part is a broad, flat valley bordered by two ranges of limestone hills and cliffs that turn into a canyon in the east. The mountains are built mostly of Triassic limestones with large karst system, including underground river and numerous caves (Fig. 22). The result is that there is no river draining the valley. In this sub-tropical climate annual rainfall is 2,100 mm with a maximum of 3,300 mm recorded. The dry season is from November to February. The Cuc Phuong National Park can be regarded as most typical humid tropical ecosystem in Vietnam. There have been 1,944 plants species recorded and 3 different types of forest were distinguished: (bottoms of closed depressions and valleys, mountain slopes and mountain tops) with 5, 3, and 2- canopy structure layers. So exotic for us but typical for tropical forests are the prevalence of wooden lianas, some as big as 20 cm in diameter and hundreds of meters in length, that straddle from one tree to another (Trans-Karst, 2004). Orchids and other flowers surely give visitors pleasant impressions. The Cuc Phuong National Park is located in the West Tonkin, one of the regions of Vietnam richest in fauna, with an enormous diversity of species and numerous endemics. The 18

19 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 24. The Tam Coc boat trip through three caves Wycieczka łódką przez trzy jaskinie Tam Coc park is a habitat for about 320 species of birds, 88 species of mammals, 39 species of reptiles and 60 species of amphibians. First and foremost, it is an important habitat protection site of primates including macaques (e.g. strongly endangered Delacour s Langur), gibbon, and Francois leaf monkey. All primates are now to be very rare due to over hunting. Animals like the Asiatic black bear and tiger possibly visit the park area, while others including leopards, jungle cat and a large number of smaller mammals (e.g. bats, rodents, flying squirrels) are permanently present. In the caves an endemic subspecies of sub-terrain fish lives (http://www.birdlifeindochina. org/source_book). Besides, in some of the caves Paleolithic and Neolithic artefacts have been found. Nowadays, parts of the park are inhabited by the ethnic minority of Muong people who are regarded as original, earliest inhabitants of this area. There are about 2,500 Muong people living in the hills, in small family groups. They have cleared extensive areas for the production of hill rice and in the central valley they have levelled and irrigated the land for rice fields. The Muong also hunt wildlife in the park using both modern firearms and traditional crossbows. The Cuc Phuong is located some 100 km southwest of Hanoi and about 45 km from Ninh Binh but there is no public transport to the park. A road through the main valley and narrow trails provide access to various parts of the park and a 600-rung ladder allows to access the popular Hang Dang Cave. There are great opportunities for hiking in Cuc Phuong, especially to 1,000-years-old Big Tree, the Muongs village Fig. 23. Ha Long Bay type karst on the rice paddies Kras typu Ha Long na polach ryżowych 19

20 Attractions of unanimated nature of the northern Vietnam as a basis for tourist development Fig. 25. Buddhist shrine composed into limestone cliff Buddyjska świątynia wkomponowana w ścianę wapienną Kanh or to the highest summit of the area the Silver Cloud Peak (637 m a.s.l.). Visitors can also visit zoological museum, deer-breeding station and botanic garden. Accommodation is possible in a guest house which can accept about twelve people and a number of small bungalows. The other national parks of the Northern Vietnam: the Ba Vi and the Tam Dao National Park are situated closer to the Hanoi and have become weekend destinations for many Vietnamese. Both are located in the isolated mountains which rise over a low and flat terrain that provides great views of the Red River valley (one of the most important fault zones in the present world). There are several peaks over 1,300 m a.s.l., the highest of which is the Mount Tam Dao Bac (1,592 m a.s.l.), and numerous waterfalls with the best known Silver Waterfall (Thac Bac). The Mount Ba Vi ridge altitude is around 1,100-1,200 m a.s.l. with the highest peak Dinh Vua (1,296 m a.s.l.). Because of the mountain topography the climate and wildlife diversity varies with the altitude (e.g. there exist lowland evergreen and evergreen forests where the flying squirrels lives). Above the altitude of 500 m a.s.l. the fog covers the top of the mountain during most of the day. The Tam Dao park is located about 85 km northwest from Hanoi and is accessible by car, bus or motorbike. There are many hotels and guesthouses charging from about 5 to 65 USD. The Ba Vi park is located around 65 km west of Hanoi but, in fact, the only option to visit this park is to rent a car or motorbike. Acommodation and meals are available in the guesthouse (50,000 dongs per room). Visitors can also visit the orchid or birds garden (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). Moreover, there is one more national park in the north the Xuan Son, situated west from the Ba Vi protected area. From all the nature reserves the following should be mentioned due to their geotouristic values: the Van Long Reserve near Ninh Binh, with limestone pinnacles projecting above a reedy wetland, the abundance of birds and the boat trip with a chance to see Delacour s langurs (all for only 20,000 dongs) or the Yen Tu National Reserve which occuppies the limestone Yen Tu Mountain Range with old Buddhist pagodas: Thay (Heavenly Blessing) and Tai (Pagoda of the West) (entrance fee 3,000 dongs) (Ray & Yanagihara, 2005). The remaining reserves are: the largest and the most remote one the Muong Nhe, located at border with Laos and China, and others: Phong Quang, Du Gia, Nui Pia Oac and Trung Khanh in the north, Huu Lien and Tay Yen Tu in the northeast, Thuong Tien, Pu Luong, Xuan Nha and Pa Co Hang Kia southwest of Hanoi, Nam Don and Sop Cop Nature Reserve (Momberg & Rambaran, 2004). Moreover, many cultural and historical sites are very important from a geotouristic viewpoint. The Chua Huong is famous for its pilgrimage complex of Buddhist pagodas and shrines. They have been cut in limestone cliffs of the Huong Tich Mountain and are accessible by boat trip leading along impressive waterway enclosed by karst scenery. The Dao Ho Song Da and the Thac Ba cultural and historical sites give an opportunity to kayak in the rolling landscape, around sunken 20

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