STUDIES ON RELICT BOUNDARIES AND BORDER LANDSCAPE IN POLAND. Marek SOBCZYNSKI Department of Political Geography University of Lódz, Poland

Wielkość: px
Rozpocząć pokaz od strony:

Download "STUDIES ON RELICT BOUNDARIES AND BORDER LANDSCAPE IN POLAND. Marek SOBCZYNSKI Department of Political Geography University of Lódz, Poland"

Transkrypt

1 STUDIES ON RELICT BOUNDARIES AND BORDER LANDSCAPE IN POLAND Marek SOBCZYNSKI Department of Political Geography University of Lódz, Poland It is a paradox that in the period when in united Europe state borders become of little or no importance, Polish political geography undertakes studies on historic borders. It should be, however, kept in mind that in Western Europe the issues of borders have been examined since the early 20 th century, whereas in Poland, apart from pioneering studies in the pre-war period, writings on this subject are very scarce (Sobczynski 1993a). This results from political restrictions in the communist period, when politico-geographical researches were practically banned. The above-mentioned studies from the pre-war period were inspired by American political geographer Richard Hartshorne (1933) and were concerned with Upper Silesia. This publication gave rise to widespread discussion in geographical literature, which led Hartshorne to precise more accurately the terminology pertaining to borders. In the paper presented at the congress of the Association of American Geographers in December 1935 he defined the relict boundary as an antecedent boundary which has been abandoned for political purposes but is still evident in the cultural landscape (Hartshorne 1936). Nowadays the term relict boundary is more broadly understood and may denote subsequent boundaries too. In the course of history Poland has experienced particularly frequent border shifts, which left visible marks on the country s cultural landscape. This widely known fact appears clearly, for instance, on the map of railway system in Poland: very dense network on the areas that after the partitions were occupied by Germany stands in sharp contrast with underdeveloped railway system in Russia-occupied sector. Unfortunately, political geography in Poland, like in other countries, exhibits little interest in investigations on durability and changeability of borders and their impact on cultural landscape. As J.R.V. Prescott, Australian political geographer, expressed it: geographers are aware of great impact that border can exert on cultural landscape. Nevertheless, very often examination of this impact is only a part of studies on border shifts and problems they induce (Prescott 1965). The influence of borders on cultural landscape is given somewhat more attention in studies carried out in the USA (Augelli 1980; Frazier 2000; 2001), Switzerland (Gallusser 1983; Leimgruber 1983) and Austria (Weigend 1950; Kaluski 1983).

2 2 Some singular studies devoted to relict boundaries in Poland have been undertaken as early as the 1960s. No extensive field researches, however, have been done until the mid-1980s. The first study on this subject was published at the University of Lodz the pioneer academic centre in the field of relict boundary studies. Its author, Ludwik Straszewicz, analysed the historical boundary (in the partition period and between the two world wars) along the Prosna River from the point of view of economic system of the former borderland and pendular migrations. The research was based on traditional methodology of socioeconomic geography dominated by descriptive method (Straszewicz 1964; 1965; Straszewicz, Kucharska 1972). An interesting research undertaking was carried out by history students from the University of Warsaw under scientific supervision of Jerzy Holzer (who later became one of most distinguished Polish historians). They examined the relict boundary in the urban structure and consciousness of population of Golub-Dobrzyn a dual town, once divided by the border between Russian and Prussian sector of occupied Poland. This pioneering attempt, although fragmentary and hardly profound, represented a certain turning point, as it showed that taking advantage of weakness of the communist regime (it was the period of the Solidarity movement formation) such investigations were possible at all. Publication of the results of the above -mentioned researches encouraged geographers from the University of Lodz to embark on deeper and more comprehensive studies on relict boundaries (without realizing the consequences of probing this issue without the permission of the communist authorities). Fortunately, the final report was published after Poland regained democracy, whereas preliminary reports were only presented in the form of conference contributions, thus avoiding censoring. Communist authorities forbade any investigations, which could demonstrate failure of the country s unification process. Despite consistent efforts to erase relict boundaries, their traces endured in the space and consciousness of the inhabitants, thus belying the official propaganda that heralded that the post-war boundaries were unanimously accepted by the society. It was at the faculty of geography of the University of Lodz that the first department specializing in researches and teaching in the field of political geography was established by Professor Marek Koter. Studies on relict boundaries were conducted in the mid-1980s by Marek Sobczynski (1984; 1986; 1988). Due to political restrictions and scientist (statisticmathematic) methodology that dominated in Polish geography at that time, those pioneering investigations had very little to do with humanist approach. Researches were concentrated on identification, inventorying (Sobczynski 1984) and characteristics of relict boundaries, basing

3 3 mainly on analysis of land use forms and physiognomy of built-up areas on former borderlands (Sobczynski 1993b). Moreover, a study of durability of relict boundaries in inhabitants consciousness has been conducted, although for the above-mentioned reasons its results could not have been published and remained in the form of the manuscript o f doctoral dissertation (Sobczynski 1988). In the course of the above-mentioned studies made by Polish political geographers some terms related to relict boundaries have been defined: Administrative landscape particular administrative system along with its spatial manifestations such as territorial divisions of different kinds (governmental and municipal administrative units and special divisions employed by th e army, churches, etc.) (Sobczyn ski 1994a; 2000). Stability of boundary permanence of a section of border during a relatively long period of time, resulting in cultural, economic and often ethnic diversification of borderland. The term durability of boundary (relict boundary) denotes continuous diversification of borderland despite abolition of political function of a border. Relict boundary manifests itself in space by direct border remains (border stones, border roads, clearings, customs houses, watch-towers, etc.) and indirect border remains that include various forms of differentiation of borderland e.g. different land use forms and architecture physiognomy. A mathematic index of border effect has been devised and employed in the investigations. Ranging from 0 to 100 the index is computed according to the following formula: E = x x x x 2 where x 1 and x2 are relevant values of certain measurable characteristics for each side of the borderland divided by relict boundary (Sobczynski 1993b). M. Sobczynski pursued researches on different administrative units (districts in macroscale investigations and villages in field investigations) adjoining former political borders within the entire territory of Poland. The analysis of land use diversification was based on statistic data for districts, taking into consideration 15 characteristics (e.g. arable lands, orchards, rivers, roads, railways, built-up areas, etc.). The analysis of physiognomy of built-up areas has been conducted using the field inventory in villages adjoining relict boundaries, with regard to dwellings, farm buildings,

4 4 form and situation of housing plots. The analysis included the total of 58 features characterizing the building physiognomy of borderlands. General conclusions emerging from Sobczynski s researches allowed to formulate some regularities concerning relict boundaries in Poland. It was found that the durability of relict boundary is correlated with stability of political border, but only with regard to land use forms. This regularity does not apply to the diversification of building physiognomy. This results from the fact that in Poland s cultural landscape, due to numerous war destructions, land use forms are much more persistent than architecture. Another regularity consists in correlation between diversification of building forms and the amount of time that had elapsed since the border ceased to perform political function: the longer the period, the smaller diversification. In the cultural landscape of Poland most marked are those relict boundaries that existed in the early industrialization period. Although the pace of this process was different in each sector of partition Poland, nevertheless its spatial effects are still visible. Relict boundaries persist as well in people s consciousness, in spite of the fact that in some areas the population has been totally replaced as a result of forcible displacements after the Second World War. After the fall of the communist system in Poland, since the early 1990s all restrictions on investigation of relict borders have been cancelled. In the faculty of geography at the University of Lodz several master s theses on this subject have been written. Adopting the same general research pattern as in the Sobczynski s studies, these works employed methodology developed in social sciences, mainly sociological methods used to examine the perception of relict boundaries in the consciousness of inhabitants of former borderlands (Supernat 1989; Antonowicz 1996, Kozlowski 2004). This series of investigations confirmed previous findings described by M. Sobczynski, but also proved remarkable durability of relict boundaries in the mentality borderland population. It was also found that interstate borders exerted much greater influence on cultural landscape than inner borders e.g. between Poland proper and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Kaczynski 1997, Barwinski 2002, 2004) and the Duchy of Siewierz or between areas incorporated to the Third Reich and General Government s territory (Orlowski 2002). Many studies conducted in Lodz academic centre analyzed relict boundaries at lower levels of administrative division (Sobczynski 1994a; b; 1997; 2000; Rochminska 1993; Machlak 1996; Pawlaczek 1997). Another research was devo ted to the border along the Prosna River one of most durable relict boundaries in Poland (Koter 1999). The same author introduced to the English literature Polish term kresy, which denotes a particular type of frontier featuring

5 5 some specific political, social and economic characteristics (Koter 1997, Koter, Kulesza 2001). Kresy is characterised by geographical distinctness, peripheral situation, difficult accessibility, isolation, scarce population and low urbanization, social and economic retardation, dependence on other regions, multiculturalism, particular sense of frontier ethos, special legal regulations and political instability. Later on the issue of kresy analysed Zbigniew Rykiel (1997; 2000) from Warsaw, who was involved in researches of durabi lity of relict borders in inhabitants consciousness of Silesia as well (Rykiel 1988). Notable achievements in the field of studies of relict boundaries and cultural landscape of border areas encouraged the scholars from the Department of Political Geography of the University of Lodz to organize international politico-geographical conferences focused on borderland issues. The first conference held in 1988 in Lódz and Wielun was entitled Boundaries and frontiers - social, political and economic problems. The second conference in 1990 in Bialowieza was focused on Minority problems within borderlands. The 1992 conference held in Ksieze Mlyny concentrated on Inner borders, region and regionalism. The 1994 conference in Wisla and Jablunkov (Czech Republic) discussed Borderlands and transborder regions - geographical, social and political problems. The conference held in Bogatynia and Görlitz (Germany) in 2000 dealt with Changing role of border areas and regional policies. The themes of the last two conferences were also related to borderlands: the 2002 conference in Krynica and Bardejov (Slovakia) debated Role of ethnic minorities in the border regions and the one organized in 2004 in Wigry and Vištitis (Lithuania) was about Role of the borderlands in the united Europe. The conference proceedings have been published in seven volumes of the periodical Region and Regionalism (Sobczynski 2006). Taking advantage of the collapse of the communist system, some other academic centres in Poland took interest in relict boundaries. In Wroclaw Brygida Moj (Solga) (1993) once again embarked on investigation of the Prosna River as a relict border. Using terminology introduced by Sobczynski, she rejected purely scientist approach, in favour of methods of social sciences. In the same university researches on relict borders were conducted also by Gerard Kosmala (1999; 2000; 2001; 2003; Kosmala, Spallek 2005) from the Department of Regional Geography and Tourism. Apart from methods employed by Sobczynski, he introduced innovative methodology e.g. biographical method for analysing durability of relict borders in people s mentality. Questionnaire surveys conducted on both sides of a relict boundary yielded very interesting results, allowing to confront different border perception among inhabitants of former borderlands. The analysis was based on typological method aiming at

6 6 selection of most durable elements of political boundary that persistently remain in the mentality. This method produces a complete picture of a boundary in the consciousness of inhabitants, taking into account mutual relations, causes and consequences. In University of Wroclaw, the researches on cultural borders of south-western Opole Silesia (Koronczak 1998) and civilisation frontier in Eastern Poland (Odelga 2002; Sakowska 2002) was conducted too. Most recently studies on relict boundaries have been u ndertaken in Cracow. Tomasz Padlo (2003) from the Department of Regional Development of the Jagiellonian University explored a section of relict boundary from the partition period north of Cracow, 20 years after an analogous investigation was conducted by M. Sobczynski. Padlo s work was largely focused on social issues, much more than previous investigations. It probed not only into people s consciousness but also analysed social behaviour as modified by the relict boundary. Padlo proved variations in voting behaviour of the inhabitants living on opposite sides of former borders, verified stability of former partition boundary as an administrative (not political) border and provided evidence that it still represents a real barrier that hampers social contact s (Padlo 2005). The relict boundary as field of research appears in Cracow university also in the issue of regional consciousness of the Polish parts of Orawa and Spisz regions (Moskal 1999) and Bieszczady Mountains as well (Janas 2005). Similar investigations of voting behaviour in the light of historical division of the country were made in the Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw (Kowalski 2000). In conclusion it can be stated that relict boundaries do not represent a long-established field of interest in Polish geography. Initiated incidentally in the late 1960s, studies on this subject developed only in the middle of the 1980s. At first Lodz was the only academic centre dealing with relict boundaries using definitely scientist methodology. M. Koter and M. Sobczynski, the leading scholars dealing with relict boundaries in the faculty of geography in Lodz, developed it into the most important research centre of political geography in Poland. Since the 1990s investigations of relict boundaries conducted in Lodz have increasingly employed sociological methods, which allowed to include into research programmes the question of people s consciousness. Political transformation after the fall of the communist system brought about increase in number of geographic institutions dealing with relict boundaries. Researches undertaken in Wroclaw and Cracow, although adopting the methodology used by scholars from Lodz, more broadly resorted to sociological methods, breaking with purely scientist approach. Most active researchers in the two centres are G. Kosmala (Wroclaw) and T. Padlo (Cracow). Although there are several centres of geographical studies in Poland, none of the remaining centres

7 7 embarked on investigations of relict boundaries, whereas politico-geographical researches in general are developed only in Warsaw, Gdansk, Poznan and Opole. References Antonowicz R. (1996), Wplyw dawnej granicy polsko-niemieckiej na zróznicowanie spoleczne i gospodarcze obszarów przygranicznych na przykladzie gmin Dobrodzien i Lubliniec, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Augelli J.P. (1980), Nationalization of Dominican borderlands, Geographical Review, 70, pp Barwinski M. (2002), Pogranicze w ujeciu geograficzno-socjologicznym. Zarys problematyki, Folia Geographica, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica, 4, pp Barwinski M. (2004), Podlasie jako pogranicze narodowosciowo-wyznaniowe, Wydawnictwo UL, Lódz. Burghardt A.F. (1963), Borderland. A historical and geographical study of Burgenland, Austria, Madison (Wisc.). Frazier T. (2000), Tracking the Traces of Division: A Survey of the Berlin Wall as a Relict Boundary on the Urban Landscape. Conference on Borders and Boundaries. 54th Annual Meeting of the California Geographical Society, San Diego, May 5-7. Frazier T. (2001), The Waning Berlin Wall: Topography of a Relict Boundary, 97th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, New York, Feb 27-March 3. Gallusser W. (1983), Granice a krajobraz kulturowy, Przeglad Zagranicznej Literatury Geograficznej, 4, pp Hartshorne R. (1933), Geographic and Political Boundaries in Upper Silesia, Annals of the Associations of American Geographers, vol. 23, pp Hartshorne R. (1936), Suggestion on the Terminology of Political Boundaries, Annals of the Associations of American Geographers, vol. 26, pp Holzer J. (ed.), 1980, Pozostalosc granicy rozbiorowej w swiadomosci i kulturze materialnej ludnosci gminy Golub-Dobrzyn, Warszawa. Janas K. (2005), Swiadomosc terytorialna mieszkanców Bieszczad, Department of Regional Development Jagiellonian University, Cracow, M.A. thesis, mimeo. Kaczynski D. (1997), Trwalosc historycznej granicy polsko-litewskiej w krajobrazie kulturowym i swiadomosci mieszkanców Podlasia, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Kaluski S. (1983), Granice polityczne jako przedmiot badan geograficznych, Przeglad Zagranicznej Literatury Geograficznej, 4, pp Koronczak R. (1998), Granica kulturowa w poludniowo-zachodniej czesci Slaska Opolskiego, Department of Regional Geography and Tourism University of Wroclaw, M.A. thesis, mimeo. Kosmala G. (1999), Stabilnosc granic politycznych w Europie Srodkowej i Wschodniej w XX.,Czasopismo Geograficzne. vol. LXX. Kosmala G. (2000), Wplyw granicy panstwowej na ksztaltowanie sie granicy regionalnej na przykladzie regionu sycowskiego [in:] Srodowisko przyrodnicze i gospodarka Dolnego Slaska u progu trzeciego tysiaclecia, Streszczenia referatów, komunikatów i posterów, 49. Zjazd PTG, Wroclaw, pp Kosmala G. (2001), Cultural Divisions of Syców Borderland [w:] Koter M., Heffner K. (ed.) Changing role of border areas and regional policies Region and regionalism, 5, University of Lódz, Silesian Institute in Opole, Silesian Institute Society, Lódz-Opole, pp Kosmala G.(2003), Granica reliktowa. Trwalosc bylej granicy polsko-niemieckiej miedzy Sulmierzycami a Rychtalem w krajobrazie i w swiadomosci, Dom Wydawniczy Duet, Torun. Kosmala G., Spallek W. (2005), Pomniki "niemieckie " a ludnosc niepolska w województwie opolskim (próba wyznaczenia granicy kulturowej), Czasopismo Geograficzne, 76(3), Wroclaw, pp

8 8 Koter M. (1997), Kresy panstwowe geneza i wlasciwosci w swietle doswiadczen geografii politycznej [in:] Handke K. (ed.), Kresy pojecie i rzeczywistosc, Warszawa, pp Koter M. (1999), Ksztaltowanie sie pogranicza oraz rola granicy w rozwoju obszaru nad górna Prosna [in:] Krzeminski T. (ed.), Nad górna Prosna. Monografia Praszki, pp Koter M., Kulesza M. (2001), Geographical and Historical Grounds of Formation of Borders of Former and Present-Day Poland [w:] Koter M., Heffner K. (ed.) Changing role of border areas and regional policies Region and regionalism, 5, University of Lódz, Silesian Institute in Opole, Silesian Institute Society, Lódz- Opole, pp Kowalski M. (2000), Geografia wyborcza Polski. Przestrzenne zróznicowanie zachowan wyborczych Polaków w latach , Geopolitical Studies, 7, Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization, Warsaw. Kozlowski P. (2004), Wplyw dawnej granicy zaboru pruskiego i rosyjskiego na krajobraz kulturowy i swiadomosc mieszkanców gmin: Zerków, Czermin, Pyzdry, Gizalki, Chocz, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Leimgruber W. (1983), Granice polityczne jako czynnik integracji regionalnej. Przyklad Bazylei i Ticino, Przeglad Zagranicznej Literatury Geograficznej, 4, pp Machlak A. (1996), Ksztaltowanie sie pogranicza mazowiecko-kujawskiego i jego trwalosc w swiadomosci regionalnej, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Moj B. (1993), Slady granicy panstwowej we wspólczesnym krajobrazie kulturowym rejonu Górnej Prosny, Wroclaw, MA thesis, mimeo. Moskal M. (1999), Swiadomosc regionalna spolecznosci polskiego Spisza i Orawy, Department of Regional Development Jagiellonian University, Cracow, M.A. thesis, mimeo. Odelga M. (2002), Zróznicowanie etniczne i religijne wschodniego pogranicza Polski, Department of Regional Geography and Tourism University of Wroclaw, M.A. thesis, mimeo. Orlowski K. (2002), Historyczne pogranicze slasko-malopolskie w krajobrazie kulturowym i swiadomosci mieszkanców, MA thesis, mimeo. Padlo T. (2003), Wplyw granicy rozbiorowej na zróznicowanie zachowan i swiadomosci mieszkanców pólnocnej czesci województwa malopolskiego, Department of Regional Development Jagiellonian University, Cracow. M.A. thesis, mimeo. Padlo T. (2005), The Impact of Historical Border on Social Behaviour and Perception in the Forer Russian- Austrian Borderland [in:] Koter M. Heffner K. (eds.), The Role ob Borderlands in United Europe. Historical, Ethnic and Geopolitical Problems of Borderlands, Region and Regionalism, 7, vol. 2, pp Pawlaczek R. (1997), Podzialy terytorialne i proces ksztaltowania sie granic Wielkopolski (X-XX wiek), Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Prescott J.R.V. (1965), The geography of frontiers and boundaries, Chicago. Rochminska A. (1993), Przemiany spoleczno-gospodarcze pogranicza leczycko-mazowieckiego w aspekcie rozwoju wielkich miast Warszawy i Lodzi, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Rykiel Z. (1988), Struktury i mechanizmy spoleczne w regionie katowickim [in:] Jalowiecki B. (ed.), Problemy rozwoju regionalnego i lokalnego, Wyd. Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego, Warszawa. Rykiel Z. (1997), Kresy Zachodnie w Polsce [in:] Handke K. (ed.), Kresy pojecie i rzeczywistosc, Warsaw. Rykiel Z. (2000), Kresy, ich ewolucja i kontekst geopolityczny, Kwartalnik Geograficzny, 4 (12), Sakowska I. (2002), Ksztaltowanie sie granicy miedzy chrzescijanstwem wschodnim i zachodnim w Europie, Department of Regional Geography and Tourism University of Wroclaw, M.A. thesis, mimeo. Sobczynski M. (1984), Niezmiennosc dawnych granic politycznych na obszarze Polski, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Geographica, 3, pp Sobczynski M. (1985), Trwalosc dawnych granic politycznych Polski we wspólczesnym krajobrazie kulturowym kraju (w swietle badan morfologicznych i uzytkowania ziemi), PhD thesis, Lodz University Library, mimeo, Lódz. Sobczynski M. (1986), Ksztaltowanie sie karpackich granic Polski (w X-XX w.), Zarzad Wojewódzki Polskiego Towarzystwa Turystyczno-Krajoznawczego, Regionalna Pracownia Krajoznawcza, Lódz.

9 9 Sobczynski M. (1988), Stability of the Old Political Boundaries in the Contemporary Cultural Landscape of the Country (In the Light of Morphology and Land Use), The First Lódz Conference in Political Geography on Boundaries and Frontiers, Wielun, mimeo. Sobczynski M. (1993a), O potrzebie badania granic na gruncie polskiej geografii politycznej [w:] Wspólczesna geografia polityczna. Contemporary Political Geography. Conference Papers, 17, Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, Warszawa, pp Sobczynski M. (1993b), Trwalosc dawnych granic panstwowych w krajobrazie kulturowym Polski Zeszyty Instytutu Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN, 15, Warszawa. Sobczynski M. (1994a) - Delimitacja województwa piotrkowskiego z punktu widzenia trwalosci struktur administracyjno-terytorialnych Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Geographica, 18, pp Sobczynski M. (1994b), The Influence of Past Political Divisions of The Territory of Poland Upon the Regional Structure of the Country [w:] M. Koter (ed.), Inner Divisions, Region and Regionalism, 1, University of Lódz, Silesian Institute in Opole, Lódz-Opole, pp Sobczynski M. (1996), Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii, czyli co dzieli polska przestrzen Geografia w Szkole, 3, pp Sobczynski M. (1997), Zasieg terytorialny regionu lódzkiego oraz lokalne preferencje podzialu administracyjnego nizszych szczebli na obszarze ziemi wielunskiej Folia Geographica, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica, 1, pp Sobczynski M. (1998), The Historical Transborder Region of Orawa [w:] M. Koter, K. Heffner (eds), Borderlands or Transborder Regions - Geographical, Social and Political Problems, Region and Regionalism, 3, Governmental Research Institute Silesian Institute in Opole, University of Lódz, Department of Political Geography and Regional Studies, Opole, Lódz, pp Sobczynski M. (2000), Historia powolania i przemiany administracyjne woj. lódzkiego [in:] Sobczynski M., Michalski W. (eds), Województwo lódzkie na tle przemian administracyjnych Polski. W osiemdziesiata rocznice utworzenia województwa, Polskie Towarzystwo Geograficzne Oddzial w Lodzi, Rzadowe Centrum Studiów Strategicznych Biuro Rozwoju Regionalnego w Lodzi, Lódz 2000, pp Sobczynski M. (2006), Geografia granic i pograniczy w badaniach lódzkiego osrodka geograficznego, Folia Geographica-Oeconomica, Acta Geographica Lodziensia 7, Lódz, pp Straszewicz L. (1964), Zespól osiedlenczy Gorzów Slaski - Praszka na tle problemu zagospodarowania bylego pogranicza, Materialy i Studia Opolskie, 10, Katowice, pp Straszewicz L. (1965), L Aménagement des zones anciennes frontières comme problème de géographie économique, Compte-Rendu du colloque géographique franco-polonais sur l aménagement du territoire (juin 1963), Mémoires et Documents, T. X, Fascicule 2, Centre se Recherches et Documentation Cartographiques et Géographiques, Paris, pp Straszewicz L., Kucharska M. (1972), Procesy integracyjne Slaska Opolskiego w strefie bylego pogranicza nad górna Prosna, Materialy i Studia Opolskie, vol. 14, no. 25, s Supernat T. (1989), Trwalosc dawnej granicy politycznej polsko-niemieckiej w obecnym krajobrazie kulturowym i w swiadomosci ludnosci na przykladzie gmin: Lubnice, Byczyna Kluczborska, Perzów i Dziadowa Kloda, Lódz, MA thesis, mimeo. Weigend G.G. (1950), Effects of boundary changes in the South Tyrol, Geographical Review, 40, pp

Cracow University of Economics Poland. Overview. Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005

Cracow University of Economics Poland. Overview. Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 Cracow University of Economics Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 - Key Note Speech - Presented by: Dr. David Clowes The Growth Research Unit CE Europe

Bardziej szczegółowo

ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS.

ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS. ERASMUS + : Trail of extinct and active volcanoes, earthquakes through Europe. SURVEY TO STUDENTS. Strona 1 1. Please give one answer. I am: Students involved in project 69% 18 Student not involved in

Bardziej szczegółowo

Cracow University of Economics Poland

Cracow University of Economics Poland Cracow University of Economics Poland Sources of Real GDP per Capita Growth: Polish Regional-Macroeconomic Dimensions 2000-2005 - Keynote Speech - Presented by: Dr. David Clowes The Growth Research Unit,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camp Records, 1940 1945 RG 15.191M

Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camp Records, 1940 1945 RG 15.191M Auschwitz and Birkenau Concentration Camp Records, 1940 1945 RG 15.191M United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Archive 100 Raoul Wallenberg Place SW Washington, DC 20024 2126 Tel. (202) 479 9717 Email:

Bardziej szczegółowo

Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing and its consequences for society

Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing and its consequences for society Prof. Piotr Bledowski, Ph.D. Institute of Social Economy, Warsaw School of Economics local policy, social security, labour market Unit of Social Gerontology, Institute of Labour and Social Studies ageing

Bardziej szczegółowo

Akademia Morska w Szczecinie. Wydział Mechaniczny

Akademia Morska w Szczecinie. Wydział Mechaniczny Akademia Morska w Szczecinie Wydział Mechaniczny ROZPRAWA DOKTORSKA mgr inż. Marcin Kołodziejski Analiza metody obsługiwania zarządzanego niezawodnością pędników azymutalnych platformy pływającej Promotor:

Bardziej szczegółowo

Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI

Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI Domy inaczej pomyślane A different type of housing CEZARY SANKOWSKI O tym, dlaczego warto budować pasywnie, komu budownictwo pasywne się opłaca, a kto się go boi, z architektem, Cezarym Sankowskim, rozmawia

Bardziej szczegółowo

Ewa Pancer-Cybulska, tukasz Olipra, Leszek Cybulski, Agata Suröwka TRANSPORT LOTNICZY A REGIONALNE RYNKI PRACY W POLSCE THE IMPACT OF AIR TRANSPORT

Ewa Pancer-Cybulska, tukasz Olipra, Leszek Cybulski, Agata Suröwka TRANSPORT LOTNICZY A REGIONALNE RYNKI PRACY W POLSCE THE IMPACT OF AIR TRANSPORT Ewa Pancer-Cybulska, tukasz Olipra, Leszek Cybulski, Agata Suröwka TRANSPORT LOTNICZY A REGIONALNE RYNKI PRACY W POLSCE THE IMPACT OF AIR TRANSPORT ON REGIONAL LABOUR MARICETS IN POLAND jt^l Wydawnictwo

Bardziej szczegółowo

Metropolization : Local Development and Government in Poland

Metropolization : Local Development and Government in Poland Metropolization : Local Development and Government in Poland Lydia COUDROY DE LILLE Université Lumière-Lyon 2 & Centre Géophile - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lettres et Sciences Humaines de Lyon OCDE-

Bardziej szczegółowo

UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ

UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ UMOWY WYPOŻYCZENIA KOMENTARZ Zaproponowany dla krajów Unii Europejskiej oraz dla wszystkich zainteresowanych stron wzór Umowy wypożyczenia między muzeami i instytucjami kultury opracowany został przez

Bardziej szczegółowo

Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme

Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme Pracownia Naukowo-Edukacyjna Evaluation of the main goal and specific objectives of the Human Capital Operational Programme and the contribution by ESF funds towards the results achieved within specific

Bardziej szczegółowo

Aglomeracje miejskie w Polsce na przełomie XX i XXI wieku

Aglomeracje miejskie w Polsce na przełomie XX i XXI wieku I NSTYTUT GEOGRAFII I GOSPODARKI PRZESTRZENNEJ W YŻSZEJ SZKOŁY GOSPODARKI W BYDGOSZCZY Aglomeracje miejskie w Polsce na przełomie XX i XXI wieku Problemy rozwoju, przekształceń strukturalnych i funkcjonowania

Bardziej szczegółowo

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl Back Twoje konto Wyloguj magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to students Tworzenie ankiety Udostępnianie Analiza (55) Wyniki

Bardziej szczegółowo

photo graphic Jan Witkowski Project for exhibition compositions typography colors : +48 506 780 943 : janwi@janwi.com

photo graphic Jan Witkowski Project for exhibition compositions typography colors : +48 506 780 943 : janwi@janwi.com Jan Witkowski : +48 506 780 943 : janwi@janwi.com Project for exhibition photo graphic compositions typography colors Berlin London Paris Barcelona Vienna Prague Krakow Zakopane Jan Witkowski ARTIST FROM

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Global Marketing. on the study program: Management

PROJECT. Syllabus for course Global Marketing. on the study program: Management Poznań, 2012, September 20th Doctor Anna Scheibe adiunct in the Department of Economic Sciences PROJECT Syllabus for course Global Marketing on the study program: Management I. General information 1. Name

Bardziej szczegółowo

LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES

LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES LEARNING AGREEMENT FOR STUDIES The Student First and last name(s) Nationality E-mail Academic year 2014/2015 Study period 1 st semester 2 nd semester Study cycle Bachelor Master Doctoral Subject area,

Bardziej szczegółowo

A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY

A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY A DIFFERENT APPROACH WHERE YOU NEED TO NAVIGATE IN THE CURRENT STREAMS AND MOVEMENTS WHICH ARE EMBEDDED IN THE CULTURE AND THE SOCIETY ODMIENNE PODEJŚCIE JAK NAWIGOWAĆ W OBECNYCH NURTACH I RUCHACH, KTÓRE

Bardziej szczegółowo

Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia

Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia Katedra Rynku Transportowego Sustainable mobility: strategic challenge for Polish cities on the example of city of Gdynia dr Marcin Wołek Department of Transportation Market University of Gdansk Warsaw,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism

Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism Health Resorts Pearls of Eastern Europe Innovative Cluster Health and Tourism Projekt finansowany Fundusze Europejskie z budżetu państwa dla rozwoju oraz ze Polski środków Wschodniej Unii Europejskiej

Bardziej szczegółowo

KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE - GLIWICE SUBZONE

KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE - GLIWICE SUBZONE KATOWICE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE GLIWICE SUBZONE and its influence on local economy Definition: WHAT DOES THE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE MEAN? THE SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE IS THE SEPERATED AREA WITH ATTRACTIVE TAX

Bardziej szczegółowo

Space for your logo, a photograph etc. Action 3.3.1 (WBU) www.viaregiaplus.eu

Space for your logo, a photograph etc. Action 3.3.1 (WBU) www.viaregiaplus.eu Space for your logo, a photograph etc. Action 3.3.1 (WBU) THE ANALYSIS CONCERNING THE DESIGNATION OF THE ROUTE THAT INTEGRATES THE SOUTH OF THE LOWER SILESIA PROVINCE TOGETHER WITH NORTH - SOUTHLINKS Analiza

Bardziej szczegółowo

Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych

Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych Konsorcjum Śląskich Uczelni Publicznych Dlaczego powstało? - świat przeżywa dziś rewolucję w obszarze edukacji, - naszym celem jest promocja śląskiego jako regionu opartego na wiedzy, i najnowszych technologiach,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers

Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl. Twoje konto Wyloguj. BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers 1 z 7 2015-05-14 18:32 Ankiety Nowe funkcje! Pomoc magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl Back Twoje konto Wyloguj magda.szewczyk@slo-wroc.pl BIODIVERSITY OF RIVERS: Survey to teachers Tworzenie ankiety Udostępnianie

Bardziej szczegółowo

Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project can respond.

Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project can respond. Project CARETRAINING PROJECT EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE Projekt CARETRAINING KWESTIONARIUSZ EWALUACJI PROJEKTU Please fill in the questionnaire below. Each person who was involved in (parts of) the project

Bardziej szczegółowo

METODA OGÓLNEJ OCENY STANU ŚRODO- WISKA OBSZARÓW WIEJSKICH NA PODSTAWIE INFORMACJI Z BANKU DANYCH REGIONALNYCH GUS I OSZACOWAŃ PROGRAMU EMEP

METODA OGÓLNEJ OCENY STANU ŚRODO- WISKA OBSZARÓW WIEJSKICH NA PODSTAWIE INFORMACJI Z BANKU DANYCH REGIONALNYCH GUS I OSZACOWAŃ PROGRAMU EMEP Ekonomia i Środowisko 2 (49) 2014 Jan Cetner Kazimierz Dyguś Marta Ogonowska Jerzy Wojtatowicz METODA OGÓLNEJ OCENY STANU ŚRODO- WISKA OBSZARÓW WIEJSKICH NA PODSTAWIE INFORMACJI Z BANKU DANYCH REGIONALNYCH

Bardziej szczegółowo

Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level

Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level Effective Governance of Education at the Local Level Opening presentation at joint Polish Ministry OECD conference April 16, 2012, Warsaw Mirosław Sielatycki Ministry of National Education Doskonalenie

Bardziej szczegółowo

P R A C A D Y P L O M O W A

P R A C A D Y P L O M O W A POLITECHNIKA POZNAŃSKA Wydział Maszyn Roboczych i Transportu P R A C A D Y P L O M O W A Autor: inż. METODA Ε-CONSTRAINTS I PRZEGLĄDU FRONTU PARETO W ZASTOSOWANIU DO ROZWIĄZYWANIA PROBLEMU OPTYMALIZACJI

Bardziej szczegółowo

STUDIA MEDIOZNAWCZE MEDIA STUDIES. Vol. 4 (39) 2009. Nr 4 (39) 2009. Warsaw 2009. Instytut Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego

STUDIA MEDIOZNAWCZE MEDIA STUDIES. Vol. 4 (39) 2009. Nr 4 (39) 2009. Warsaw 2009. Instytut Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego The Institute of Journalism of Warsaw University Instytut Dziennikarstwa Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego MEDIA STUDIES STUDIA MEDIOZNAWCZE Vol. 4 (39) 2009 Nr 4 (39) 2009 Warsaw 2009 Warszawa 2009 SPIS TREŒCI

Bardziej szczegółowo

ZESZYTY NAUKOWE 3 (47) 2007

ZESZYTY NAUKOWE 3 (47) 2007 ZESZYTY NAUKOWE 3 (47) 2007 Warszawa 2007 SPIS TREŚCI I. ŚRODOWISKO, TURYSTYKA I REKREACJA Stefan Korycki ORGANY I INSTYTUCJE OCHRONY PRAWNEJ ŚRODOWISKA W POLSCE... 9 Zbigniew Krawczyk PODRÓŻE KRAJOWE

Bardziej szczegółowo

Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe

Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe Rural Non-Governmental Organisations Editor Maria Halamska Institute of Rural and Agricultural Development Polish Academy of Sciences Warsaw 2008 Wiejskie organizacje pozarządowe

Bardziej szczegółowo

An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic of Poland

An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic of Poland Państwowa Inspekcja Pracy Annotation Główny Inspektorat Pracy ul. Barska 28/30 02-315 Warszawa Rzeczypospolita Polska Polska An employer s statement on the posting of a worker to the territory of the Republic

Bardziej szczegółowo

Fig 5 Spectrograms of the original signal (top) extracted shaft-related GAD components (middle) and

Fig 5 Spectrograms of the original signal (top) extracted shaft-related GAD components (middle) and Fig 4 Measured vibration signal (top). Blue original signal. Red component related to periodic excitation of resonances and noise. Green component related. Rotational speed profile used for experiment

Bardziej szczegółowo

III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE 26 29.04.2015 POLAND European Ecotourism: facing global challenges

III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE 26 29.04.2015 POLAND European Ecotourism: facing global challenges www.european-ecotourism.pl registration: office@european-ecotourism.pl enquires: biuro@sie.org.pl tel. +48 725 994 964 Social Ecological Institute is pleased to invite to III EUROPEAN ECOTOURISM CONFERENCE

Bardziej szczegółowo

Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International

Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International Edycja 5. kwiecień 2015 5 th Edition APRIL 2015 Najbardziej pożądani pracodawcy 2014 w opinii specjalistów i menedżerów / Badanie Antal International The Most Desired Employers 2014 in the Opinion of Professionals

Bardziej szczegółowo

Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie

Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie Paradoksy i tajemnice rodzinnego wpływu na sferę zachowań ryzykownych dzieci i młodzieży. Krzysztof A. Wojcieszek WSNS Pedagogium w Warszawie Czy rodzice mogą uniknąć swego wpływu na własne dzieci? Nie,

Bardziej szczegółowo

6. FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW INSTYTUCJA: UNIWERSYTET OPOLSKI-INSTYTUT NAUK PEDAGOGICZNYCH

6. FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW INSTYTUCJA: UNIWERSYTET OPOLSKI-INSTYTUT NAUK PEDAGOGICZNYCH 6. FORMULARZ DLA OGŁOSZENIODAWCÓW INSTYTUCJA: UNIWERSYTET OPOLSKI-INSTYTUT NAUK PEDAGOGICZNYCH MIASTO: OPOLE STANOWISKO: ADIUNKT DYSCYPLINA NAUKOWA: PEDAGOGIKA, SPECJALNOŚĆ-PRACA SOCJALNA DATA OGŁOSZENIA:...20

Bardziej szczegółowo

PROGRAM STAŻU. Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o.

PROGRAM STAŻU. Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o. PROGRAM STAŻU Nazwa podmiotu oferującego staż / Company name IBM Global Services Delivery Centre Sp z o.o. Miejsce odbywania stażu / Legal address Muchoborska 8, 54-424 Wroclaw Stanowisko, obszar działania/

Bardziej szczegółowo

Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm

Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm Public Schools No. 1 in Chelm Project: The Whole World Is a One Big Chelm The realization of the programme "The Whole World is One Big Chelm" March 2006 We have completed yet another stage of our programme.

Bardziej szczegółowo

B IURO B ADAWCZE DS. J AKOŚCI

B IURO B ADAWCZE DS. J AKOŚCI ISO 9001 Q Ref. Certif. No. PL 2 IEC SYSTEM FOR MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF TEST CERTIFICATES FOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT (IECEE) CB SCHEME SYSTEME CEI D ACCEPTATION MUTUELLE DE CERTIFICATS D ESSAIS DES EQUIPEMENTS

Bardziej szczegółowo

Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates

Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates Call 2013 national eligibility criteria and funding rates POLAND a) National eligibility criteria Funding Organisation National Contact Point National Center for Research and Development (Narodowe Centrum

Bardziej szczegółowo

PORTS AS LOGISTICS CENTERS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS - CASE OF SASSNITZ

PORTS AS LOGISTICS CENTERS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE OFFSHORE WIND FARMS - CASE OF SASSNITZ Part-financed by EU South Baltic Programme w w w. p t m e w. p l PROSPECTS OF THE OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY DEVELOPMENT IN POLAND - OFFSHORE WIND INDUSTRY IN THE COASTAL CITIES AND PORT AREAS PORTS AS LOGISTICS

Bardziej szczegółowo

Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in. (MSE) programme in Telecommunications and Computer Science

Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in. (MSE) programme in Telecommunications and Computer Science Proposal of thesis topic for mgr in (MSE) programme 1 Topic: Monte Carlo Method used for a prognosis of a selected technological process 2 Supervisor: Dr in Małgorzata Langer 3 Auxiliary supervisor: 4

Bardziej szczegółowo

Extraclass. Football Men. Season 2009/10 - Autumn round

Extraclass. Football Men. Season 2009/10 - Autumn round Extraclass Football Men Season 2009/10 - Autumn round Invitation Dear All, On the date of 29th July starts the new season of Polish Extraclass. There will be live coverage form all the matches on Canal+

Bardziej szczegółowo

PLSH1 (JUN14PLSH101) General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2014. Reading and Writing TOTAL

PLSH1 (JUN14PLSH101) General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2014. Reading and Writing TOTAL Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Section Mark Polish Unit 1 Reading and Writing General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary

Bardziej szczegółowo

1 Nazwisko i imiona lub nazwa firmy będącej podmiotem uprawnionym /Surname and forenames or name of firm of applicant/

1 Nazwisko i imiona lub nazwa firmy będącej podmiotem uprawnionym /Surname and forenames or name of firm of applicant/ Naczelnik Drugiego Urzędu Skarbowego 02-013 Warszawa-Śródmieście ul. Lindleya 14 Czy jest to twój pierwszy wniosek? Jeśli nie, należy podać numer ewidencyjny /Is this your first application? If not, please

Bardziej szczegółowo

Employment. Number of employees employed on a contract of employment by gender in 2012. Company

Employment. Number of employees employed on a contract of employment by gender in 2012. Company Im not found /sites/eneacsr2012.mess-asp.com/themes/eneacsr2012/img/enea.jpg Employt Capital Group is one of the largest companies in the energy industry. Therefore it has an influence, as an employer,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Working Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Jobseeker s Allowance

Working Tax Credit Child Tax Credit Jobseeker s Allowance Benefits Depending on your residency status (EU citizen or not) there are various benefits available to help you with costs of living. A8 nationals need to have been working for a year and be registered

Bardziej szczegółowo

Filozofia z elementami logiki Klasyfikacja wnioskowań I część 2

Filozofia z elementami logiki Klasyfikacja wnioskowań I część 2 Filozofia z elementami logiki Klasyfikacja wnioskowań I część 2 Mariusz Urbański Instytut Psychologii UAM Mariusz.Urbanski@amu.edu.pl Plan: definicja pojęcia wnioskowania wypowiedzi inferencyjne i wypowiedzi

Bardziej szczegółowo

Jan Marek Matuszkiewicz Regionalizacja geobotaniczna Polski, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa, 2008.

Jan Marek Matuszkiewicz Regionalizacja geobotaniczna Polski, IGiPZ PAN, Warszawa, 2008. ZastrzeŜenia odnośnie korzystania z opracowania Niniejsze opracowanie chronione jest prawem autorskim, które przysługuje Janowi Markowi Matuszkiewiczowi. Kopiowanie i rozpowszechnianie opracowania w całości

Bardziej szczegółowo

Goodman Kraków Airport Logistics Centre. 62,350 sqm available. Units from 1,750 sqm for immediate lease. space for growth+

Goodman Kraków Airport Logistics Centre. 62,350 sqm available. Units from 1,750 sqm for immediate lease. space for growth+ Goodman Kraków Airport Logistics Centre 62,350 sqm available. Units from 1,750 sqm for immediate lease. space for growth Goodman Kraków Airport Logistics Centre ul. Komandosów 1, 32-085 Modlniczka Goodman

Bardziej szczegółowo

ZJAZDY, KONFERENCJE, SYMPOZJA, SEMINARIA MIĘDZYNARODOWE 2012 - European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Confederation of

ZJAZDY, KONFERENCJE, SYMPOZJA, SEMINARIA MIĘDZYNARODOWE 2012 - European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Confederation of ZJAZDY, KONFERENCJE, SYMPOZJA, SEMINARIA MIĘDZYNARODOWE 2012 - European Federation of Public Service Unions (EPSU), European Confederation of Independent Trade Unions (CESI) and EU Public Administration

Bardziej szczegółowo

I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE

I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE I INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE EU SECURITY AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT FLOOD-2010 ATENEUM UNIVERSITY IN GDANSK P FUNDATION PRO POMERANIA NOTICE NO. 1 I International Scientific Conference EU SECURITY

Bardziej szczegółowo

STOSUNKI UKRAIŃSKO-POLSKIE W LATACH 1917 1923

STOSUNKI UKRAIŃSKO-POLSKIE W LATACH 1917 1923 STOSUNKI UKRAIŃSKO-POLSKIE W LATACH 1917 1923 THE POZNAŃ SOCIETY FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE ARTS AND SCIENCES INSTITUTE OF EUROPEAN CULTURE, ADAM MICKIEWICZ UNIVERSITY IN POZNAŃ GNIEZNO EUROPEAN STUDIES

Bardziej szczegółowo

BULLETIN 2 II TRAINING CAMP POLISH OPEN MTBO CHAMPIONSHIPS 19-22.06.2014 MICHAŁOWO 23-29.06.2014 TRAINING CAMP WORLD MTB ORIENTEERING CHAMPIONSHIPS

BULLETIN 2 II TRAINING CAMP POLISH OPEN MTBO CHAMPIONSHIPS 19-22.06.2014 MICHAŁOWO 23-29.06.2014 TRAINING CAMP WORLD MTB ORIENTEERING CHAMPIONSHIPS BULLETIN 2 II TRAINING CAMP POLISH OPEN MTBO CHAMPIONSHIPS 19-22.06.2014 MICHAŁOWO 23-29.06.2014 TRAINING CAMP WORLD MTB ORIENTEERING CHAMPIONSHIPS MASTERS WORLD MTB ORIENTEERING CHAMPIONSHIPS MTB ORIENTEERING

Bardziej szczegółowo

SKRÓCONA WERSJA ANKIETY OCENIAJĄCEJ JAKOŚĆ ŻYCIA THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION QUALITY OF LIFE (WHOQOL) -BREF

SKRÓCONA WERSJA ANKIETY OCENIAJĄCEJ JAKOŚĆ ŻYCIA THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION QUALITY OF LIFE (WHOQOL) -BREF SKRÓCONA WERSJA ANKIETY OCENIAJĄCEJ JAKOŚĆ ŻYCIA THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION QUALITY OF LIFE (WHOQOL) -BREF The World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-BREF World Health Organization 2004

Bardziej szczegółowo

Perspektywy PDF. ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0

Perspektywy PDF. ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0 Perspektywy PDF ==>Download: Perspektywy PDF ebook By 0 Perspektywy PDF By 0 - Are you searching for Perspektywy pdf Books? Now, you will be happy that Perspektywy PDF is available at our online library

Bardziej szczegółowo

The Lights of Chartres Eustachy Kossakowski, 1983-1989

The Lights of Chartres Eustachy Kossakowski, 1983-1989 Eustachy Kossakowski, 1983-1989 dimensions: 40 x 29 cm technique: 12 color prints on Hahnemuhle Photo Rag 308 g/m² paper made from original Eustachy Kossakowski s negatives edition: 6 price: 12 000 PLN

Bardziej szczegółowo

THEORETICAL STUDIES ON CHEMICAL SHIFTS OF 3,6 DIIODO 9 ETHYL 9H CARBAZOLE

THEORETICAL STUDIES ON CHEMICAL SHIFTS OF 3,6 DIIODO 9 ETHYL 9H CARBAZOLE THEORETICAL STUDIES ON CHEMICAL SHIFTS OF 3,6 DIIODO 9 ETHYL 9H CARBAZOLE Teobald Kupkaa, Klaudia Radula-Janika, Krzysztof Ejsmonta, Zdzisław Daszkiewicza, Stephan P. A. Sauerb a Faculty of Chemistry,

Bardziej szczegółowo

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR THE LEASE LIMIT APPLICATION

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR THE LEASE LIMIT APPLICATION SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION FOR THE LEASE LIMIT APPLICATION 1. Applicant s data Company s name (address, phone) NIP (VAT) and REGON numbers Contact person 2. PPROPERTIES HELD Address Type of property Property

Bardziej szczegółowo

First year of studies - Sculpture... 2. Second year of studies- Sculpture... 3. Third year of studies- Sculpture... 4

First year of studies - Sculpture... 2. Second year of studies- Sculpture... 3. Third year of studies- Sculpture... 4 Academic year 2014/2015 Academy of Fine Arts in Gdańsk Faculty of Sculpture and Intermedia Long-cycle Master s degree studies (5 years) The Faculty of Sculpture is divided into two fields of study: Sculpture

Bardziej szczegółowo

TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH

TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH INŻYNIERIA W ROLNICTWIE. MONOGRAFIE 16 ENGINEERING IN AGRICULTURE. MONOGRAPHS 16 WIESŁAW GOLKA TRANSPORT W RODZINNYCH GOSPODARSTWACH ROLNYCH TRANSPORTATION IN RURAL FAMILY FARMS Falenty 2014 WYDAWNICTWO

Bardziej szczegółowo

STRESZCZENIE ROZPRAWY DOKTORSKIEJ. Efektywność przejść dla zwierząt w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego na przykładzie autostrady A2

STRESZCZENIE ROZPRAWY DOKTORSKIEJ. Efektywność przejść dla zwierząt w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego na przykładzie autostrady A2 STRESZCZENIE ROZPRAWY DOKTORSKIEJ Efektywność przejść dla zwierząt w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa ruchu drogowego na przykładzie autostrady A2 mgr Ewa Patalas Promotor: dr hab. inż. Adam Wysokowski, prof. UZ

Bardziej szczegółowo

Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713

Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713 Osoby 50+ na rynku pracy 2013-1-PL1-GRU06-38713 Piąte spotkanie grupy partnerskiej w Katowicach (Polska) 19-20 maj 2015 Program Uczenie się przez całe życie Grundtvig Tytył projektu: Osoby 50+ na rynku

Bardziej szczegółowo

HemoRec in Poland. Summary of bleeding episodes of haemophilia patients with inhibitor recorded in the years 2008 and 2009 04/2010

HemoRec in Poland. Summary of bleeding episodes of haemophilia patients with inhibitor recorded in the years 2008 and 2009 04/2010 HemoRec in Poland Summary of bleeding episodes of haemophilia patients with inhibitor recorded in the years 2008 and 2009 04/2010 Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses. Masaryk University. Brno Participating

Bardziej szczegółowo

Industrial Landscape Eustachy Kossakowski, 1950s and 60s

Industrial Landscape Eustachy Kossakowski, 1950s and 60s dimensions: 38.5 x 28.5 cm technique: 12 black and white silver gelatin fiber prints made from original Eustachy Kossakowski s negatives edition: 6 price: 12 000 PLN Each portfolio is numbered and signed

Bardziej szczegółowo

Clinical Trials. Anna Dziąg, MD, ąg,, Associate Director Site Start Up Quintiles

Clinical Trials. Anna Dziąg, MD, ąg,, Associate Director Site Start Up Quintiles Polandchallenges in Clinical Trials Anna Dziąg, MD, ąg,, Associate Director Site Start Up Quintiles Poland- legislation 1996-2003 Ustawa z dnia 5 grudnia 1996 r o zawodach lekarza i lekarza dentysty, z

Bardziej szczegółowo

Zarządzanie sieciami telekomunikacyjnymi

Zarządzanie sieciami telekomunikacyjnymi SNMP Protocol The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. It is part of the Transmission

Bardziej szczegółowo

No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need

No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need CSR STRATEGY KANCELARIA FINANSOWA TRITUM GROUP SP. Z O.O. No matter how much you have, it matters how much you need Kancelaria Finansowa Tritum Group Sp. z o.o. was established in 2007 we build trust among

Bardziej szczegółowo

Financial support for start-uppres. Where to get money? - Equity. - Credit. - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł)

Financial support for start-uppres. Where to get money? - Equity. - Credit. - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł) Financial support for start-uppres Where to get money? - Equity - Credit - Local Labor Office - Six times the national average wage (22000 zł) - only for unymployed people - the company must operate minimum

Bardziej szczegółowo

Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers

Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers Podsumowanie Raportu o Romach i Travellers 10-12 milionów Romów w Europie 6 milionów mieszkających w U E Irlandia Polska Republika Czeska Turcja Populacja społeczności romskiej w liczbach Irlandia Polska

Bardziej szczegółowo

ROLE OF SERVICES IN THE ECONOMIES OF SMALL TOWNS OF SILESIA REGION AND WIELKOPOLSKIE VOIVODEHIP

ROLE OF SERVICES IN THE ECONOMIES OF SMALL TOWNS OF SILESIA REGION AND WIELKOPOLSKIE VOIVODEHIP BULLETIN OF GEOGRAPHY Socio economic Series No. 14/2010 BARBARA KONECKA-SZYDŁOWSKA * ELŻBIETA ZUZAŃSKA-ŻYŚKO ** ROBERT SZMYTKIE *** * Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland; ** University Of Silesia, Poland;

Bardziej szczegółowo

ANKIETA ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA

ANKIETA ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA Przedszkole Nr 1 w Zabrzu ANKIETA ul. Reymonta 52 41-800 Zabrze tel./fax. 0048 32 271-27-34 p1zabrze@poczta.onet.pl http://jedyneczka.bnet.pl ŚWIAT BAJEK MOJEGO DZIECKA Drodzy Rodzice. W związku z realizacją

Bardziej szczegółowo

ROZPRAWY NR 128. Stanis³aw Mroziñski

ROZPRAWY NR 128. Stanis³aw Mroziñski UNIWERSYTET TECHNOLOGICZNO-PRZYRODNICZY IM. JANA I JÊDRZEJA ŒNIADECKICH W BYDGOSZCZY ROZPRAWY NR 128 Stanis³aw Mroziñski STABILIZACJA W ASNOŒCI CYKLICZNYCH METALI I JEJ WP YW NA TRWA OŒÆ ZMÊCZENIOW BYDGOSZCZ

Bardziej szczegółowo

POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY

POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY POLITYKA PRYWATNOŚCI / PRIVACY POLICY TeleTrade DJ International Consulting Ltd Sierpień 2013 2011-2014 TeleTrade-DJ International Consulting Ltd. 1 Polityka Prywatności Privacy Policy Niniejsza Polityka

Bardziej szczegółowo

Morskie Oko powstało w dawnym wyrobisku. Morskie Oko (The Eye of the Sea) was developed. Nad wodą. By the water

Morskie Oko powstało w dawnym wyrobisku. Morskie Oko (The Eye of the Sea) was developed. Nad wodą. By the water Nad wodą Morskie Oko powstało w dawnym wyrobisku kamieniołomu w okolicy dzisiejszej ul.fabrycznej. Zbiornik wodny ze względu na częściowo skaliste brzegi nazywano Morskim Okiem. W latach 30. XX wieku przy

Bardziej szczegółowo

BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation. operation good practices presentation

BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation. operation good practices presentation BSSSC Baltic Sea States Subregional Co-operation operation good practices presentation Polites association was founded in 2002 in Szczecin Stowarzyszenie POLITES w Szczecinie Starszy Brat Starsza Siostra

Bardziej szczegółowo

PRZEWODNIK PO PRZEDMIOCIE. Negotiation techniques. Management. Stationary. II degree

PRZEWODNIK PO PRZEDMIOCIE. Negotiation techniques. Management. Stationary. II degree Politechnika Częstochowska, Wydział Zarządzania PRZEWODNIK PO PRZEDMIOCIE Nazwa przedmiotu Kierunek Forma studiów Poziom kwalifikacji Rok Semestr Jednostka prowadząca Osoba sporządzająca Profil Rodzaj

Bardziej szczegółowo

Politechnika Krakowska im. Tadeusza Kościuszki. Karta przedmiotu. obowiązuje studentów rozpoczynających studia w roku akademickim 2014/2015

Politechnika Krakowska im. Tadeusza Kościuszki. Karta przedmiotu. obowiązuje studentów rozpoczynających studia w roku akademickim 2014/2015 Politechnika Krakowska im. Tadeusza Kościuszki Karta przedmiotu Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska obowiązuje studentów rozpoczynających studia w roku akademickim 014/015 Kierunek studiów: Inżynieria Środowiska

Bardziej szczegółowo

Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego

Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego Test sprawdzający znajomość języka angielskiego Imię i Nazwisko Kandydata/Kandydatki Proszę wstawić X w pole zgodnie z prawdą: Brak znajomości języka angielskiego Znam j. angielski (Proszę wypełnić poniższy

Bardziej szczegółowo

Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca

Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca Customer engagement, czyli klient, który wraca Impact Economics Relations Transformation Warszawa, 4 listopada 2015 Kolejność ma znaczenie Put your staff first, customers second, and shareholders third

Bardziej szczegółowo

Galeria Handlowa Starogard Gdański

Galeria Handlowa Starogard Gdański Galeria Handlowa Starogard Gdański Parkridge Retail Miasto Starogard Gdański leży w południowo-wschodniej części województwa pomorskiego, w pobliżu Borów Tucholskich, nad rzeką Wierzycą na Pojezierzu Starogardzkim.

Bardziej szczegółowo

Awareness campaign Safe rail-road level crossing "Stop and Live!"

Awareness campaign Safe rail-road level crossing Stop and Live! Awareness campaign Safe rail-road level crossing "Stop and Live!" www.plk-sa.pl Geneva, 12-13 May 2014 The key objective of the campaign is: What are our objectives? - to promote the correct patterns of

Bardziej szczegółowo

WYKAZ DOROBKU NAUKOWEGO

WYKAZ DOROBKU NAUKOWEGO SUMMARY Straight majority of technologies of industrially important products is based on reactions of catalytic character, one of such processes is dehydrogenation. Of substantial importance is for example

Bardziej szczegółowo

Trend in drug use in Poland

Trend in drug use in Poland Prevalence and patterns of drug use among general population Indicator (GPS) Annual Expert Meeting 214 Trend in drug use in Poland Janusz Sierosławski Institute of Psychiatry i Neurology Warsaw Lisbon,

Bardziej szczegółowo

Angielski Biznes Ciekawie

Angielski Biznes Ciekawie Angielski Biznes Ciekawie Conditional sentences (type 2) 1. Discuss these two types of mindsets. 2. Decide how each type would act. 3. How would you act? Czy nauka gramatyki języka angielskiego jest trudna?

Bardziej szczegółowo

Vice-mayor of Zakopane Wojciech Solik. Polish Ministry of the Environment Chief Specialist for. Tatras National Park (Slovakia) Director Pawel Majko

Vice-mayor of Zakopane Wojciech Solik. Polish Ministry of the Environment Chief Specialist for. Tatras National Park (Slovakia) Director Pawel Majko April 22, 2012 Vice-mayor of Zakopane Wojciech Solik Tatrzanski Park Narodowy Director Pawel Skawinski (host) Polish Ministry of the Environment Chief Specialist for National Parks Jan Reklewski Tatras

Bardziej szczegółowo

WYDZIAŁ NAUK EKONOMICZNYCH

WYDZIAŁ NAUK EKONOMICZNYCH Studia I stopnia stacjonarne i niestacjonarne Kierunek Międzynarodowe Stosunki Gospodarcze Specjalność PROGRAM OF BACHELOR STUDIES Graduate profile Graduate has a general theoretical knowledge in the field

Bardziej szczegółowo

PLSH1 (JUN12PLSH101) General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2012. Reading and Writing TOTAL

PLSH1 (JUN12PLSH101) General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination June 2012. Reading and Writing TOTAL Centre Number Surname Candidate Number For Examiner s Use Other Names Candidate Signature Examiner s Initials Polish Unit 1 Reading and Writing General Certificate of Education Advanced Subsidiary Examination

Bardziej szczegółowo

ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland

ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland OECD Przegląd krajowej polityki miejskiej National Urban Policy Review of Poland 17-19 19 March 2010 ZróŜnicowanie polskich miast Urban Inequality in Poland Zygmunt Ziobrowski Instytut Rozwoju Miast The

Bardziej szczegółowo

KOMUNIKAT 2. The 44 th International Biometrical Colloquium and IV Polish-Portuguese Workshop on Biometry. Conference information:

KOMUNIKAT 2. The 44 th International Biometrical Colloquium and IV Polish-Portuguese Workshop on Biometry. Conference information: AT 1 KOMUNIKAT 2 The 44 th International Biometrical Colloquium and IV Polish-Portuguese Workshop on Biometry Conference information: AT 1 PLACE OF CONFERENCE Address: ACH - DS "Krakowiak" 30-150 Kraków

Bardziej szczegółowo

AIP VFR POLAND AIRAC effective date GRANICE PIONOWE I KLASA PRZESTRZENI VERTICAL LIMITS AND AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION.

AIP VFR POLAND AIRAC effective date GRANICE PIONOWE I KLASA PRZESTRZENI VERTICAL LIMITS AND AIRSPACE CLASSIFICATION. AIP VFR POLAND VFR R 3.1-1 VFR R 3.1 DELEGACJA SŁUŻB ATS DELEGATION OF ATS 1. DELEGACJA SŁUŻB ATS - CTR HERINGSDORF 1. DELEGATION OF ATS - HERINGSDORF CTR Linia łącząca następujące punkty/the line 53 55

Bardziej szczegółowo

STANISŁAW KĘPIŃSKI (1867 1908) AND HIS PAPERS IN THE FIELD OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

STANISŁAW KĘPIŃSKI (1867 1908) AND HIS PAPERS IN THE FIELD OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS TECHNICAL TRANSACTIONS FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCES CZASOPISMO TECHNICZNE NAUKI PODSTAWOWE -NP/015 JAN KOROŃSKI* STANISŁAW KĘPIŃSKI (1867 1908) AND HIS PAPERS IN THE FIELD OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS STANISŁAW KĘPIŃSKI

Bardziej szczegółowo

Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami

Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami Seweryn SPAŁEK Krytyczne czynniki sukcesu w zarządzaniu projektami MONOGRAFIA Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej Gliwice 2004 SPIS TREŚCI WPROWADZENIE 5 1. ZARZĄDZANIE PROJEKTAMI W ORGANIZACJI 13 1.1. Zarządzanie

Bardziej szczegółowo

Polska Szkoła Weekendowa, Arklow, Co. Wicklow KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM

Polska Szkoła Weekendowa, Arklow, Co. Wicklow KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM KWESTIONRIUSZ OSOBOWY DZIECKA CHILD RECORD FORM 1. Imię i nazwisko dziecka / Child's name... 2. Adres / Address... 3. Data urodzenia / Date of birth... 4. Imię i nazwisko matki /Mother's name... 5. Adres

Bardziej szczegółowo

Why choose No Hau Studio?

Why choose No Hau Studio? Why choose No Hau Studio? We ve been perfecting our skills for over 10 years. Branding and Communications are the core of our activities. B2B is our speciality. Customer s Satisfaction is our priority.

Bardziej szczegółowo

ASTERN BORDERIAND OF ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION

ASTERN BORDERIAND OF ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION ASTERN BORDERIAND OF ENLARGED EUROPEAN UNION COMPETITIUENESS FACTORS Editedby Eufemia Teichmann WARSAW SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS WARSAW 2006 Spis treści Przedmowa 9 Część I CZYNNIKI I OGRANICZENIA KONKURENCYJNEGO

Bardziej szczegółowo

Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach

Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach Akademia Ekonomiczna w Poznaniu Wydział Zarządzania Specjalność: Inwestycje Kapitałowe i Strategie Finansowe Przedsiębiorstw Zastosowanie Internetu w małych i średnich przedsiębiorstwach Michał Goc Praca

Bardziej szczegółowo