1 ISSN POLISH JOURNAL OF SPORT AND TOURISM SPORT I TURYSTYKA Vol. (04) No. 3, pp Contents Spis treœci Original research papers / Oryginalne prace twórcze Liudmila Liutsko Sex-dependent individual differences and the correlational relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests... Ieva Kundziòa, Juris Grants The relationship between beta endorphins and emotional state in physically active individuals aged (a report on a pilot study)... Krzysztof Piech, Rafa³ Grad Role of preschoolers in motivation for physical activity in their families... Rola dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym w aktywizacji ruchowej rodziny Paulina Gradus, Ewa Benza, Olga Rybak, Pawe³ Krzysztoñ, Paulina Batorzyñska, Magdalena Plandowska, Wies³aw Lech Kurpeta Forms of physical activity of Bia³a Podlaska preschool children... Formy aktywnoœci fizycznej dzieci uczêszczaj¹cych do bialskich przedszkoli Victor Kolesnikovich, Yulia Bychenkova, Aleksandr Vernigor Geoinformation systems as a tool of the integrated tourist spaces management... Beata Gierczak Managament methods and concepts for building competitive advantage in hospitality companies Metody i koncepcje zarz¹dzania w procesie budowania przewagi konkurencyjnej przedsiêbiorstw hotelarskich Current news / Wiadomoœci bie ¹ce Grzegorz Godlewski, Anna Bodasiñska Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa Turystyka kontrowersyjna na wspó³czesnym rynku podró y - formy, uwarunkowania, skutki Guidelines for Contributors / Instrukcja dla Autorów Subscription information / Informacje o prenumeracie
3 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Original research papers SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THE CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROPRIOCEPTIVE AND VERBAL TESTS LIUDMILA LIUTSKO University of Barcelona, Faculty of Psychology, Department of Personality Mailing address: Liudmila Liutsko, University of Barcelona, Department of Personality, 7 de Vall d'hebron Street, Barcelona, tel.: , fax: , Abstract Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [,, 3]. Material and methods. 4 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem) together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous). Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.9. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results. Key words: proprioception, Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), personality and individual differences Introduction Mira y Lopez  and Luria  studied the somatico-mental relationship in fine motor expressive analysis and both noticed that motor function reflects the hidden structure of psychological processes, which can describe our individual or personality differences [, 6, 7, 8]. Proprioceptive Diagnostic of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), based on fine motor behaviour, was created by Tous and colleagues within the Mira y Lopez tradition with the use of new technologies [7, 9, 0] and was validated  through confirmatory factorial analysis . Our previous studies showed a relationship between certain proprioceptive indicators and visual memory , a multiple sclerosis case , academic performance , sex differences in Parkinson's patients , sex and cultural , age-related differences  and more. Researchers from other countries applied Mira y Lopez's MKP test for investigations  in the psychophysiological description of adaptation , in sports psychology  in observations of psychomotor responses and interhemispheric relationships in adaptation to a new time zone  and as psychophysiological markers of adolescents' tolerance . Personality differences were also analysed using the proprioceptive DP-TC and verbal tests . However, in order to ensure correct interpretation, studies related to sex-dependant differences are also required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine to what extent the motor-expressive parameters in the proprioceptive condition are related to verbal tests of individual differences and whether they are the same for both sexes. Material and methods 4 volunteers (4 males 38.93±5.78 years old and 7 females 39.4±.7 years old) from Belarus with at least a secondary school education performed proprioceptive (DP-TC, Tous) and verbal (EPQ, Eysenck; Russian adaptation of Big Five Personality Test, R Rosenberg Self-esteem) tests. Other parameters such as time perception (TP, perceptive estimation of a minute interval) and BMI were included for the sex-dependent individual differences in statistical analysis by SPSS (v.9). The Big Five Personality Test was adapted from the Japanese BFI into Russian by Hromov  and represents the following bipolar dimensions: ) Introversion-Extraversion; ) Independence-Affection; 3) Naturalness-Control; 4) Emotional Stability-Emotional Instability, and 5) Practicality-Friskiness. The DP-TC bipolar variables [7, 3] are as follows: ) Mood (Pessimism-Optimism); ) Decision Making (Submission-Dominance); 3) Attention Style (Intra-tension Extra-tension); 4) Emotivism (Distant-Affective); 5) Irritability (Inhibition-Excitability), and 6) Variability (Rigidity-Flexibility). Results The average values for male and female groups for all observable variables are represented in table. ANOVA analysis for sex differences revealed significant differences in DP3 (transversal movement and non-dominant hand) with a higher Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
4 44 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES... tendency towards outward shifts (extra-tension in men) in women: 5.5±6.45 mm, in men vs ±7.6 mm. Sex differences were statistically significant for the following variables in verbal tests: E (Extraversion), N (Neuroticism) and P (Psychoticism) of Eysenck's EPQ and dimension I-E (Introversion-Extraversion) of the Big Five Test. Table. Descriptive statistics for observed variables in both sex subgroups Test DP-TC EPQ Big Five (bipolar) DP (Mood, T) DP (Mood, C) DP3 (Attention style, T) DP4 (Attention style, C) DP5 (Decision making, T) DP6 (Decision making, C) DS (Emotivism, T) DS (Emotivism, C) LL (Irritability, T) LL (Irritability, C) LV (Variability, T) LV (Variability, C) BMI (Body Mass Index) TP ( minute, 60 seconds) R (Self-esteem) I-E (5) Ind-Affect (5) Nat-Cont (5) EmSt-EmInst (5) Pract-Frisk (5) E N P L M SD M Legend: For DP-TC variables raw parameters are performed, measured in mm: DP and DP primary deviations in frontal movement, DP3 and DP4 primary deviations in transversal movements, DP5 and DP6 primary deviations in sagittal movements; DS and DS formal deviations in frontal movement; LL and LL line length, and DL and DL difference between maximum and minimum line lengths. All odd numbers belong to non-dominant hand (temperament, T), and all even numbers belong to dominant hand (character, C). TP is measured in seconds. Bivariate correlational analysis of the observed parameters revealed a moderate, statistically significant relationship between DP-TC variables and verbal tests. However, this correspondence differed between men and women. In men the Psychoticism (P) subgroup of Eysenk's EPQ test negatively correlated (r=-.40, p=.03) with primary deviation in frontal movement and non-dominant hand (DP) and positively correlated (r=.38, p=.09) with secondary deviation of frontal movement and non-dominant hand (DS) in the proprioceptive test (DP- TC). The Lie scale of the EPQ test positively correlated (r=.34, p=.03) with variability of line length in dominant hand (LV) in men. Finally, primary deviation of sagittal movement in nondominant hand (DP5) negatively correlated (r=-.3, p=.043) with time perception (TP) and three of five dimensions of the Big Five Test: Introversion-Extraversion (r=-.35, p=.0), Independence-Affection (r=-.3, p=.047) and Emotional Stability- Emotional Instability (r=-.4, p=.006). In the female subgroup, statistically significant positive correlations were found between Rosenberg's Self-esteem Verbal Test and proprioceptive DP4 primary deviation in transversal Men Women SD movement and dominant hand (r=.34, p=.008), as well as between proprioceptive DP5 primary deviation in sagittal movement (non-dominant hand) and Eysenck's Extraversion (E) (r=.7, p=.034) and BMI (r=.6, p=.040). Proprioceptive line length variability in dominant hand (LV) also positively correlated with BMI in women (r=.7, p=.030). Finally, line variability in both hands of proprioceptive test DP-TC negatively correlated with time perception and all five dimensions of Big Five tension. This difference was more pronounced in the dominant hand (exhibiting a higher magnitude of correlations) than in the non-dominant one. The following correlations were found there: in TP: r=-.4 (p=.045) with LV and r=-.9 (p=.04) with LV; in the Big Five Test I-E: r=-.34 (p=.005) with LV and r=-.38 (p=.00) with LV, Ind. Affect.: r=-.3 (p=.009) with LV and r=-.38 (p=.00) with LV, Nat.-Contr.: r=-.4 (p=.045) with LV and r=-.7 (p=.06) with LV, Em.St.-Em.Inst.: r=-.8 (p=.09) with LV and r=-.37 (p=.00) with LV, and Pr.-Frisk.: r=-.8 (p=.0) with LV and r=-.33 (p=.006) with LV. Moreover, time perception (which is related to the proprioceptive sense as well) was positively and significantly related to all dimensions of the Big Five Verbal Test in both sex subgroups (tab. ). Statistically significant negative correlations were also found between TP and DP-TC variables: in men with DP5 (r=-.3, p=.043) and in women: with PL (r=-.4, p=.045) and PL (r=-.9, p=.04). Table. Correlations between time perception (TP) and Big Five dimensions test in both sexes Big Five dimensions Introversion-Extroversion Independence-Affection Naturalness-Control Emotional Stability-Emotional Instability Practicality-Friskiness Note: Significance level: * p.05; ** p.0. Discussion r (women).7*.4*.7*.33*.7* r (men).48**.5**.5**.5**.58** Since verbal behaviour does not always reflect real or dispositional behaviour , it was logical to expect a weak link between proprioceptive motor behaviour and verbal parameters of personality and individual differences. For this reason the statistically significant correlations that were found were of weak or moderate magnitude. Though some researchers  have investigated sex differences in sensory integration (vision and proprioception), little attention is paid to motor control in psychology, as Rosenbaum states ; few or almost no studies have been done in this context. Whereas ANOVA showed one statistically significant difference between sex subgroups for all performed variables, the greatest difference between men and women was for fine motor precision performance (DP3) in the cultural subgroup under examination. As for motor control (proprioceptive parameters of the DP-TC test), in DP3 (transversal movement, non-dominant hand) men showed a tendency towards the external world (Extra-tension) compared to women, whereas this tendency was less accentuated in the non-dominant hand (5.5±6.45 mm in men; -0.54±7.6 mm in women); in DP4 (transversal movement, dominant hand), the average value in men shifted more towards intra-tension, and was even slightly higher in absolute error compared to women (-.86±6.93 mm and -.90± 3.88 mm, respectively).
5 Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, In frontal movement and directional bias, men shifted towards the pessimism pole (Mood dimension of DP-TC): performance in their average group value in the dominant hand (adaptive behaviour, character): -7.9±.53 mm vs. -.7±9.04 mm in the non-dominant hand, while women performed quite similarly for both hands. Similar hand performance in fine motor precision (hand incongruences) was observed in secondary bias, DS and DS, with a shift towards slightly more positive values in men and more constant behaviour in women. Concerning sagittal movement (directional bias), men, to the contrary, exhibited a more stable error in precision for both hands (3.84±4.5 mm in non-dominant and 3.4±3.3 mm in dominant), whereas women performed with the dominant hand quite similarly to men with an average error of 3.7± 3.50 mm, while doing slightly worse with the non-dominant hand (5.7±4.0 mm), shifting more from their body position. In line length (LL) performances both men and women performed slightly worse with the non-dominant hand, while line length variability (VL) was greater in the dominant hand in both sexes; however these differences did not reach a statistically significant level. In the time perception test, participants were asked to estimate (by perception, not by counting or taking into account other external/internal indicators of time) when minute had passed. The results were supposed to reflect a more internal (proprioceptive and individual) clock. Both male and female participants underperformed 60 seconds, showing average group results that were slightly less in women (37.35±0.88 sec vs. 43.9±4.9 sec); however this difference did not reach a statistically significant level. The relationship between TP and individual (personality) traits was moderate and significant. Conclusions The fact that personality (Big Five Test) verbal parameters, as well as TP, were related to the same DP-TC variables within each sex subgroup, but to different variables (and movement types) in men and women, as was shown in the results section, suggests that they express their individual traits in different ways. However, one of the limitations was the Big Five Test: Its dimensions were inter-correlated, not totally independent. Thus, this is one possible explanation why all significant correlations of the Big Five Test were correlated to TP and specific DP- TC variables or movement types: sagittal movement (non-dominant hand) in men and line length variability (both hands) in women. Since TP had significant correlations with the same variables of the DP-TC test as the Big Five dimensions, TP could be considered as a personality indicator within express-diagnostics. The current study results showed the existence of some moderately significant differences between male and female proprioceptive and verbal parameters of individual differences. Moreover, fine motor behaviour was expressed distinctly in relation to personality and individual differences in each sex subgroup. These exploratory findings could help to shed light on and contribute to an understanding of the nature of the differences between the sexes, leading to the application of different approaches in education and coaching in order to obtain better and more effective results. More studies are required to determine how different verbal tests (which reflect a more desirable level of self) are related to motor proprioceptive test (which reflect a more dispositional attitude towards one behaviour or another). Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to all the volunteers who participated in this study, as well as to the following professionals: Elena Plotka and Galina S. Stasevich (Brest Regional Centre for Epidimiology and Public Health), Natalia Novikova (ISEU, Minsk) and Tatiana Chelacheva (Soligorsk Polyclinik) for their help. We would also like to thank the University of Barcelona for providing financial support. Literature. Gironell A., Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J.M. (0). Differences based on fine motor behaviour in Parkinson's patients compared to an age matched control group in proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive test conditions. Anuario de Psicología 4(), Liutsko L. (04). Age and sex differences in proprioception (fine motor performance). Scholars' Press. 3. Liutsko L., Tous J.M. (04). Sex and cultural differences in proprioception based on fine motor performance. Personality and Individual Differences 60(Supplement), S9. DOI: 0.06/j.paid Mira E. (93). Somatic reactions of mental work. Doctoral thesis. University of Barcelona, Barcelona. [in Spanish] 5. Luria A.R. (93). The nature of human conflicts. New York: Liveright Publishers. 6. Mira E. (958). Myokinetic psychodiagnosis (M. K. P.). New York: Logos. 7. Tous Ral J.M., Muiños R., Tous Lopez O., Tous Rovirosa J.M. (0). Proprioceptive diagnostics of temperament and character. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. [in Spanish] 8. Liutsko L. (03). Proprioception as a basis for individual differences. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art 6(3), DOI: 0.6/pir Tous J.M. (008). Propioceptive diagnosis of temperament and character DP-TC. Barcelona: Lab. Mira y López, Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, University of Barcelona. DP-TC software. [in Spanish] 0. Liutsko L. (0). The book review Propioceptive diagnosis of temperament and character (Tous et al. 0). Anuario de Psicología 4(3), 4-4. [in Spanish]. Tous J.M., Viadé A., Muiños R. (007). Structural validity of lineograms of myokinetic psychodiagnosis, revised and digitalised (PMK-RD). Psicothema 9(), [in Spanish]. Muiños R. (008). Miokinetic Psychodiagnosis: Development, description and confirmatory factorial analysis. Doctoral thesis, University of Barcelona, Barcelona. [in Spanish] 3. Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J. (0). Relationship between emotional intelligence based on the proprioceptive information and academic performance in secondary school st pupils. National Congress of Emocional Intelligence, 8-0 November 0 (p. 30), Barcelona. 4. Liutsko L., Tous J.M. (03). Quantitative and qualitative proprioceptive analysis of individual differences (description of Multiple sclerosis case study). Acta Neuropsychologica (3), DOI: / Liutsko L., Tous J.M., Muiños R. (0). The effects of proprioception on memory: a study of proprioceptive errors and results from the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure in a healthy population. Acta Neuropsychologica 0(4), DOI: / /03008.
6 46 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J.M. (04). Age-related differences in proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive function in relation to fine motor behaviour. European Journal of Ageing (3), -3. DOI: 0.007/s Berezin F.B., Varric L.D., Gorelova E.S. (976). Psychophysiological studies of migrant and indigenous population of the Far Northeast. Human adaptation to the conditions of the North. Petrozavodsk. [in Russian] 8. Miroshnikov M.P. (963). Diagnostic meaning of psychomotricity and its study with use of miokinetic test. In L. Gissen (Ed.), Psychology and psychohigiene in sport, C6., M. (pp. 5-3). [in Russian]. 9. Ezhov S.N., Krivoshchekov S.G. (004). Features of psychomotor responses and interhemispheric relationships at various stages of adaptation to a new time zone. Human Physiology 30(), Draganova O.A. (007). Psychopisiological markers of personal tolerance in adolescent period. Doctoral thesis, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg. [in Russian]. Tous J.M., Muños R., Liutsko L. (04, in press). Personality differences of applicants for the gun license (proprioceptive and verbal tests). Los Anales de Psicología 30(3). DOI: 0.608/ analesps Hromov A.B. (000). The five-factor personality questionnaire. Manual. Kurgan: Kurgan State University. [in Russian] 3. Liutsko L., Tous-Ral J.M. (0). Personality traits based th on fine motor individual behaviour. In 4 Russian Scientific Conference Psychology of Individuality, -4 November (p. 3), Moscow: Logos. 4. Sigmundsson H., Haga M., Hopkins B. (007). Sex differences in perception: exploring the integration of sensory information with respect to vision and proprioception. Sex Roles 57, Rosenbaum D.A. (005). The Cinderella of psychology. The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behaviour. American Psychologist 60(4), Submitted: January, 04 Accepted: June 30, 04
7 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA ENDORPHINS AND EMOTIONAL STATE IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS AGED (A REPORT ON A PILOT STUDY) IEVA KUNDZIÒA, JURIS GRANTS Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Department of Anatomy, Department of Skiing Mailing address: Ieva Kundziòa, Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Department of Anatomy, 333 Brivibas Street, LV-006 Riga, tel.: , fax: , Abstract Introduction. This sports-science-related article heavily relies on studies that have reported an increase in beta-endorphin (â-ep) concentration in plasma in response to physical activity. It examines the psychological and physiological effects of physical activity and exercise and reports on a research-experiment-based, endorphin-hypotheses-related pilot study aimed at exploring mood-related â-ep effects occurring in physically active male and female individuals aged in response to physical load. Material and methods. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females) rated as exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity in sport's laboratory. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to establish physical activity level. For facial expression analysis a short interview was applied, using software FaceReader 3.0 (FR). As a load test a veloergometer exercise test was used, and Beta-endorphin (â-ep) levels were measured from venous blood. Results. The findings demonstrated an increase in â-ep levels in 50% of the subjects. No positive relation between â-ep increase and happiness has been observed. In four subjects an increase in disgust was observed due to the laboratory conditions. Five minutes after the load test FR data recorded the reduction or disappearance of negative emotions for all research subjects. Conclusions. Further investigation into the relationship of plasma levels of â-ep and the emotional state of the individual involved in physical activities is needed. This necessitates a further insight into how exercise-elevated endorphins (â-ep) affect mood state outside laboratory conditions. Therefore, a further investigation of people involved in physical recreation activities outdoors is envisaged. Key words: plasma beta-endorphins, emotional expressions, physical load Introduction Endorphins were discovered in the mid-970s. Endorphins are released from the pituitary gland into the circulatory system [,, 3]. In the literature there are a lot of different studies where researchers show relations between endorphins and a number of psychological and adaptive factors such as analgesia, stress, emotions, motivation, behavior, euphoria and mental well-being [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. There are also studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels; some researchers indicate a significant increase in endorphin levels during or after exercise, while others do not [3, 8, 9, 0]. The present article reviews the relationship between beta endorphins and emotional state in response to physical activity. Material and methods The pilot research took place on February and March, 03 in the locally available sports laboratory VIP Sport in Riga. The subjects had been selected according to the following criteria: age, gender and physical activity level, the latter having been judged according to the results of the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) administered beforehand. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females) exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity took part in the research experiment. First, data regarding the participants' emotional state was recorded. Subjective data was gathered by interviewing the subjects regarding the feelings they were experiencing at the moment and asking them to speculate about their reasons for being in a particular emotional state (the interview's questions were: How do you feel? and What are the main reasons of your feelings? ). The interview was required for assessment of emotions using facial expression analysis software: FaceReader (FR). Objective data was gathered by evaluating each subject's emotional state with the help of FaceReader (FR). As a complete facial expression analysis program, it is the world's first tool capable of automatically analyzing facial expressions. It recognizes facial expressions with an accuracy of 89%. The version which was used was FaceReader 3 . By allowing the user to evaluate a person's emotional state in terms of 6 basic emotional states happy, sad, angry, disgusted, scared, surprised (the two additional options being neutral and other ) it provided an objective assessment of a subject's emotional state. Emotions like neutral and other were not analyzed. Five minutes after the facial expression analysis, blood samples were drawn from the median cubital vein. After the drawing of venous blood samples, a test on the veloergometer followed. It was a maximal physical load test without a rest period with the load being increased after every 3 minutes and an average duration reaching 8 minutes. Five minutes after the load test the pre-test procedures interviewing the participants, applying the Face Reader and drawing the blood samples were repeated to collect the post-test data so that conclusions could be drawn about the psychological and physiological load-effected manifesta- Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
8 48 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Kundziòa and Grants: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA... tions in the research subjects. Post-test procedures were performed in exactly the same conditions as before the veloergometer test. The vacutainers containing pre- and post-test blood samples were delivered to the laboratory, where plasma â-ep endorphin levels were determined by means of a standard radioimmunoassay ELISA kit . In analyzing the research results, gender- and menstrual-cycle-influenced circulating endorphin concentration was not considered. â-ep levels in women at rest may be slightly lower than in men regardless of the timing of women's menstrual cycle, but there is no statistical significance of physical-load-affected â-ep level response related to gender . To assess subjects' emotions before and 5 minutes after the veloergometer test FaceReader 3.0, a facial expression analysis program, was used. To aid in identifying emotions with FR, a short interview was conducted consisting of two questions: How do you feel? and What are the main reasons of your feelings?. Summarizing positive emotions (happiness and surprise) FR data showed an increase in positive emotions for four subjects (JG +47%; IB +4%; JP and IZ +%). Only for one subject, IK, were positive emotions decreased: by 3% (fig. 3). In examining positive emotions separately, the results showed an increase in happiness of 0% and a decrease in surprise of 3% (fig. 4 and 5). Results The aim of the study was to explore â-ep effects on the human body, in particular, â-ep-affected changes in the emotional state of physically active individuals, both male and female, aged 45 to 55 involved in a veloergometer test. To achieve this aim, plasma â-ep levels were tested and a facial expressions analyzer, FR, was used. The blood test results showed a plasma â-ep increase in 3 subjects (JG %, IB +7.84%, MP %) and a decrease in other 3 subjects (IK.7%, JP 6.8%, IZ 7.87%) (fig. ) positive emotions before (%) positive emotions after (%) â-ep level changes (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure. Changes in plasma â-ep levels after veloergometer test Before the load test, the lowest plasma â-ep level was diagnosed for subject JG 6.3 ng/ml and the highest for subject IZ 35.6 ng/ml (fig. ). 5 Figure 3. Positive emotions for all subjects before and after veloergometer test (%) In analyzing data concerning the effect of the physical load on the happiness level, an increase was observed for three subjects (JG +8%; IK +0%; IZ +3%). For the other three subjects FR diagnosed happiness neither before nor after the veloergometer test (fig. 4) JG IB MP IK JP IZ happiness before (%) happiness after (%) â-ep before (ng/ml) â-ep after (ng/ml) JG IB MP IK JP IZ JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 4. Percentage level of happiness for all subjects before and after veloergometer test The FR data indicated an increase in emotions like surprise for three subjects (JG +9%; IB +4%; JP +%). For subject MP, the level of surprise did not change and for subjects IK and IZ the surprise decreased by -3% and -% respectively (fig. 5). Figure. Plasma â-ep levels before and after veloergometer test (ng/ml)