1 ISSN POLISH JOURNAL OF SPORT AND TOURISM SPORT I TURYSTYKA Vol. (04) No. 3, pp Contents Spis treœci Original research papers / Oryginalne prace twórcze Liudmila Liutsko Sex-dependent individual differences and the correlational relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests... Ieva Kundziòa, Juris Grants The relationship between beta endorphins and emotional state in physically active individuals aged (a report on a pilot study)... Krzysztof Piech, Rafa³ Grad Role of preschoolers in motivation for physical activity in their families... Rola dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym w aktywizacji ruchowej rodziny Paulina Gradus, Ewa Benza, Olga Rybak, Pawe³ Krzysztoñ, Paulina Batorzyñska, Magdalena Plandowska, Wies³aw Lech Kurpeta Forms of physical activity of Bia³a Podlaska preschool children... Formy aktywnoœci fizycznej dzieci uczêszczaj¹cych do bialskich przedszkoli Victor Kolesnikovich, Yulia Bychenkova, Aleksandr Vernigor Geoinformation systems as a tool of the integrated tourist spaces management... Beata Gierczak Managament methods and concepts for building competitive advantage in hospitality companies Metody i koncepcje zarz¹dzania w procesie budowania przewagi konkurencyjnej przedsiêbiorstw hotelarskich Current news / Wiadomoœci bie ¹ce Grzegorz Godlewski, Anna Bodasiñska Ogólnopolska Konferencja Naukowa Turystyka kontrowersyjna na wspó³czesnym rynku podró y - formy, uwarunkowania, skutki Guidelines for Contributors / Instrukcja dla Autorów Subscription information / Informacje o prenumeracie
3 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Original research papers SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND THE CORRELATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROPRIOCEPTIVE AND VERBAL TESTS LIUDMILA LIUTSKO University of Barcelona, Faculty of Psychology, Department of Personality Mailing address: Liudmila Liutsko, University of Barcelona, Department of Personality, 7 de Vall d'hebron Street, Barcelona, tel.: , fax: , Abstract Introduction. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between proprioceptive and verbal tests on personality in both sexes separately due to existing proprioceptive differences in fine motor behavior between men and women in our previous studies [,, 3]. Material and methods. 4 middle-aged participants from Belarus completed verbal tests (personality: Eysenck's EPQ, Big Five in Hromov's Russian adaptation, and Rosenberg's Self-esteem) together with Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (by Tous). Complementary information, such as tests of time perception, was collected and used in correlative and ANOVA analyses with the use of SPSS v.9. Results. The relationship between proprioceptive variables in personality and individual differences, time perception and the results of verbal tests were determined for each sex subgroup and discussed. ANOVA results reflected the corresponding differences and similarities between men and women in the variables of each test. Time perception was found to be significantly correlated to all five dimensions of the Big Five Test in both sexes, and both had a significant relationship to the same variables of the DP-TC test. Conclusions. Time perception can be used as an indirect indicator of personality. Existing individual and personality differences should be taken into account in coaching and education to obtain more effective results. Key words: proprioception, Proprioceptive Diagnostics of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), personality and individual differences Introduction Mira y Lopez  and Luria  studied the somatico-mental relationship in fine motor expressive analysis and both noticed that motor function reflects the hidden structure of psychological processes, which can describe our individual or personality differences [, 6, 7, 8]. Proprioceptive Diagnostic of Temperament and Character (DP-TC), based on fine motor behaviour, was created by Tous and colleagues within the Mira y Lopez tradition with the use of new technologies [7, 9, 0] and was validated  through confirmatory factorial analysis . Our previous studies showed a relationship between certain proprioceptive indicators and visual memory , a multiple sclerosis case , academic performance , sex differences in Parkinson's patients , sex and cultural , age-related differences  and more. Researchers from other countries applied Mira y Lopez's MKP test for investigations  in the psychophysiological description of adaptation , in sports psychology  in observations of psychomotor responses and interhemispheric relationships in adaptation to a new time zone  and as psychophysiological markers of adolescents' tolerance . Personality differences were also analysed using the proprioceptive DP-TC and verbal tests . However, in order to ensure correct interpretation, studies related to sex-dependant differences are also required. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine to what extent the motor-expressive parameters in the proprioceptive condition are related to verbal tests of individual differences and whether they are the same for both sexes. Material and methods 4 volunteers (4 males 38.93±5.78 years old and 7 females 39.4±.7 years old) from Belarus with at least a secondary school education performed proprioceptive (DP-TC, Tous) and verbal (EPQ, Eysenck; Russian adaptation of Big Five Personality Test, R Rosenberg Self-esteem) tests. Other parameters such as time perception (TP, perceptive estimation of a minute interval) and BMI were included for the sex-dependent individual differences in statistical analysis by SPSS (v.9). The Big Five Personality Test was adapted from the Japanese BFI into Russian by Hromov  and represents the following bipolar dimensions: ) Introversion-Extraversion; ) Independence-Affection; 3) Naturalness-Control; 4) Emotional Stability-Emotional Instability, and 5) Practicality-Friskiness. The DP-TC bipolar variables [7, 3] are as follows: ) Mood (Pessimism-Optimism); ) Decision Making (Submission-Dominance); 3) Attention Style (Intra-tension Extra-tension); 4) Emotivism (Distant-Affective); 5) Irritability (Inhibition-Excitability), and 6) Variability (Rigidity-Flexibility). Results The average values for male and female groups for all observable variables are represented in table. ANOVA analysis for sex differences revealed significant differences in DP3 (transversal movement and non-dominant hand) with a higher Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
4 44 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES... tendency towards outward shifts (extra-tension in men) in women: 5.5±6.45 mm, in men vs ±7.6 mm. Sex differences were statistically significant for the following variables in verbal tests: E (Extraversion), N (Neuroticism) and P (Psychoticism) of Eysenck's EPQ and dimension I-E (Introversion-Extraversion) of the Big Five Test. Table. Descriptive statistics for observed variables in both sex subgroups Test DP-TC EPQ Big Five (bipolar) DP (Mood, T) DP (Mood, C) DP3 (Attention style, T) DP4 (Attention style, C) DP5 (Decision making, T) DP6 (Decision making, C) DS (Emotivism, T) DS (Emotivism, C) LL (Irritability, T) LL (Irritability, C) LV (Variability, T) LV (Variability, C) BMI (Body Mass Index) TP ( minute, 60 seconds) R (Self-esteem) I-E (5) Ind-Affect (5) Nat-Cont (5) EmSt-EmInst (5) Pract-Frisk (5) E N P L M SD M Legend: For DP-TC variables raw parameters are performed, measured in mm: DP and DP primary deviations in frontal movement, DP3 and DP4 primary deviations in transversal movements, DP5 and DP6 primary deviations in sagittal movements; DS and DS formal deviations in frontal movement; LL and LL line length, and DL and DL difference between maximum and minimum line lengths. All odd numbers belong to non-dominant hand (temperament, T), and all even numbers belong to dominant hand (character, C). TP is measured in seconds. Bivariate correlational analysis of the observed parameters revealed a moderate, statistically significant relationship between DP-TC variables and verbal tests. However, this correspondence differed between men and women. In men the Psychoticism (P) subgroup of Eysenk's EPQ test negatively correlated (r=-.40, p=.03) with primary deviation in frontal movement and non-dominant hand (DP) and positively correlated (r=.38, p=.09) with secondary deviation of frontal movement and non-dominant hand (DS) in the proprioceptive test (DP- TC). The Lie scale of the EPQ test positively correlated (r=.34, p=.03) with variability of line length in dominant hand (LV) in men. Finally, primary deviation of sagittal movement in nondominant hand (DP5) negatively correlated (r=-.3, p=.043) with time perception (TP) and three of five dimensions of the Big Five Test: Introversion-Extraversion (r=-.35, p=.0), Independence-Affection (r=-.3, p=.047) and Emotional Stability- Emotional Instability (r=-.4, p=.006). In the female subgroup, statistically significant positive correlations were found between Rosenberg's Self-esteem Verbal Test and proprioceptive DP4 primary deviation in transversal Men Women SD movement and dominant hand (r=.34, p=.008), as well as between proprioceptive DP5 primary deviation in sagittal movement (non-dominant hand) and Eysenck's Extraversion (E) (r=.7, p=.034) and BMI (r=.6, p=.040). Proprioceptive line length variability in dominant hand (LV) also positively correlated with BMI in women (r=.7, p=.030). Finally, line variability in both hands of proprioceptive test DP-TC negatively correlated with time perception and all five dimensions of Big Five tension. This difference was more pronounced in the dominant hand (exhibiting a higher magnitude of correlations) than in the non-dominant one. The following correlations were found there: in TP: r=-.4 (p=.045) with LV and r=-.9 (p=.04) with LV; in the Big Five Test I-E: r=-.34 (p=.005) with LV and r=-.38 (p=.00) with LV, Ind. Affect.: r=-.3 (p=.009) with LV and r=-.38 (p=.00) with LV, Nat.-Contr.: r=-.4 (p=.045) with LV and r=-.7 (p=.06) with LV, Em.St.-Em.Inst.: r=-.8 (p=.09) with LV and r=-.37 (p=.00) with LV, and Pr.-Frisk.: r=-.8 (p=.0) with LV and r=-.33 (p=.006) with LV. Moreover, time perception (which is related to the proprioceptive sense as well) was positively and significantly related to all dimensions of the Big Five Verbal Test in both sex subgroups (tab. ). Statistically significant negative correlations were also found between TP and DP-TC variables: in men with DP5 (r=-.3, p=.043) and in women: with PL (r=-.4, p=.045) and PL (r=-.9, p=.04). Table. Correlations between time perception (TP) and Big Five dimensions test in both sexes Big Five dimensions Introversion-Extroversion Independence-Affection Naturalness-Control Emotional Stability-Emotional Instability Practicality-Friskiness Note: Significance level: * p.05; ** p.0. Discussion r (women).7*.4*.7*.33*.7* r (men).48**.5**.5**.5**.58** Since verbal behaviour does not always reflect real or dispositional behaviour , it was logical to expect a weak link between proprioceptive motor behaviour and verbal parameters of personality and individual differences. For this reason the statistically significant correlations that were found were of weak or moderate magnitude. Though some researchers  have investigated sex differences in sensory integration (vision and proprioception), little attention is paid to motor control in psychology, as Rosenbaum states ; few or almost no studies have been done in this context. Whereas ANOVA showed one statistically significant difference between sex subgroups for all performed variables, the greatest difference between men and women was for fine motor precision performance (DP3) in the cultural subgroup under examination. As for motor control (proprioceptive parameters of the DP-TC test), in DP3 (transversal movement, non-dominant hand) men showed a tendency towards the external world (Extra-tension) compared to women, whereas this tendency was less accentuated in the non-dominant hand (5.5±6.45 mm in men; -0.54±7.6 mm in women); in DP4 (transversal movement, dominant hand), the average value in men shifted more towards intra-tension, and was even slightly higher in absolute error compared to women (-.86±6.93 mm and -.90± 3.88 mm, respectively).
5 Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, In frontal movement and directional bias, men shifted towards the pessimism pole (Mood dimension of DP-TC): performance in their average group value in the dominant hand (adaptive behaviour, character): -7.9±.53 mm vs. -.7±9.04 mm in the non-dominant hand, while women performed quite similarly for both hands. Similar hand performance in fine motor precision (hand incongruences) was observed in secondary bias, DS and DS, with a shift towards slightly more positive values in men and more constant behaviour in women. Concerning sagittal movement (directional bias), men, to the contrary, exhibited a more stable error in precision for both hands (3.84±4.5 mm in non-dominant and 3.4±3.3 mm in dominant), whereas women performed with the dominant hand quite similarly to men with an average error of 3.7± 3.50 mm, while doing slightly worse with the non-dominant hand (5.7±4.0 mm), shifting more from their body position. In line length (LL) performances both men and women performed slightly worse with the non-dominant hand, while line length variability (VL) was greater in the dominant hand in both sexes; however these differences did not reach a statistically significant level. In the time perception test, participants were asked to estimate (by perception, not by counting or taking into account other external/internal indicators of time) when minute had passed. The results were supposed to reflect a more internal (proprioceptive and individual) clock. Both male and female participants underperformed 60 seconds, showing average group results that were slightly less in women (37.35±0.88 sec vs. 43.9±4.9 sec); however this difference did not reach a statistically significant level. The relationship between TP and individual (personality) traits was moderate and significant. Conclusions The fact that personality (Big Five Test) verbal parameters, as well as TP, were related to the same DP-TC variables within each sex subgroup, but to different variables (and movement types) in men and women, as was shown in the results section, suggests that they express their individual traits in different ways. However, one of the limitations was the Big Five Test: Its dimensions were inter-correlated, not totally independent. Thus, this is one possible explanation why all significant correlations of the Big Five Test were correlated to TP and specific DP- TC variables or movement types: sagittal movement (non-dominant hand) in men and line length variability (both hands) in women. Since TP had significant correlations with the same variables of the DP-TC test as the Big Five dimensions, TP could be considered as a personality indicator within express-diagnostics. The current study results showed the existence of some moderately significant differences between male and female proprioceptive and verbal parameters of individual differences. Moreover, fine motor behaviour was expressed distinctly in relation to personality and individual differences in each sex subgroup. These exploratory findings could help to shed light on and contribute to an understanding of the nature of the differences between the sexes, leading to the application of different approaches in education and coaching in order to obtain better and more effective results. More studies are required to determine how different verbal tests (which reflect a more desirable level of self) are related to motor proprioceptive test (which reflect a more dispositional attitude towards one behaviour or another). Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to all the volunteers who participated in this study, as well as to the following professionals: Elena Plotka and Galina S. Stasevich (Brest Regional Centre for Epidimiology and Public Health), Natalia Novikova (ISEU, Minsk) and Tatiana Chelacheva (Soligorsk Polyclinik) for their help. We would also like to thank the University of Barcelona for providing financial support. Literature. Gironell A., Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J.M. (0). Differences based on fine motor behaviour in Parkinson's patients compared to an age matched control group in proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive test conditions. Anuario de Psicología 4(), Liutsko L. (04). Age and sex differences in proprioception (fine motor performance). Scholars' Press. 3. Liutsko L., Tous J.M. (04). Sex and cultural differences in proprioception based on fine motor performance. Personality and Individual Differences 60(Supplement), S9. DOI: 0.06/j.paid Mira E. (93). Somatic reactions of mental work. Doctoral thesis. University of Barcelona, Barcelona. [in Spanish] 5. Luria A.R. (93). The nature of human conflicts. New York: Liveright Publishers. 6. Mira E. (958). Myokinetic psychodiagnosis (M. K. P.). New York: Logos. 7. Tous Ral J.M., Muiños R., Tous Lopez O., Tous Rovirosa J.M. (0). Proprioceptive diagnostics of temperament and character. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona. [in Spanish] 8. Liutsko L. (03). Proprioception as a basis for individual differences. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art 6(3), DOI: 0.6/pir Tous J.M. (008). Propioceptive diagnosis of temperament and character DP-TC. Barcelona: Lab. Mira y López, Department of Personality, Assessment and Psychological Treatments, University of Barcelona. DP-TC software. [in Spanish] 0. Liutsko L. (0). The book review Propioceptive diagnosis of temperament and character (Tous et al. 0). Anuario de Psicología 4(3), 4-4. [in Spanish]. Tous J.M., Viadé A., Muiños R. (007). Structural validity of lineograms of myokinetic psychodiagnosis, revised and digitalised (PMK-RD). Psicothema 9(), [in Spanish]. Muiños R. (008). Miokinetic Psychodiagnosis: Development, description and confirmatory factorial analysis. Doctoral thesis, University of Barcelona, Barcelona. [in Spanish] 3. Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J. (0). Relationship between emotional intelligence based on the proprioceptive information and academic performance in secondary school st pupils. National Congress of Emocional Intelligence, 8-0 November 0 (p. 30), Barcelona. 4. Liutsko L., Tous J.M. (03). Quantitative and qualitative proprioceptive analysis of individual differences (description of Multiple sclerosis case study). Acta Neuropsychologica (3), DOI: / Liutsko L., Tous J.M., Muiños R. (0). The effects of proprioception on memory: a study of proprioceptive errors and results from the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure in a healthy population. Acta Neuropsychologica 0(4), DOI: / /03008.
6 46 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Liutsko: SEX-DEPENDENT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Liutsko L., Muiños R., Tous J.M. (04). Age-related differences in proprioceptive and visuo-proprioceptive function in relation to fine motor behaviour. European Journal of Ageing (3), -3. DOI: 0.007/s Berezin F.B., Varric L.D., Gorelova E.S. (976). Psychophysiological studies of migrant and indigenous population of the Far Northeast. Human adaptation to the conditions of the North. Petrozavodsk. [in Russian] 8. Miroshnikov M.P. (963). Diagnostic meaning of psychomotricity and its study with use of miokinetic test. In L. Gissen (Ed.), Psychology and psychohigiene in sport, C6., M. (pp. 5-3). [in Russian]. 9. Ezhov S.N., Krivoshchekov S.G. (004). Features of psychomotor responses and interhemispheric relationships at various stages of adaptation to a new time zone. Human Physiology 30(), Draganova O.A. (007). Psychopisiological markers of personal tolerance in adolescent period. Doctoral thesis, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg. [in Russian]. Tous J.M., Muños R., Liutsko L. (04, in press). Personality differences of applicants for the gun license (proprioceptive and verbal tests). Los Anales de Psicología 30(3). DOI: 0.608/ analesps Hromov A.B. (000). The five-factor personality questionnaire. Manual. Kurgan: Kurgan State University. [in Russian] 3. Liutsko L., Tous-Ral J.M. (0). Personality traits based th on fine motor individual behaviour. In 4 Russian Scientific Conference Psychology of Individuality, -4 November (p. 3), Moscow: Logos. 4. Sigmundsson H., Haga M., Hopkins B. (007). Sex differences in perception: exploring the integration of sensory information with respect to vision and proprioception. Sex Roles 57, Rosenbaum D.A. (005). The Cinderella of psychology. The neglect of motor control in the science of mental life and behaviour. American Psychologist 60(4), Submitted: January, 04 Accepted: June 30, 04
7 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA ENDORPHINS AND EMOTIONAL STATE IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS AGED (A REPORT ON A PILOT STUDY) IEVA KUNDZIÒA, JURIS GRANTS Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Department of Anatomy, Department of Skiing Mailing address: Ieva Kundziòa, Latvian Academy of Sport Education, Department of Anatomy, 333 Brivibas Street, LV-006 Riga, tel.: , fax: , Abstract Introduction. This sports-science-related article heavily relies on studies that have reported an increase in beta-endorphin (â-ep) concentration in plasma in response to physical activity. It examines the psychological and physiological effects of physical activity and exercise and reports on a research-experiment-based, endorphin-hypotheses-related pilot study aimed at exploring mood-related â-ep effects occurring in physically active male and female individuals aged in response to physical load. Material and methods. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females) rated as exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity in sport's laboratory. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to establish physical activity level. For facial expression analysis a short interview was applied, using software FaceReader 3.0 (FR). As a load test a veloergometer exercise test was used, and Beta-endorphin (â-ep) levels were measured from venous blood. Results. The findings demonstrated an increase in â-ep levels in 50% of the subjects. No positive relation between â-ep increase and happiness has been observed. In four subjects an increase in disgust was observed due to the laboratory conditions. Five minutes after the load test FR data recorded the reduction or disappearance of negative emotions for all research subjects. Conclusions. Further investigation into the relationship of plasma levels of â-ep and the emotional state of the individual involved in physical activities is needed. This necessitates a further insight into how exercise-elevated endorphins (â-ep) affect mood state outside laboratory conditions. Therefore, a further investigation of people involved in physical recreation activities outdoors is envisaged. Key words: plasma beta-endorphins, emotional expressions, physical load Introduction Endorphins were discovered in the mid-970s. Endorphins are released from the pituitary gland into the circulatory system [,, 3]. In the literature there are a lot of different studies where researchers show relations between endorphins and a number of psychological and adaptive factors such as analgesia, stress, emotions, motivation, behavior, euphoria and mental well-being [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. There are also studies examining the relationship between vigorous exercise and blood plasma endorphin levels; some researchers indicate a significant increase in endorphin levels during or after exercise, while others do not [3, 8, 9, 0]. The present article reviews the relationship between beta endorphins and emotional state in response to physical activity. Material and methods The pilot research took place on February and March, 03 in the locally available sports laboratory VIP Sport in Riga. The subjects had been selected according to the following criteria: age, gender and physical activity level, the latter having been judged according to the results of the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) administered beforehand. Six 45 to 55-year-old individuals (3 males and 3 females) exhibiting moderate and high levels of physical activity took part in the research experiment. First, data regarding the participants' emotional state was recorded. Subjective data was gathered by interviewing the subjects regarding the feelings they were experiencing at the moment and asking them to speculate about their reasons for being in a particular emotional state (the interview's questions were: How do you feel? and What are the main reasons of your feelings? ). The interview was required for assessment of emotions using facial expression analysis software: FaceReader (FR). Objective data was gathered by evaluating each subject's emotional state with the help of FaceReader (FR). As a complete facial expression analysis program, it is the world's first tool capable of automatically analyzing facial expressions. It recognizes facial expressions with an accuracy of 89%. The version which was used was FaceReader 3 . By allowing the user to evaluate a person's emotional state in terms of 6 basic emotional states happy, sad, angry, disgusted, scared, surprised (the two additional options being neutral and other ) it provided an objective assessment of a subject's emotional state. Emotions like neutral and other were not analyzed. Five minutes after the facial expression analysis, blood samples were drawn from the median cubital vein. After the drawing of venous blood samples, a test on the veloergometer followed. It was a maximal physical load test without a rest period with the load being increased after every 3 minutes and an average duration reaching 8 minutes. Five minutes after the load test the pre-test procedures interviewing the participants, applying the Face Reader and drawing the blood samples were repeated to collect the post-test data so that conclusions could be drawn about the psychological and physiological load-effected manifesta- Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
8 48 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Kundziòa and Grants: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA... tions in the research subjects. Post-test procedures were performed in exactly the same conditions as before the veloergometer test. The vacutainers containing pre- and post-test blood samples were delivered to the laboratory, where plasma â-ep endorphin levels were determined by means of a standard radioimmunoassay ELISA kit . In analyzing the research results, gender- and menstrual-cycle-influenced circulating endorphin concentration was not considered. â-ep levels in women at rest may be slightly lower than in men regardless of the timing of women's menstrual cycle, but there is no statistical significance of physical-load-affected â-ep level response related to gender . To assess subjects' emotions before and 5 minutes after the veloergometer test FaceReader 3.0, a facial expression analysis program, was used. To aid in identifying emotions with FR, a short interview was conducted consisting of two questions: How do you feel? and What are the main reasons of your feelings?. Summarizing positive emotions (happiness and surprise) FR data showed an increase in positive emotions for four subjects (JG +47%; IB +4%; JP and IZ +%). Only for one subject, IK, were positive emotions decreased: by 3% (fig. 3). In examining positive emotions separately, the results showed an increase in happiness of 0% and a decrease in surprise of 3% (fig. 4 and 5). Results The aim of the study was to explore â-ep effects on the human body, in particular, â-ep-affected changes in the emotional state of physically active individuals, both male and female, aged 45 to 55 involved in a veloergometer test. To achieve this aim, plasma â-ep levels were tested and a facial expressions analyzer, FR, was used. The blood test results showed a plasma â-ep increase in 3 subjects (JG %, IB +7.84%, MP %) and a decrease in other 3 subjects (IK.7%, JP 6.8%, IZ 7.87%) (fig. ) positive emotions before (%) positive emotions after (%) â-ep level changes (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure. Changes in plasma â-ep levels after veloergometer test Before the load test, the lowest plasma â-ep level was diagnosed for subject JG 6.3 ng/ml and the highest for subject IZ 35.6 ng/ml (fig. ). 5 Figure 3. Positive emotions for all subjects before and after veloergometer test (%) In analyzing data concerning the effect of the physical load on the happiness level, an increase was observed for three subjects (JG +8%; IK +0%; IZ +3%). For the other three subjects FR diagnosed happiness neither before nor after the veloergometer test (fig. 4) JG IB MP IK JP IZ happiness before (%) happiness after (%) â-ep before (ng/ml) â-ep after (ng/ml) JG IB MP IK JP IZ JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 4. Percentage level of happiness for all subjects before and after veloergometer test The FR data indicated an increase in emotions like surprise for three subjects (JG +9%; IB +4%; JP +%). For subject MP, the level of surprise did not change and for subjects IK and IZ the surprise decreased by -3% and -% respectively (fig. 5). Figure. Plasma â-ep levels before and after veloergometer test (ng/ml)
9 Kundziòa and Grants: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, surprise before (%) surprise after (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 5. Percentage level of surprise for all subjects before and after veloergometer test scared before (%) scared after (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 7. Percentage level of fright for all subjects before and after veloergometer test In summarizing all FR data for all six subjects it becomes clear that almost all of them show a reduction in negative emotions (fright, sadness, anger, disgust) after the veloergometer test. Only for one subject, MP, did facial expression analysis software show an increase in negative emotions of 5% (fig. 6). Separate analysis showed an increase in negative emotions for subject MP: a pronounced, 34% increase in disgust (fig. 7), which is the main reason for the high overall level of negative emotions negative emotions before (%) negative emotions after (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 6. Negative emotions for all subjects before and after veloergometer test (%) An analysis of FR data on negative emotions fright, sadness, anger and disgust indicated a decrease in fright for subjects IB -5%; IK -3%; IZ -4%. For subject JG fright was observed to disappear after the veloergometer test, and for subjects MP and JP fright was not observed at all (fig. 7). FR data on negative emotions like sadness showed an increase for only one subject IZ (+5%). After the load test, sadness was observed to dissapear for subject JG. For subject JP, Face Reader observed no sadness at all. For subjects IB, MP and IK data showed a decrease in sadness by -7%, -9% and -%, respectively (fig. 8) sadness before (%) sadness after (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 8. Percentage level of sadness for all subjects before and after veloergometer test After the physical load test, FR detected changes in anger for only two subjects JG and JP. For subject JP, anger decreased by 8%, while for subject JG it disappeared altogether (fig. 9) angry before (%) angry after (%) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 9. Percentage level of anger for all subjects before and after veloergometer test
10 50 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Kundziòa and Grants: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BETA... After the veloergometer tests, FR observed an increase in disgust for four subjects IB +%; MP +34%; IK +7% and IZ +3%. Only for one subject, JG, did Face Reader diagnose the disappearance of disgust, while for another subject, JP, this emotion was not observed at all (fig. 0) JG IB MP IK JP IZ Figure 0. Percentage level of disgust for all subjects before and after veloergometer test Discussion The literature abounds in clinical research studies which measure endorphin levels before and after physical activity. The results obtained are conflicting: while some report a significant increase in endorphin levels, others do not. A number of findings support the idea that endorphins may be released as a result of exercising with an intensity of at least 60% VO max for a specific amount of time . Observations show that acute positive changes in mood after physical activity might be related to an increase in endorphin level [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Our research demonstrates that different changes in emotional state occur in both men and women due to a physical load. In analyzing the research results, gender- and menstrual-cycle-influenced circulating endorphin concentration was not considered. To summarize all FR data for all the subjects, each subject showed a reduction in at least one negative emotion after the veloergometer test. For four pilot research subjects, FR observed an increase in disgust after the veloergometer tests, which can be attributed to laboratory conditions. The FR data collected prior to the load test indicate that every research subject experiences at least one of the negative emotions fright, sadness or anger while the data recorded 5 minutes after the load test show that this kind of emotion either becomes less pronounced or disappears. After the physical load test an increased percentage of sadness was detected by FR only for one subject and increase was insignificant only for 5%. An increase in happiness after the physical load test was observed for three subjects. However, a clear relation between plasma â-ep level and happiness was not found, because a relation between plasma â-ep release (+33.74%) and increased happiness (+8%) was found for only one subject found. Conclusions disgusted before (%) disgusted after (%) The presented investigation of both men and women found changes in emotional state after a veloergometer test, with five of six subjects demonstrating a decrease in negative emotions (anger, sadness, fright, disgust). An obvious relation between plasma levels of â-ep and changes in six basic emotions detected by FaceReader 3.0, a facial analysis program, was not found. Further investigation is needed regarding the relationship between plasma levels of â-ep and the emotional state of the individual involved in physical activities. To determine the role of beta-endorphin effect on psychological well-being in exercise, the authors are going to perform research outdoors using different physical recreation activities involving a defined heart rate and a specific amount of time. Literature. Mousa S.A., Shakibaei M., Sitte N., Schäfer M., Stein C. (004). Subcellular pathways of beta-endorphin synthesis, processing, and release from immunocytes in inflammatory pain. Endocrinology 45(3), Bender T., Nagy G., Barna I., Tefner I., Kadas E., Geher P. (007). The effect of physical therapy on beta-endorphin levels. European Journal of Applied Physiology 00, DOI: 0.007/s Biddle S.J.H., Mutrie N. (007). Psychology of physical activnd ity determinants, well-being and interventions ( edition). London: Routledge. 4. Peluso M., Andrade L. (005). Physical activity and mental health: the association between exercise and mood. Clinics 60(), Daniel M., Martin A. (99). Opiate receptor blockade by naltrexone and mood state after acute physical activity. British Journal of Sports Medicine 6(), Kenneth R. (999). The influence of physical activity on mental well-being. Public Health Nutrition (3a), Landers D.N. (997). The influence of exercise on mental health. PCPFS Research Digest (). 8. Boecker H., Othman A., Mueckter S., Scheef L., Pensel M., Daamen M. et al. (00). Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies. Journal of Sports Medicine, Leuenberger A. (006). Endorphins, exercise, and addictions: A review of exercise dependence. The Premier Journal for Undergraduate Publications in the Neurosciences 3, Pierce E., Eastman N., Tripathi H., Olson K., Dewey W. (993). ß-Endorphin response to endurance exercise: relationship to exercise dependence. Perceptual and Motor Skills 77(3), Kuilenburg H., Uyl M. (005). The FaceReader: Online facial th expression recognition. In 5 International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research Measuring Behavior 005, 30 August September 005 (pp ). Wageningen: Noldus Information Technology. Retrieved from _005.pdf.. Kamiya Biomedical Company. Human â Endorphin (BEP) ELISA kit. Instruction manual. Cat. No. KT Goldfarb A.H., Jamurtas A.Z., Kamimori G.H., Hegde S., Otterstetter R., Brown D.A. (998). Gender effect on beta-endorphin response to exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 30(), Langenfeld M., Hart L., Kao P. (987). Plasma endorphin responses to one hour bicycling and running at 60% VO max. Medicine and Science in Sports 9, Submitted: March 6, 04 Accepted: June 30, 04
11 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THEIR FAMILIES KRZYSZTOF PIECH, RAFA GRAD Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska, Department of Recreation Jêdrzej Œniadecki Academy of Physical Education and Sport in Gdañsk, Faculty of Physical Education Mailing address: Krzysztof Piech, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Department of Recreation, Akademicka Street, -500 Bia³a Podlaska, tel.: , fax: , Abstract Introduction. Family-oriented strategies of promoting physical activity are underused. In the last few years there has been a significant decrease in number of research on family as a promoter of physical activity. The research, when conducted, focuses on the influence parents' activity has on that of their children. There is a need for assessment of child's influence on parents' physical activity. Material and methods. The survey utilises an opinion poll in the form of a questionnaire. The sample consisted of 00 parents who were invited together with their children to a recreational fair. Results. The survey shows that child may be the person encouraging their parents to active recreation. Symptoms of this are: encouraging the parents to take part, satisfaction with the decision to take part in the event and the amount of positive sensations during play. The parents were of opinion that their both, children's as well as teacher's encouragement, was the most important factor in their decision to participate. Conclusions. The research indicated that after the fair children encouraged their parents to play together, whereas parents used games from the fair in their family free time. Because of the fact that the offered model of recreational event for families engaged and interested the participants, it is worth promoting in pedagogical sphere. Key words: physical activity, child, family Introduction Within the past few years there has been increasing talk of young generation aversion for activity. There is significant increase of absence from physical activity classes in all levels of education in our country. At the same time, there is a significant increase of interest in physical activity among the middle-aged and the elderly. This is especially visible during amateur sport events, where the largest age brackets are over 40. The trend has reversed from the seventies and eighties, when the young generation (especially in primary schools) showed much more physical activity and the physical education class was the best liked one. Parents' activity was limited to occasional work in their allotments and walks. We may wonder where have the correct rules of bringing up active youths gone. The change in physical activity behaviour in today youths should prove a challenge for both teachers and parents. Among the publications on physical activity in families we may find works on the influence parents' physical activity has on activity of their children, as well as very few works concerned with the children's physical activity on this of their parents [,, 3, 4, 5]. According to Brustad  the very significant potential family has for promotion of physical activity is not being used in its full capacity. At the same time O'Connor and his colleagues  notice the decrease in number of surveys upon the family influence on promoting physical activity. Despite the limited data, the positive effects of familybased strategies are noticeable. The main purpose of the survey was assessment of the preschool child's role in motivating the physical activity of their family. Material and methods The survey was conducted in the year 03 on 00 parents partaking alongside their children in the XXI Preschool Olympics in Bia³a Podlaska. The method utilised was an opinion poll, using a questionnaire (child as the animator of family physical activity). The parents were asked to fill in the questionnaire at their homes, to be collected by the teacher. The researchers decided to determine whether the participation of parents in recreational events is motivated by the child. With this goal in mind, the parents were invited to a recreational event (Family Preschool Olympics) organised by the students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska, with about 00 games designed to amuse entire families. Rivalry was left out of the games as inadvisable for preschoolers. 75% of the surveyed parents declared to have tertiary level education. It must be emphasised that most of the surveyed parents were mothers (7%). The surveyed declared that their spouses have also participated in the event (77%), as well as the grandparents and siblings. This shows family character of the event. 67% of the parents actively partook in the games, as opposed to assisting their children. Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
12 5 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, 5-6 Piech and Grad: ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION... Results Table itemises the forms of physical activity partaken in by parents, children and other members of the families. These are the most common forms often specified in other research . Table. Forms of physical activity partaken in by members of families Activity Parents Child Grandparents Sum Cycling Swimming Walks Jogging Nordic walking Fitness (Pilates, Zumba, etc.) Gym workout Others (specify) Also interesting for the survey seems the amount of time spent by the parents on physical activity. Unfortunately, the surveyed group is not a physically active one. Only 8% of the parents partake in physical activity three times a week, 0% once a week, the reminder declaring their physical activity to be sporadic. This seems alarming in young people with small children. Besides setting the wrong example for their children, these people neglect their own health. The researchers decided to question the surveyed group on who had an influence on their present attitudes towards physical activity. As seen in figure, the peer group had most significance in this matter. It should, however, be taken into consideration that the group surveyed is not particularly interested in this way of spending their free time. 00.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 0.0% 0.0% Figure. Physical activity shared by children and parents prior to participating in the preschool Olympics Very significant for the survey is the information provided by parents on the making of the decision to participate (fig. 3). As the organizers predicted, the greatest influence was the notification by the preschool teacher, but the children notified their parents of the event as well. The preschool teachers were charged with inviting and providing the details about participation in the event during parent-teacher meetings. 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% yes no encouragement by the child teacher/preschool information encouragement by peers other 0.0% 35.0% 30.0% 5.0% parents friends PE teacher other teacher mass media other 0.0% Figure 3. Decision to participate in the event 0.0% 5.0% 0.0% The parents declared children to show very much satisfaction after they decided to participate in the event (fig. 4). However, there were no negative children's reactions observed. 5.0% 0.0% Figure. Who influenced the attitudes towards physical activity in the surveyed group The parents declared playing with their children. It has to be emphasised, however, that play was not a regular activity. It usually encompassed ball games, cycling and walks. It is alarming that 5% of the parents undertake no physical activity with their children, being of the opinion that preschool and other organisations provide sufficient physical activity (fig. ). 00.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 0.0% 0.0% happy / satisfied no reaction / no enthusiasm Figure 4. Reactions to decision to participate in the event
13 Piech and Grad: ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, The parents declared very positive memories of the event. This is significant both for the organisers, showing them the choice of games and attractions was satisfactory for the participants, as to the further participation in similar events and encouragement to physical activity. What seems alarming is that 7% of the parents declared their participation to be out of their sense of duty towards the children (fig. 5). This percentage is similar to this of parents who have admitted to sharing no physical activity with their children. 8% 4% enormous pleasure duty towards the child other were reflections after the event, which became the basis of family discussions. For a more thorough view of the problem, the parents were questioned on what part of the event they liked best. The answers were similar. The parents mentioned playing along with their children, the atmosphere, the games (fig. 7). 8% 4% % 6% % 0% the opening ceremony parents' participation in games own participation games organiser's and judges' costume playing together with parents other 9% 78% Figure 5. Memories of the event Also interesting from the organisers' point of view were the participants' impressions. The parents spoke of participating in the games together with children, the children partaking in competitions and the games. Those choices are important, as they point towards the family need for integration through play. Value placed on them by the parents indicates a correct attitude to raising children (fig. 6). 7% 9% % % 7% % the opening ceremony parents partaking in the games child partaking both parents and children partaking games organiser's and judges' costumes other Figure 7. Children's impressions of the event Figure 8 depicts the data on the Olympics' influence on the future physical activity. More than 75% of the parents have declared that the event may have influence on the future physical activity. For about 4% the event was not an inspiration for increasing the amount of physical activity shared by the family. Therefore, other ways of changing that should be sought. Without doubt, there is a significant need for education of the parents. 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% gratly inspired slightly inspired did not inspire Figure 8. How did the participation in the event inspire families to physical activity % Figure 6. Parents' impressions after the event The parents also spoke of their children's impressions. As their parents, the children liked the games, playing together with parents, parents taking part in the games, themselves partaking, and also the organisers' costumes. The parents' relations of children's positive impressions and memories show that there The next issue seems quite interesting (fig. 9). The surveyed report different degrees of inspiration among members of the family. What seems intriguing is that the most inspired group were children. Movement is a natural activity for preschoolers. To limit movement stands against the rules of pedagogy and physiology. Parents reporting the children to be the most encouraged to physical activity may indicate previous parental neglect in the regard of the children physical activity. It may also indicate needs in this regard.
14 54 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, 5-6 Piech and Grad: ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION... 5% 9% mother father the child siblings Parents were also enabled by their participation in the event to start discussions among family. Over 8% took it as an occasion to speak with their children (fig. ). Referring to positive events from the family past is an integrating and unifying factor. 00.0% 80.0% yes no 40% 6% 60.0% 40.0% Figure 9. Who in the family was inspired to physical activity Participation in various forms of physical activity requires the use of sports equipment, not necessarily of the expensive sort. One of the Olympics goals was to introduce games without any equipment, so they can be easily bought and played at home. It is significant that 5% of the participating families bought equipment, mostly balls, bicycles, skipping ropes (fig. 0). 00.0% 80.0% 60.0% 40.0% 0.0% 0.0% yes no Figure 0. The Olympics as an inspiration for buying sports 0.0% 0.0% Figure. Did parents speak about the Olympics Over 77% of the parents have informed the researchers that they have photographic documentation of the event. It is important, as photographs of such kind are commonly viewed within the circle of family and friends. It serves not only promotion of future events, but also enables the participants to remember and relive the fair. We suspect it may have an influence on family's behaviour during free time. Also important is that over 97% of the parents have declared will to participate in similar events in the future together with their children. The most commonly given answer was once or twice a year, but some parents expressed a need to do it even once a month. The question of encouragement for shared play provided by the child to the parents seems important from the point of view of the motivation for physical activity in family. 77% of the children were declared by their parents to encourage them to play together (fig. 3). The Olympics has left an impression in both, children and parents' memories. The parents declared that the children initiated conversations about the fair after coming home from the preschool (fig. ). 80.0% 60.0% yes no 40. 0% 00.0% 80.0% yes no 0.0% 60.0% 40.0% 0.0% Figure 3. Did the child encourage parents to play together after the event 0.0% 0.0% Figure. Did the child speak about the Olympics Also important seems that over 70% parents utilise the games learned at the Olympics during everyday play with their child. The event has served its educational purpose. The parents also declared plans to further encourage their children's physical activity by additional recreational activities.
15 Piech and Grad: ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Discussion The issue of children's physical activity influence on that of their parents is undertaken much less often than its reverse. Polish and foreign researchers both examined the parents' influence on their children's physical activity much more often. Sadowska  noticed a correlation of current physical activity undertaken by parents and the activity levels in their children. Parents' physical activity has more significance than verbal encouragement. This opinion is shared by Sallis and Pate , who claimd that stronger connection between children's and parents' levels of physical activity may be expected when the parents not only encourage their children to physical activity, but also partake in it together with the child. This is supported by the research conducted by Piech and Micha³owska  on participation of one member of a family in running events, which was shown to motivate other family members to take an interest in physical activity, both as spectators at running events and as active participants. The parents surveyed were not physically active before participating in the fair. Only 8% partook in physical activity thrice a week, 0% once a week, activity of the remainder being sporadic. Other surveys on the subject yielded similar results [,, 3]. It is also confirmed by the Mogi³a-Lisowska survey, indicating low levels of physical activity among adults. The existing activity is irregular. The author emphasises an alarming correlation. The less frequent participation in recreational activity, the bigger part substance use (tobacco, alcohol) plays in the lives of the survey participants . Therefore, families should be given support by organisers and recreation specialists. The offer should be appropriate to family members' ages, but it should accommodate such forms that can be undertaken by all the family members. Other research shows that parents' own activity causes in children lasting motivation towards physical activity . Also Heitzler and his colleagues  indicated on stronger involvement of children in physical activity when influenced by the family. Domingues and Goncalves  in their research on parents of children talented at sports also found parents' influence to be an important factor for the involvement of youth in sports. Our survey showed that child may be the person to encourage the parents to active leisure. Children encourage their parents to take part in events, are happy about their decision to do so and have positive impressions from the play. Our survey coincides with earlier research on sport and recreational events as a way of promoting physical activity in families . As in the earlier research, the largest influence on parents' decision to participate was the encouragement by both the child and teachers. In both surveys the parents declared that the factor most important to them has been the child's participation, the child's enjoyment, playing together with their child. These data indicated the possibility of bidirectional influence between parents and children . The process of reciprocal socialisation consists of parents learning from their children there is a vertical transmission of information pertaining to health from the child to the parents. This phenomenon is poorly understood and has not been the concern of enough studies [,, 3, 7]. Another significant fact is the buying of sport equipment. Over 5% of the parents declared having done so. During the survey on children's participation in recreational events at preschool with giving homework the parents have declared buying sport equipment as well . It is important to note that, while preschool Olympics only happens once a year, the parents declare having photographic documentation and conversations on the subject during family meetings. It was also an occasion to speak with the children, which is an important factor for unifying the family. Activisation of parents through their children was also noticed by Birontiene , who has shown in her survey of parents in Klaipëda that children participating in a special physical activity program succeed in talking parents into performing homework referring to physical activity. Similarly, the research by Staniszewski , showed younger primary school children to be the instigators of physical activity in their homes. The introduction of physical education textbook Bakcylek sportowy into the early primary education has increased parents' and children's interest in shared exercise and play. Over 4% of the surveyed children exercised with the Bakcylek every day, 9.8% did so two-three times a week, 3% once a week. Also important to the subject of this survey seemed to be the fact that over 77% of the children were encouraging their parents to shared play after the event, and that 70% of the parents declared their use of games learned at the Olympics during leisure shared with the child. The parents declared further development of their children's physical activity in organised recreation. It would be advisable to cultivate this potential, born of children's natural willingness to undertake physical activity, especially in preschoolers and younger primary students. The problem is important, because, as was shown by Sas- Nowosielski  the surveyed youth does not perceive parents as physically active, the parents do not undertake physical activity along with their children and do not focus family activities upon it. Education of families may yet stop this disadvantageous process. Cooperation of parents with teachers is also worth taking into consideration Conclusions. The parents' participation in recreational event turned out to be stimulated not only by teachers but also by children. The research shown that children encouraged their parents to shared play after the event, while parents utilised games learned at the fair during shared leisure.. Parents impressions of the fair focused on the child's, as well as the family's, participation in the games. According to parents, most of the children have mentioned games and shared play with parents, parents' participation in the events, organisers' costumes. Also mentioned were conversations with children post the Olympics and the photographic or film documentation. It is an important factor in unifying the family. 3. The model proposed for family recreational event has proven to arouse interest in participants and worth further promotion in pedagogical practise. Literature Staniszewski T. (007). Assumptions and actual function of school in preparation of younger school children to physical recreation in the family. Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish] Iannotti R.J. (005). Prospective analyses of relationships between mothers and children's physical activity. Journal of Physical Activity and Health (), -34. Birontiene Z. (0). A child as a physical activity stimulator in a family. Sporto Mokslas (68), Piech K., Nowak K., Birontiene Z., Biteniece I.B. (03). Physical exercises for pre-school children with homework and parents mobilization around these tasks. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 0(3), 7-6. DOI: 0.478/pjst Brustad R.J. (00). The role of family in promoting physical activity. Research Digest Series 0(3), -8. O'Connor T.M., Jago R., Baranowski T. (009). Engaging parents to increase youth physical activity. American Journal of
16 56 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, 5-6 Piech and Grad: ROLE OF PRESCHOOLERS IN MOTIVATION... Preventive Medicine 37(), Mogi³a-Lisowska J. (00). Recreational physical activity in young Poles preconditions and lifestyle. Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish] 8. Sadowska M. (99). The importance on spontaneous forms of physical activity in children and adolescents and of early initiation in their educating for physical culture. In R. Przewêda (Ed.), Physical education in Poland (pp. 43-5). Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish] 9. Sallis J.F., Pate R.P. (00). Determinants of youth physical activity. Fitnessgram reference guide. Dallas: The Cooper Institute. 0. Piech K., Micha³owska A. (0). Influence of parents' physical activity on the level of physical activity of family members on example of the Grand Prix Round of South-East Poland Running Competitions. LASE Journal of Sport Science 3(), Lenartowicz M. (998). Sport in the family in Eastern Europe and in Western Europe. In Z. Krawczyk, J. Kosiewicz, K. Pi³at (Eds), Sport in the process of European integration: the international symposium (pp. 4-47). Warszawa: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish]. Kaiser A., Stelmaszewska M. (0). Parental roles in developing the interest in physical activity in preschoolers. Studia Periegetyka, Zeszyty Naukowe WWSTiZ w Poznaniu 8, Kaik-WoŸniacka A., F¹k T. (00). Physical recreation in Wroc³awian families with young primary school children. In A. Kaiser, M. Soko³owski (Eds), Social and natural environment and human physical activity (pp. 3-40). Poznañ: WWSTiZ in Poznañ. [in Polish] 4. Bauer K.W., Nelson M.C., Boutelle K.N., Neumark-Setainer D. (008). Parental influences on adolescents physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Longitudal findings from Project EAT-II. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 5(), Heitzler C.D., Martin S.L., Duke J., Huhman M. (006). Correlation of physical activity in a national sample of children aged 9-3 years. Preventive Medicine 4(4), Domingues M., Goncalves C.E. (03). The role of parents in talented youth sport. Does context matter? Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 0(), 7-. DOI: 0.478/pjst Piech K. (004). Promoting of physical activity in families. Bia³a Podlaska: ZWWF Bia³a Podlaska. [in Polish] 8. Sas-Nowosielski K. (009). The determinants of leisure physical activity in adolescents and their implications for the process of education for participating in physical culture. Katowice: AWF Katowice. [in Polish] Submitted: June 9, 04 Accepted: September, 04
17 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, ROLA DZIECI W WIEKU PRZEDSZKOLNYM W AKTYWIZACJI RUCHOWEJ RODZINY KRZYSZTOF PIECH, RAFA GRAD Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego J. Pi³sudskiego w Warszawie, Wydzia³ Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu w Bia³ej Podlaskiej, Zak³ad Rekreacji Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu im. J. Œniadeckiego w Gdañsku, Wydzia³ Wychowania Fizycznego Adres do korespondencji: Krzysztof Piech, Wydzia³ Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu, Zak³ad Rekreacji, ul. Akademicka, -500 Bia³a Podlaska, tel.: , fax: , Streszczenie Wprowadzenie. Strategie dotycz¹ce promocji aktywnoœci ruchowej oparte o rodzinê nie s¹ wykorzystywane w dostateczny sposób. W ostatnich latach widaæ zmniejszenie siê liczby badañ dotycz¹cych roli rodziny w promowaniu aktywnoœci ruchowej. Jeœli takie badania s¹ prowadzone dotycz¹ one g³ównie wp³ywu aktywnoœci ruchowej rodziców na aktywnoœæ ruchow¹ ich dzieci. Istnieje potrzeba badania zjawiska dotycz¹cego wp³ywu dziecka na aktywnoœæ ruchow¹ swoich rodziców. Materia³ i metody. W badaniach wykorzystano metodê sonda u diagnostycznego z zastosowaniem techniki kwestionariusza ankiety. Objêto nimi 00 rodziców zaproszonych wraz z dzieæmi na festyn rekreacyjny. Wyniki. W badaniach wykazano, e dziecko mo e byæ osob¹ zachêcaj¹c¹ rodziców do aktywnego spêdzania czasu wolnego. Przejawia siê to w zachêcaniu rodziców przez dziecko do uczestnictwa, zadowoleniu z podjêcia decyzji o udziale w imprezie oraz z iloœci pozytywnych wra eñ doznawanych podczas zabawy. Rodzice uznali, e najwiêkszy wp³yw na udzia³ w imprezie mia³a zachêta ze strony nauczyciela oraz dziecka. Wnioski. Badania wykaza³y, e dzieci zachêca³y rodziców po imprezie do wspólnej zabawy, a rodzice wykorzystywali zabawy z festynu w spêdzaniu czasu wolnego przez rodzinê. Zaproponowany model imprezy rekreacyjnej dla rodzin okaza³ siê propozycj¹, która zainteresowa³a uczestników, warto wiêc j¹ promowaæ szerzej w praktyce pedagogicznej. S³owa kluczowe: aktywnoœæ fizyczna, dziecko, rodzina Wstêp W ostatnich latach coraz czêœciej mówi siê o niechêci do ruchu m³odych pokoleñ. Wzrasta w naszym kraju liczba dzieci na ró nych poziomach edukacji nie uczestnicz¹cych w lekcjach wychowania fizycznego. Zaczyna zauwa aæ siê jednoczeœnie wzrost zainteresowania aktywnoœci¹ ruchow¹ ludzi w wieku œrednim i starszym. Widoczne jest to w coraz wiêkszym uczestnictwie osób powy ej 40 lat w ró nego rodzaju imprezach sportowo-rekreacyjnych. Jest to wiêc zjawisko odwrotne do tego jakie mia³o miejsce w latach XX wieku. Widoczna by³a wtedy du a aktywnoœæ ruchowa m³odego pokolenia (szczególnie szko- ³a podstawowa), a lekcja wychowania fizycznego by³a najbardziej lubian¹ lekcj¹ w szkole. Aktywnoœæ ruchowa rodziców ogranicza³a siê do sporadycznych prac na dzia³ce czy spacerów. Mo emy siê zastanawiaæ gdzie zgubiono prawid³owe zasady wychowania do aktywnoœci ruchowej m³odego pokolenia. Zmiana zachowañ dotycz¹cych aktywnoœci ruchowej wspó³czesnej m³odzie y powinna byæ wyzwaniem zarówno dla pedagogów jak i rodziców. W dotychczasowej literaturze dotycz¹cej problematyki aktywnoœci ruchowej w rodzinie mo emy znaleÿæ publikacje dotycz¹ce wp³ywu aktywnoœci ruchowej rodziców na aktywnoœæ ich dzieci jak równie nieliczne prace pokazuj¹ce wp³yw aktywnoœci ruchowej dzieci na aktywnoœæ rodziców [,, 3, 4, 5]. Jak twierdzi Brustad  promocja aktywnoœci ruchowej przez rodzinê nie jest w pe³ni wykorzystywana chocia rodzina ma bardzo du y potencja³. O'Connor i wsp.  zwracaj¹ jednak uwagê na zmniejszenie liczby systematycznych badañ nad wp³ywem rodziny jako promotora aktywnoœci ruchowej. Pomimo, e badania s¹ ograniczone mo na zauwa yæ, e strategie oparte na rodzinie przynosz¹ pozytywnie oczekiwane skutki. G³ównym celem badañ by³o poznanie roli dziecka w wieku przedszkolnym w aktywizacji ruchowej rodziny. Materia³ i metody Badania w których wziê³o udzia³ 00 rodziców uczestnicz¹cych ze swoimi dzieæmi w XXI Olimpiadzie Przedszkolaków w Bia³ej Podlaskiej przeprowadzono w 03 roku. W badaniach wykorzystano metodê sonda u diagnostycznego z zastosowaniem techniki kwestionariusza ankiety (dziecko animatorem aktywnoœci ruchowej w rodzinie). Rodziców poproszono o wype³nienie ankiety w domu i odniesienie ich do wychowawczyñ w przedszkolu. Postanowiono sprawdziæ czy udzia³ rodziców w imprezie rekreacyjnej jest motywowany przez dziecko. W tym celu zaproszono rodziców z dzieæmi na festyn rekreacyjny (Rodzinna Olimpiada Przedszkolaków) przygotowany przez studentów Wydzia³u Wychowania Fizycznego i Sportu w Bia³ej Podlaskiej, który zawiera³ oko³o 00 konkurencji tak przygotowanych aby ca³a rodzina mog³a bawiæ siê razem. Przy uk³adaniu konkurencji wy³¹czono rywalizacjê uznaj¹c j¹ za niewskazan¹ dla grupy dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym. Rodzice, którzy wype³niali ankietê w 75% posiadaj¹ wy sze wykszta³cenie. Nale y podkreœliæ, e to g³ównie matki wype³nia- ³y ankietê (7%). Ankietowani podali, e w imprezie brali udzia³ Copyright 04 by Józef Pi³sudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport in Bia³a Podlaska
18 58 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, 5-6 Piech and Grad: ROLA DZIECI W WIEKU PRZEDSZKOLNYM... równie wspó³ma³ onkowie (77%), ale tak e babcie, dziadkowie i rodzeñstwo. Œwiadczy to o rodzinnym charakterze imprezy. Czynny udzia³ w konkurencjach zadeklarowa³o 67% rodziców, pozostali uczestniczyli jako osoby asystuj¹ce swoim dzieciom. Rodzice wskazali, e anga owali siê w zabawê wspólnie ze swoim dzieckiem. Nale y jednak podkreœliæ, i nie by³a to systematyczna dzia³alnoœæ. Najczêœciej by³y to zabawy i gry w pi³kê, jazda na rowerze i spacery. Niepokoj¹ce jest to, e a 5% rodziców nie podejmuje aktywnoœci ze swoimi dzieæmi uwa aj¹c, e przedszkole i inne organizacje w zupe³noœci tê aktywnoœæ zaspokajaj¹ (ryc. ). Wyniki W tabeli przedstawione zosta³y formy aktywnoœci ruchowej podejmowane przez rodziców, dzieci oraz innych cz³onków rodziny. Przedstawione aktywnoœci s¹ powszechnie znane i najczêœciej wymieniane w innych badaniach . 00,0% 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% tak nie Tabela. Formy aktywnoœci ruchowej podejmowane przez poszczególnych cz³onków rodziny Rodzaj aktywnoœci Rodzice Dziecko Dziadkowie Suma Jazda na rowerze P³ywanie Spacery Jogging Nordic walking Fitness (Pilates, Zumba, itp.) Si³ownia Inne, jakie? Interesuj¹ce dla badañ wydawa³o siê tak e okreœlenie czêstotliwoœci z jak¹ rodzice podejmuj¹ aktywnoœæ ruchow¹. Stwierdzono, e badana grupa nie nale y do aktywnych ruchowo. Zaledwie 8% rodziców podejmuje aktywnoœæ ruchow¹ 3 razy w tygodniu, 0% raz w tygodniu, pozostali zadeklarowali, e w ich yciu jest to aktywnoœæ sporadyczna. Wydaje siê to niepokoj¹ce zwa ywszy, e s¹ to ludzie m³odzi posiadaj¹cy ma³e dzieci. Z jednej strony nie s¹ oni odpowiednim przyk³adem dla swoich dzieci, a z drugiej strony zaniedbuj¹ swoje zdrowie. Badanych zapytano kto mia³ wp³yw na ich obecn¹ aktywnoœæ ruchow¹. Jak widaæ na rycinie to grupa rówieœnicza by³a najbardziej znacz¹ca. Nale y wzi¹æ jednak pod uwagê, e badana grupa nie nale y do mocno zainteresowanej tak¹ form¹ spêdzania czasu wolnego. 0,0% 0,0% Rycina. Aktywnoœæ ruchowa rodziców z dzieæmi przed uczestnictwem w olimpiadzie przedszkolaków Interesuj¹ce dla naszych badañ s¹ uzyskane od rodziców informacje na temat podjêcia decyzji o udziale w olimpiadzie (ryc. 3). Zgodnie z przewidywaniami organizatorów najwiêkszy wp³yw mia³a informacja od nauczyciela w przedszkolu, ale równie dzieci informowa³y o tym wydarzeniu swoich rodziców. To dyrekcja przedszkola i wychowawcy na zebraniach z rodzicami zapraszaj¹ i przedstawiaj¹ szczegó³y dotycz¹ce udzia³u w imprezie. 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% 0,0% zachêta dziecka informacja od nauczyciela/ z przedszkola zachêta znajomych inne 35,0% 30,0% 5,0% 0,0% rodzice koledzy, znajomi nauczyciele wych. fiz. inni nauczyciele œrodki masowego przekazu inni... 0,0% Rycina 3. Decyzja o podjêciu udzia³u w olimpiadzie Rodzice podkreœlili, e dziecko wyrazi³o du e zadowolenie po decyzji udzia³u rodziny w tej imprezie (ryc. 4), natomiast nie zaobserwowano negatywnych reakcji ani jednego dziecka. 5,0% 0,0% 5,0% 0,0% Rycina. Kto mia³ wp³yw na obecne uczestnictwo w aktywnoœci ruchowej badanej grupy 00,0% 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% ucieszy³o siê / zadowolone brak reakcji / bez entuzjazmu 0,0% 0,0% Rycina 4. Reakcja dziecka na decyzjê o udziale w olimpiadzie
19 Piech and Grad: ROLA DZIECI W WIEKU PRZEDSZKOLNYM... Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, Rodzice podkreœlili, e udzia³ w imprezie wspominaj¹ bardzo pozytywnie. Jest to istotne zarówno dla organizatorów, gdy pokazuje, e dobór konkurencji, oprawa imprezy spe³ni³y oczekiwania uczestników. Jest to tak e istotne poniewa dobre wspomnienie mo e powodowaæ chêæ udzia³u w podobnych imprezach oraz zachêcaæ do aktywnoœci ruchowej. Niepokoj¹ce jest to, e 7% rodziców wskaza³o, e by³ to obowi¹zek wobec dziecka (ryc. 5). Podobna grupa przyzna³a, e nie podejmuje adnej aktywnoœci ruchowej ze swoim dzieckiem (ryc. ). 8% 4% wielk¹ przyjemnoœæ obowi¹zek wobec dziecka inne Rodzice wypowiedzieli siê równie o wra eniach dzieci. Podobnie jak rodzicom dzieciom podoba³y siê konkurencje, wspólne zabawy z rodzicami, udzia³ w zabawach rodziców, w³asny udzia³, ale tak e przebrania organizatorów. Wypowiedzi rodziców dotycz¹ce wra eñ dzieci œwiadcz¹, e impreza ta pozostawi³a pewne pozytywne wspomnienia, które by³y powodem do dyskusji w gronie rodzinnym. Aby lepiej rozpoznaæ ten problem zapytano równie rodziców o to co najmilej wspominaj¹ z imprezy. Tu odpowiedzi by³y podobne. Rodzice wskazali na zabawy dziecka z rodzicami, atmosferê, zabawy i gry (ryc. 7). 8% 4% % 6% % 0% otwarcie imprezy udzia³ rodziców w konkurencjach w³asny udzia³ zabawy i konkurencje przebrania organizatorów i sêdziów zabawy wspólne z rodzicami inne 9% 78% Rycina 5. Wspomnienie rodziny udzia³u w olimpiadzie Kolejne interesuj¹ce zagadnienie istotne z punktu widzenia organizatorów to wra enia z olimpiady. Rodzice wskazali tu na wspólny udzia³ rodziców z dzieæmi w konkurencjach, udzia³ dziecka oraz udzia³ w zabawach i konkurencjach. Te wybory s¹ wa ne poniewa œwiadcz¹ o potrzebie integracji rodziny poprzez zabawy i gry. Docenianie tych elementów przez rodziców œwiadczy o prawid³owym podejœciu do wychowania swoich dzieci (ryc. 6). 7% 9% % % 7% % otwarcie imprezy udzia³ rodziców w konkurencjach udzia³ dziecka udzia³ wspólny rodziców z dzieæmi zabawy i konkurencje przebrania organizatorów i sêdziów inne Rycina 7. Wra enia dziecka z udzia³u w olimpiadzie Rycina 8 dostarcza nam opinii dotycz¹cych wp³ywu olimpiady na przysz³¹ aktywnoœæ ruchow¹. Ponad 75% rodziców uzna³o, e impreza ta mo e mieæ wp³yw na przysz³¹ aktywnoœæ ruchow¹. Dla oko³o 4% nie by³a ona inspiracj¹ do wiêkszej wspólnej aktywnoœci ca³ej rodziny. Nale y wiêc szukaæ innych sposobów, które bêd¹ mog³y zmieniæ ten stan rzeczy. Potrzebna jest niew¹tpliwie wiêksza pedagogizacja rodziców w tym zakresie. 50,0% 40,0% 30,0% 0,0% 0,0% 0,0% zainspirowa³ w du ym stopniu zainspirowa³ w ma³ym stopniu nie zainspirowa³ Rycina 8. Opinie rodziców na temat wp³ywu udzia³u w olimpiadzie na przysz³¹ aktywnoœæ ruchow¹ % Rycina 6. Wra enia rodziców z uczestnictwa w olimpiadzie Kolejny problem wydaje siê bardzo interesuj¹cy (ryc. 9). Respondenci stwierdzili, e w ró nym stopniu zachêcili siê wszyscy cz³onkowie rodziny. Wydaje siê zastanawiaj¹ce, e najbardziej dzieci. Ruch dla dziecka w tym wieku jest czymœ naturalnym. Ograniczanie go jest wbrew zasadom pedagogiki i fizjologii. Pokazywanie tego faktu przez rodziców, e to dzieci zosta³y najbardziej zachêcone mo e œwiadczyæ o wczeœniejszych zaniedbaniach rodziców jeœli chodzi o aktywnoœæ ruchow¹ swoich dzieci. Mo e wskazywaæ równie na potrzeby w tym zakresie.
20 60 Pol. J. Sport Tourism 04,, 5-6 Piech and Grad: ROLA DZIECI W WIEKU PRZEDSZKOLNYM... 5% 9% matkê ojca dziecko rodzeñstwo Rodzice równie dziêki udzia³owi w olimpiadzie mieli mo - liwoœæ do dyskusji w gronie rodziny. Dla ponad 8% rodziców by³a to okazja do rozmów z dzieæmi (ryc. ). Nawi¹zywanie do pozytywnych prze yæ z ycia rodziny jest czynnikiem integruj¹cym i scalaj¹cym. 00,0% 40% 6% 80,0% 60,0% tak nie Rycina 9. Kogo z rodziny zainspirowa³ do aktywnoœci ruchowej Udzia³ w ró nych formach aktywnoœci ruchowej wymaga u ywania sprzêtu sportowo-rekreacyjnego, który nie musi byæ kosztowny. Jednym z zadañ olimpiady by³o przedstawienie zabaw i gier, które nie wymagaj¹ skomplikowanych przyborów, aby mo na by³o bez problemów wykonywaæ je w domu lub zakupiæ. Nale y podkreœliæ, e 5% uczestnicz¹cych rodzin zakupi³o po olimpiadzie nowe akcesoria sportowe. Najczêœciej by- ³y to pi³ki, rowery, skakanki (ryc. 0). 00,0% 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% 0,0% tak nie 40,0% 0,0% 0,0% Rycina. Poruszanie przez rodziców tematu olimpiady Ponad 77% rodziców poinformowa³o, e posiada dokumentacjê zdjêciow¹ z olimpiady. Wydaje siê to wa ne, poniewa zdjêcia takie najczêœciej ogl¹da siê w gronie rodziny i znajomych. To nie tylko promocja imprezy, ale tak e mo liwoœæ wspominania i prze ywania zabawy jeszcze raz. Przypuszczamy, e mo e mieæ to wp³yw na zachowania rodziny w czasie wolnym. Istotne jest równie to, e ponad 97% rodziców wyrazi³o chêæ udzia³u wspólnie z dzieckiem w podobnych imprezach w przysz³oœci. Najczêœciej pojawiaj¹c¹ siê odpowiedzi¹ by³o - razy w roku, ale byli tak e rodzice, którzy wskazywali na czêstsz¹ potrzebê nawet raz w miesi¹cu. Z punktu widzenia problematyki aktywnoœci ruchowej w rodzinie wa ne wydaje siê zagadnienie zachêcania rodziców przez dziecko do wspólnej zabawy. Rodzice wskazali, e 77,% dzieci zachêca³o ich do zabawy (ryc. 3). 0,0% Rycina 0. Olimpiada jako inspiracja do zakupu sprzêtu sportowo-rekreacyjnego Olimpiada zapisa³a siê w pamiêci dzieci i ich rodziców. Rodzice stwierdzili, e dzieci porusza³y temat festynu w domu po powrocie z przedszkola (ryc. ). 80,0% 60,0% 40,0% tak nie 0,0% 00,0% 80,0% 60,0% tak nie 0,0% Rycina 3. Zachêcanie rodziców przez dziecko po olimpiadzie do wspólnej zabawy 40,0% 0,0% 0,0% Rycina. Poruszanie przez dziecko tematu olimpiady Istotne wydaje siê równie to, e ponad 70% rodziców wykorzystuje zabawy z olimpiady bawi¹c siê ze swoim dzieckiem. Cel edukacyjny imprezy jest wiêc spe³niony. Rodzice równie zadeklarowali, e planuj¹ rozwijanie aktywnoœci ruchowej swojego dziecka w przysz³oœci w dodatkowych zajêciach rekreacyjnych.