1 SCIENTIARUM POLONORUMACTA Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 6(2) 2007, 5-18 APPLICATION OF HPLC AND GC/MS TO QUANTIFICATION OF PHENYLALANINE IN CHOSEN KINDS OF FOOD FOR PARTICULAR NUTRITIONAL USES Małorzata Piecyk, Anieszka Śrama, Anna Bzducha, Mieczysław Obiedziński Warsaw Aricultural University SGGW Abstract. The aim of the work was the estimation of HPLC and GC/MS methods usefulness for the quantitative determination of in cereal s (LPP). LPP s from two different producers (A and B), and related traditional s were investiated. The protein content was analysed with Kiejdahl method and the concentration was measured with hih performance liquid chromatoraphy (HPLC) coupled with UV detector (UV = 214 nm) and by the method of as chromatoraphy connected with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) usin the EZ:faast amino acid test (Phenomenex). The content of the amino acid was analysed after acid hydrolysis (6 M HCl, time: 24 and 48 h, temperature 110 C). The content of protein was determined hiher than the producer s declaration for all s of the producer B and some of the producer A. The hiher protein content did not influence the concentration of detected with HPLC. Phenylalanine level was found below the declaration of the producer in most of the s. In most cases, there was no sinificant influence of the hydrolysis time on the quantity of the analysed. Key words:, s, HPLC, GC/MS INTRODUCTION The delivery of enery in the form of food is one of the basic physioloical needs of livin oranisms. There are many diseases connected with disfunction of metabolic pathways (e. phenylketonuria, albinism, alkaptonuria) or disfunction of the alimentary tract. It extorts from the ill persons to use special diet that is poor in the component that causes undesirable reactions. This situation results in the development of the food market section interested in ion of special food, addressed for these roups of con- Correspondin author Adres do korespondencji: Dr inż. Małorzata Piecyk, Department of Biotechnoloy and Microbioloy of Warsaw Aricultural University SGGW, Nowoursynowska 169 C, Warsaw, Poland,
2 6 M. Piecyk... sumers with particular needs. On the market s similar to traditional ones appeared (flour, sweets, bread-stuffs, pasta etc.), but of lowered content of the factor causin disfunctions of the oranism or completely free from such a component. Phenylketonuria is a serious illness of enetic backround conditioned by a recessive ene that is hereditary and by anenzymia. There is lack of the hydroxylase (1-of oxidases) which is responsible for the transformation of into tyrosine. As a result hydroxylase of deficiency there is a blockade of the metabolic pathway of and an accumulation of this amino acid and its improper metabolites (o-hydroksyfenylacetic acid, fenylpyruvate acid, fenyllactic acid) in excessive level in blood and urine occurs. Their elevated concentration in oranism causes mental handicap neuroloical symptoms- convulsions, boosted and muscular trembles or behaviour disorders [Pustkowski 1999]. The diet of the person sufferin from the phenylketonuria should deliver at maximum m of this amino acid per kiloramme of the body mass per day [Clemente 2000] and the individual tolerance should be taken into account. Because of the mentioned fact the diet of people afflicted with such a disfunction mainly consists of s. The order of the Minister of Health from 26 April 2004, in the matter of food with special nutritional purpose does not specify detailed qualitative requirements referrin to the s intended for people sufferin from disfunction of metabolism or analoous illnesses. One can suppose that this fact is a result of small frequency in occurrence of such diseases in human population. In the world this is one per ten thousand of births [Pustkowski 1999] when in Poland one per seven thousand of births [Markiewicz-Wujec and Kozłowska-Wojciechowska 2000]. Nevertheless, the presence on the market of the s desinated for special roups of consumers and provided with producer declaration about the content of specific components, demands verification by suitable research and analytical methodoloy. The content of is low so instrumental techniques of hih sensitivity (low detection limit) should be used. For determination of amino acids the amino acids automatic analyser is mostly used, wherein the sample after hydrolysis is separated on the ion exchane-column followin derivatization. In the reaction of the I-amines with ninhydrin a blue comes into bein absorbin at 570 nm. In case of II-amines the yellowish derivative is formed demonstratin the absorption at 440 nm [Creihton 1984, Jakubke and Jeschket 1989, Holme and Pech 1993]. The sensivity of this method is on a level from about 500 pmol to 1 nmol. A disadvantae of the automatic analyser is that it is not an all-purpose instrument. Some chemicals such as aromatic amino acids can be determined usin HPLC without derivatization. It is possible thanks to the natural fluorescence of these chemicals, or thanks to the ability to absorb the electromanetic radiation. To determine the content the measurement is carried out at the excitation wavelenth of 205 nm and the emission wavelenth of 284 nm [Wróbel and Wróbel 1997]. When natural absorption of liht is used the measurement is performed at λ = 214 nm [Wróbel and Wróbel 1997, Prodolliet and Bruelhart 1993]. The use of spectrofluorimetric detectors enables the detection of the compound on the level of mol/dm 3, while the sensivity of spectrophotometric detectors oscillates at about at mol/dm 3 [Kołodziejczyk 2004]. For amino acids analysis aschromatoraphy coupled with mass spectrometry can be used. EZ: faast is a kit-test (Phenomenex) for free amino acids analysis. The test Acta Sci. Pol.
3 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification... 7 contains reaents for cleanin the hydrolysates, extraction and derivatization of amino acids. Producer declared the limit of detection of amino acids of 1 nmol/ml, what in case of relates to /ml [Instruction ], and the time of sample preparation is about 15 minutes. The aim of the work was the estimation of HPLC and GC/MS methods usefulness for quantitative determination of in cereal s (LPP). MATERIAL AND METHODS The s from the producer A and B available on Polish market were used as a material for investiation. Those s were offered to the consumer sufferin from phenylketonuria and celiakia. Besides, traditional s correspondin to chosen s of special purpose were investiated. The characterization of the s is showed in Table 1. In all samples the content of protein was measured with the Kjeldahl method. The content of was analysed with hih performance liquid chromatoraphy (HPLC) and as chromatoraphy (GC/MS) after acid hydrolysis [Weiss et al. 1998, Adebiyi et al. 2005]. To the lass-phial (10 cm 3 ) approx of the sample (low protein s) or approx in case of traditional s was weihed. 8 cm 3 of 6M HCl was then added. Samples were deaerated and closed under nitroen over the as burner. Then samples were placed in a laboratory dryer and hydrolysed at 110 C for 24 and 48 h. For each the samples were prepared in three parallel repetitions. Hydrolisates for HPLC analysis [Prodolliet and Bruelhart 1993] were clarified with Carrez solution, centrifued for 10 min (5000/rot. per min) and then supernatants were filtered usin Acrodisc filters with 0.45 µm GHP membranes. The filtrate was chromatoraphed on the RP C18 column (LiChrosorb 5 µm, mm) in duplicate for each hydrolizate. The injection volume was 20 µl. The time of the chromatoraphic resolution of samples was 15 min (Fi. 1) usin the mobile phase flow of 0.8 ml/min at the pressure kf/cm 2. As the mobile phase the mixture of phosphate buffer (ph = 3.5) and the acetononitrile (98:2) was used. The measurement was carried out at λ = 214 nm. For the preparation of calibration curve the standard L-s (99%, FLUKA) in different concentrations was used. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve obtained was For samples preparation prior to GC/MS analysis EZ:faast kittest (Phenomenex) was used. The entire time of sample analysis was 12 min. Samples were prepared in duplicate for each hydrolysate. Injected sample (1 µl) was chromatoraphed on ZB-AAA ( mm) column. The splitless injection mode was applied. The GC oven temperature proram was as follows: initial temperature 65 C for 1 min then temperature rise in the rate 4 C per minute to the final isotherm 300 C (5 min). As a mobile phase helium about the flow of 1.65 ml/min was used. Employed conditions of the mass spectrometer were: the temperature of the ion source 200 C, the interface temperature 250 C, detector voltae 1.0 kv. The quadrupole analyser measured the abundance of ions of m/z from 100 to 360. The calibration curve was prepared usin solutions of amino acids mixtures included in the EZ:faast test (Phenomenex). The standard curve was prepared basin on the peak surface to the area peak of norvaline (internal standard) ratio dependin on the concentration of (expressed in nmol/µl). The determination coefficient was Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
4 8 M. Piecyk... Table 1. Characterization of the investiated material Tabela 2. Charakterystyka materiału badawczeo Low protein s from producer A Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy A declared content of protein and in 100 of deklarowana zawartość białka i fenyloalaniny w 100 u EXTRA universal flour 0.36 concentrate EXTRA uniwersalny koncentrat mąki 3.30 m niskobiałkowej Low protein s from producer B Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy B flour mąka niskobiałkowa declared content of protein and in 100 of deklarowana zawartość białka i fenyloalaniny w 100 u m Traditional s Produkty tradycyjne flour mąka Szymanowska declared content of protein in 100 of deklarowana zawartość białka w 100 u 9.2 Low protein Bułka tarta niskobiałkowa m bułka tarta m bułka tarta Pasta without luten Makaron wstążki krótkie i krótkie kolanka bezlutenowe m pasta skrobiowy niskobiałkowy wstążki m pasta nitki domowe Fraile spicy cakes Ciasteczka kruche korzenne bezlutenowe m cookies herbatniki m butter cookies herbatniki o smaku maślanym 7.2 Cakes with jam Ciastka kruche z marmoladą m cookies mix mieszanka 0.9 herbatnikowa 40.0 m Results were processed statistically (StatGraphics 4.1). The followin calculation were performed: arithmetical means, standard deviations, coefficients of the variability and the sinificance of statistical differences between the results obtained with different methods. Acta Sci. Pol.
5 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification... 9 Fenyloalanina Phenylalanine Fi. 1. Chromatoraphic separation of amino acids of hydrolysate from producer B Rys. 1. Rozdział chromatoraficzny aminokwasów z hydrolizatu bułki tartej firmy B RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of protein content analysis in the investiated s are presented in Table 2. Our results show that in case of s from the firm A, in most of the analysed s (except cakes with jam), the producer declared a lower protein content. Differences between the declared content and our results varied within the rane from 7% () to 271% for fraile spicy cakes. Firm B also declared lower protein content. Differences between the values declared and our results were from 5% for flour to 64% for. Analysis of content with HPLC showed (Table 3) that in 1/3 of the investiated s the content of this amino acid was hiher comparin with the producer declaration. In s of producer A the concentration declared was lower in 50% of s. The content of in flour and fraile cakes with jam offered by this firm exceeds the declared value by approx. 30%. In case of the pasta and the content of was lower from the declared by approx. 30%, while in cakes by approx. by 60%. When reardin producer B only in the content of was hiher by 20% in relation to the producer declaration. In offered flour the content of was lower from the declared by approx. 60 %. In pasta and two kinds of cakes the determinated content of this amino acid was lower by 20% and 10-25%, resp. In traditional s the content of was hiher from the averae table data [Kunachowicz et al. 2005], in approx. by 12%, in flour content was close to the table value, while pasta and butter biscuits had lower content takin into account table averae level of this Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
6 10 M. Piecyk... Table 2. Protein content in 100 of s, Tabela 2. Zawartość białka w 100 u, Low protein s from producer A Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy A EXTRA universal flour concentrate EXTRA uniwersalny koncentrat mąki niskobiałkowej analysed protein content in 100 of s białka w 100 u Low protein s from producer B Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy B /-0.01 flour mąka niskobiałkowa analysed protein content in 100 of s białka w 100 u Traditional s Produkty tradycyjne /-0.00 flour mąka Szymanowska analysed protein content in 100 of s białka w 100 u /-0.08 Low protein Bułka tarta niskobiałkowa /-0.01 bułka tarta /-0.01 bułka tarta /-0.01 Pasta without luten Makaron wstążki krótkie i krótkie kolanka bezlutenowe /-0.00 pasta skrobiowy niskobiałkowy wstążki /-0.01 pasta nitki domowe /-0.02 Fraile spicy cakes Ciasteczka kruche korzenne bezlutenowe /-0.01 cookies herbatniki /-0.02 butter cookies herbatniki o smaku maślanym /-0.02 Cakes with jam Ciastka kruche z marmoladą /-0.00 cookies mix mieszanka herbatnikowa /-0.01 amino acid in such s. The calculated differences were about 20 and 30%, resp. These oscillations came probably from the fact that the table values are averaed. Differences between experimental results and table data can be due to different content of protein in the raw material. The use of the EZ: faast test, except the estimation of its usefulness in analysis of content in s, was simultaneously an attempt at its adaptation to work under conditions of the as-chromatoraph coupled with mass spectrometer (GC/MS) type QP2010S (SHIMADZU). Earlier the set was used for instrumental analyses with Ailent 5973 and Varian Saturn 2000 GC/MS, where the main ions Acta Sci. Pol.
7 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification Table 3. Phenylalanine content analysed with HPLC Tabela 3. Zawartość fenyloalaniny oznaczona metodą HPLC Low protein s from producer A Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy A EXTRA universal flour concentrate EXTRA uniwersalny koncentrat mąki niskobiałkowej analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h 26.0 a +/ a +/-0.7 Low protein s from producer B Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy B flour mąka niskobiałkowa analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h a +/ a +/-2.45 flour mąka Szymanowska Traditional s Produkty tradycyjne analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h a +/ a +/ Low protein Bułka tarta niskobiałkowa 4.6 a +/ a +/-0.3 bułka tarta 6.13 a +/ b +/-0.19 bułka tarta a +/ a +/ Pasta without luten Makaron wstążki krótkie i krótkie kolanka bezlutenowe 13.5 a +/ a +/-2.8 pasta skrobiowy niskobiałkowy wstążki a +/ b +/-1.61 pasta nitki domowe a +/ a +/-2.74 Fraile spicy cakes Ciasteczka kruche korzenne bezlutenowe 16.5 a +/ a +/-2.3 cookies herbatniki a +/ a +/-0.33 butter cookies herbatniki o smaku maślanym a +/ b +/-1.03 Cakes with jam Ciastka kruche z marmoladą 7.9 a +/ a +/-0.4 cookies mix mieszanka herbatnikowa a +/ a +/-0.33 Different letters indicate sinificance of statistical difference for α = Wartości różniące się indeksami różnią się istotnie dla α = 0,05. Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
8 12 M. Piecyk... for were of mass to chare ratio (m/z) 206 and 190 in the first case, while in second case: 147, 128 and 91 [Instruction ]. For the identification under applied analysis conditions we took into account ions of the mass to chare ratio 148, 190, 206 (Fi. 2). The results received with GC/MS showed that 2/3 of the investiated s had a lowered declaration of content. The data obtained with HPLC also showed that more s of producer A had a lower declared value of content comparin to the results received in our analysis. Only in there was no hiher amount of this amino acid. Phenylalanine concentration, relatin to the declaration, was smaller by 20%, what ives the value close to the HPLC results. In remainin s of producer A the level of, reardin the results obtained, is considerably hiher than the declared. The hihest content of was detected in flour, where the declaration was exceeded approx. 10 times. In cakes with jam, in pasta and fraile spicy cakes the determinated content of exceeded the declared level by: 30, 80 and 100%, resp. % Fi. 2. Mass spectrum of for from producer B (main ions: 148, 190, 206) Rys. 2. Spektrum masowe fenyloalaniny pochodzącej z hydrolizatu bułki tartej firmy B (jony łówne: 148, 190, 206) More profitably, on the round of analyses usin the EZ:faast test, the food produced by firm B fell out. Only in flour this amino acid content was reater by approx. 25% from the declared one. In the remainin s the quantity of oscillated around the value declared on the label. Considerin traditional s analysed with GC/MS in 75% of these articles we noticed that content of was on the hiher level than the theoretical table data [Kunachowicz et al. 2005]. In flour, biscuits and the appointed concentration of was hiher by: 30, 40 and 60%, resp. The quantity of in the pasta oscillated round the table value. On the round of the results of quantity analysis with HPLC we observed that in 66% of the investiated s the content was lower from the declared value. Takin that into account, the influence of the sample preparation procedure on the received results should be checked. Special attention ouht to be paid to the process of hydrolysis, which was performed under drastic conditions and could cause amino acids losses. The lack of any preservative in the phenolic form, thiolycolic acid Acta Sci. Pol.
9 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification Table 4. Phenylalanine content analysed with GC/MS Tabela 4. Zawartość fenyloalaniny oznaczona metodą GC/MS Low protein s from producer A Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy A EXTRA universal flour concentrate EXTRA uniwersalny koncentrat mąki niskobiałkowej analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h 34.1 a +/ a +/-2.9 Low protein s from producer B Produkty niskobiałkowe firmy B flour mąka niskobiałkowa analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h a +/ a +/-0.40 flour mąka Szymanowska Traditional s Produkty tradycyjne analysed content in 100 of s after hydrolysis fenyloalaniny w 100 u po hydrolizie 24 h 48 h a +/ a +/ Low protein Bułka tarta niskobiałkowa 46.7 a +/ a +/-6.7 bułka tarta a +/ a +/-0.51 bułka tarta a +/ a +/ Pasta without luten Makaron wstążki krótkie i krótkie kolanka bezlutenowe 31.9 a +/ a +/-5.1 pasta skrobiowy niskobiałkowy wstążki a +/ a +/-2.06 pasta nitki domowe a +/ a +/ Fraile spicy cakes Ciasteczka kruche korzenne bezlutenowe 24.3 a +/ a +/-2.3 cookies herbatniki a +/ a +/-7.23 butter cookies herbatniki o smaku maślanym a +/ a +/ Cakes with jam Ciastka kruche z marmoladą 23.2 a +/ a +/-3.4 cookies mix mieszanka herbatnikowa a +/ a +/-0.66 Values with different letters indicate sinificance of statistical difference for α = Wartości dla daneo u w wierszach różniące się indeksami różnią się istotnie dla α = 0,05. Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
10 14 M. Piecyk... or tryptamine recommended by the methodoloy [Nollet 1996] additionally made conditions more drastic, however that should not influence the quantity of present in hydrolysates [Fountoulakis and Lahm 1998]. Similar hydrolysis conditions were used in quantitative analysis of amino acids in soya bean [Albin et al. 2000]. Another essential parameter, which can lead to the loss of amino acids, is the hydrolysis time that is chosen dependin on the amino acid composition of protein. Bonds between and other amino acids are broken comparatively quickly, durin first 20 hours of hydrolysis in standard conditions of the process [Rakowska et al. 1978]. Prolonation of the hydrolysis time can cause losses of this component. Results of the analysis with HPLC showed that the hydrolysis time influenced the content of the amino acid only in case of four s: flour and pasta (producer B) and traditional s like butter biscuits. In producer s B s the extension of the hydrolysis time caused an increase of the quantity, while in biscuits decreased its quantity. The literature suests prolonation of hydrolysis time by above 24 hours (48-72 h) when isoleucine and valine are quantified, because bonds between these amino acids are stron, which is not confirmed relatin to [Rakowska et al. 1978, Fountoulakis and Lahm 1998]. The results received with GC/MS did not ascertain us of the essential influence of the hydrolysis time on the quantity of the detected amino acid. The use of 6M HCl is usually recommended in different kinds of analytical procedures and accepted as the standard parameter of the hydrolysis [Dyrektywa , Weiss et al. 1998, Adebiyi et al. 2005]. The fact that this is an optimum concentration could be confirmed by research led on protein of the soya bean. The influence of the HCl concentration (1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 M) on the quantity of the released amino acids durin hydrolysis was checked. Accordin to the mentioned study an increase of the HCl concentration above 6 M does not chane the content of in the investiated hydrolysates [Albin et al. 2000]. Table 5. Relative standard deviation for content analysed with HPLC and GC/MS after 48 hours of hydrolysis for s of producer A Tabela 5. Współczynniki zmienności dla zawartości fenyloalaniny oznaczonej metodami HPLC i GC/MS po 48-odzinnej hydrolizie dla ów firmy A Product Produkt Low protein Bułka tarta niskobiałkowa Universal flour concentrate Koncentrat mąki uniwersalnej Pasta Makaron Fraile spicy cakes Ciasteczka kruche korzenne bezlutenowe Cakes with jam Ciastka kruche z marmoladą HPLC Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) GC/MS Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) Acta Sci. Pol.
11 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification To determine practical usefulness of the HPLC and GC/MS instrumental methods for the quantitative analysis of, the coefficients of relative standard deviation (RSD) were calculated (Tables 5-7). After their comparison it is clear that the results obtained with HPLC are characterized with a smaller scatterin comparin with the GC/MS analysis. In case of liquid hih performance chromatoraphy admissible was exceeded only for two samples (pasta and fraile cakes with the jam producer A), while for GC/MS this value was too hih for almost 75% of the investiated samples. Basin on the calculated we could ascertain that for the quantitative determination of in cereal (wheat) s, both s and the traditional ones, results were more repetitive. Identification and quantification usin GC/MS is considered as very reliable and exact. The producer of the EZ:faast test declares the sensivity on its level of 1 nmol/ml (0.1 m/l). Dilutions used in this study caused the decrease of the content in samples to the level of 0.1 nmol/ml (0.01 m/l), what surely influenced the repeatability Table 6. Relative standard deviation for content analysed with HPLC and GC/MS after 48 hours of hydrolysis for s of the producer B Tabela 6. Współczynniki zmienności dla zawartości fenyloalaniny oznaczonej metodami HPLC i GC/MS po 48-odzinnej hydrolizie dla ów firmy B Product Produkt HPLC Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) GC/MS Breadcrumbs Bułka tarta Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) Flour Mąka Pasta Makaron Cookies Herbatniki Cookies mix Mieszanka herbatników Table 7. Relative standard deviation for content analysed with HPLC and GC/MS after 48 hours of hydrolysis for s of the producer B Tabela 7. Współczynniki zmienności dla zawartości fenyloalaniny oznaczonej metodami HPLC i GC/MS po 48-odzinnej hydrolizie dla ów tradycyjnych Product Produkt Breadcrumbs Bułka tarta HPLC Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) GC/MS Acceptable Dopuszczalne (Horowitz) Flour Mąka Pasta Makaron Cookies Herbatniki Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
12 16 M. Piecyk... of the results relatively bi relative standard deviation value (RSD). However comparin HPLC and GC/MS technique, the last one made it possible to measure in a very small concentration (n/ml). This is confirmed by the research on beer or honey, where the same test was used without modification, as additional sample dilution. The results of those analysis realized with GCxGC-TOFM were more repeatable (RSD at the level of 7%), and the detection level was 0.01 m/l [Mayadunne et al. 2005]. The method of modification by additional sample dilution was extored by the equipment requirements. The final volume of sample (100 µl) proposed in the Phenomenex procedure was too small to apply an autosampler, without special vials of smaller volume. Assurin the repeatability of injection conditions the volume of samples was enlared by addin 1000 µl of isooctane. This additional dilution of the samples, containin low concentration of, influenced accuracy of our results. Comparin our results and the literature data [Mayadunne et al. 2005] it seems that for the purpose of providin the repeatability of the received results, sample preparation should be modified or proper vials should be used. The increase of the concentration to the level assurin its proper detection could be obtained by the enlarement of the weiht of samples used for hydrolysis with an unchaned volume of the acid (6 M HCl). Besides, the modification of GC/MS conditions could influence the accuracy of our results. It was an effect GC/MS QP2010S (SHIMADZU) requirements. The analysis parameters suested by the producer of the test: injection 2 µl, carrier as flow 1.1 ml/min, the temperature proram: 30 C/min from 110 C to 320 C, interface temperature 180 C were adapted to requirements of other chromatoraphs Ailent 5973 and Varian Saturn 2000 [Instruction ]. However, it should be noticed that the analysis usin EZ: faast: test enables the determination of all amino acids in short time and at low level of concentration while HPLC has a limited application. CONCLUSIONS 1. Hiher than the declared protein content in all s from producer B and in some from firm A was observed. 2. GC/MS method allowed to analyse the content in injected samples at the level of 1 n/ ml. 3. On the basis of the results received with HPLC it can be stated that in most (2/3) of the investiated s the level of was lower comparin with the producer declaration. 4. On the round of the statistical analysis (sinificance of statistical differences) it can be concluded that the extension of hydrolysis time from 24 to 48 h did not influence the quantity of the released in case of 73% s. 5. Hiher content of protein did not influence quantity measured with HPLC its level in most of the s was found below the producer s declaration. 6. On the round of differences between the theoretical content of in protein and with the content declared by the producer and our research we concluded that the content of the in cereal s should not be counted on the round of the theoretical participation of this amino acid in protein. Acta Sci. Pol.
13 Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification REFERENCES Adebiyi A.P., Jin D.H., Oawa T., Muramoto K., Acid hydrolysis of protein in a microcapillary tube for the recovery of tryptophan. Biosci. Biotechn. Biochem. 69 (1), Albin D.M., Wubben J.E., Gabert V.M., The influence of hydrochloric acid concentration and measurement method on the determination of amino acid levels in soya bean procucts. Anim. Feed Sci. Techn. 87, Clemente A., Enzymatic protein hydrolysates in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci Techn. 11, Creihton T.E., Proteins structures and molecular properties. W.H. Freedman New York, 25-27, 42-45, 191. Dyrektywa Komisji 98/64/WE z dnia 3 września 1998 r. ustanawiająca wspólnotowe metody analiz do oznaczania aminokwasów, surowych olejów i tłuszczów oraz olaquindoksu w paszach i zmieniająca dyrektywę 74/393/EWG Dz. UE, 257/14. Fountoulakis M., Lahm H.W., Hydrolysis and amino acid composition analysis of proteins. J. Chromator. A (826), Holme D.J., Pech H., Analytical biochemistry. Lonman Sci. Tech. New York, Instruction Ez:faast Phenomenex. Jakubke H.D., Jeschket H., Aminokwasy, peptydy, białka [Amino acid, peptides, proteins]. PWN Warszawa, [in Polish]. Kołodziejczyk A., Naturalne związki oraniczne [Natural oranic compounds]. PWN Warszawa, 11-76, [in Polish]. Kunachowicz H., Nadolna B., Iwanow K., Tabele wartości odżywczej ów spożywczych [Tables of the nutritional value of food s]. IŻŻ Warszawa [in Polish]. Markiewicz-Wujec M., Kozłowska-Wojciechowska M., Dieta w fenyloketonurii [Diet in the phenylketonuria]. Żyjmy dłużej 6, [in Polish]. Mayadunne R., Nuyen T.T., Marrriot P.J., Amino acid analysis by usin comprehensive two-dimentional as chromatoraphy. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 382, Molnár-Perl I., Quantitation of amino acids and amine in the same matrix by hihperformance liquid chromatoraphy, either simultaneously or separately. J. Chromator. A, 987, Nollet L.M.L., 1996: Handbook of food analysis. Part 1. Physical characterisation and nutrient analysis. Marcel Dekker New York, Prodolliet J., Bruelhart M., Determination of aspartame and its major decomposition s in foods. J. AOAC Int. 76 (2), Pustkowski M., Fenyloketonuria [Phenylketonuria]. Żyjmy dłużej 9, [in Polish]. Rakowska M., Szkiłłądziowa W., Kunachowicz H., Bioloiczna wartość białka żywności [Bioloical value of the food protein]. WNT Warszawa, [in Polish]. Rozporządzenie Ministra Zdrowia z 26 kwietnia 2004 r. w sprawie środków spożywczych specjalneo przeznaczenia żywienioweo Dz.U. nr 104, poz Weiss M., Mannenber M., Juranville J.F, Lahm H.W., Fountoulakis M., Effect of the hydrolysis method on the determination of the amino acid composition of proteins. J Chromator. A, 795, Wróbel K., Wróbel K., Determination of aspartame and in diet soft drinks by hih-performance liquid chromatoraphy with direct spectrofluorimetric detection. J. Chromator. A, 773, Technoloia Alimentaria 6(2) 2007
14 18 M. Piecyk... ZASTOSOWANIE HPLC I GC/MS DO ILOŚCIOWEGO OZNACZANIA FENYLOALANINY W PRODUKTACH NISKOBIAŁKOWYCH Streszczenie. Celem pracy była ocena przydatności metod HPLC i GC/MS do ilościoweo oznaczania fenyloalaniny w zbożowych ach niskobiałkowych (). Materiałem badawczym były y dwóch firm, A i B, oraz odpowiadające im y tradycyjne. Przeprowadzono oznaczenia zawartości białka metodą Kiejdahla i oznaczenie fenyloalaniny metodą RP-HPLC z detektorem UV (λ = 214 nm) oraz metodą GC/MS z użyciem zestawu testoweo EZ:faast. Oznaczenie zawartości aminokwasu wykonano po hydrolizie kwasowej (6M HCl, czas: 24 i 48 h, temp. 110 C). Stwierdzono większą zawartość białka od zawartości deklarowanej we wszystkich ach firmy B i niektórych firmy A. Większa zawartość białka nie wpłynęła na ilość fenyloalaniny wykrytej metodą HPLC. W większości ów jej poziom był niższy niż deklarowany przez producenta. W większości wypadków nie stwierdzono istotneo wpływu czasu hydrolizy na ilość uwolnionej fenyloalaniny. Słowa kluczowe: fenyloalanina, y niskobiałkowe, HPLC, GC/MS Accepted for print Zaakceptowano do druku: For citation Do cytowania: Piecyk M., Śrama A., Bzducha A., Obiedziński M., Application of HPLC and GC/MS to quantification of in chosen kinds of food for particular nutritional uses. Acta Sci. Pol., Technol. Aliment. 6(2), Acta Sci. Pol.
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