1 152 Agnieszka STOWARZYSZENIE Maciąg EKONOMISTÓW ROLNICTWA I AGROBIZNESU Roczniki Naukowe tom XVI zeszyt 5 Agnieszka Maciąg Warsaw University of Life Sciences SGGW, Poland FUNDING AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL FOOD CAMPAIGNS IN FINANSOWANIE I OCENA WYBRANYCH ŚWIATOWYCH KAMPANII INFORMACYJNO-PROMOCYJNYCH ŻYWNOŚCI ZREALIZOWANYCH W LATACH Key words: campaigns, promotion of food, campaign budget, marketing Słowa kluczowe: kampanie, promocja żywności, budżet kampanii, marketing Abstract. The aim of the article was the analysis and evaluation of selected global food promotion campaign funded by the European Union. The article contains analysis of the expenditure on individual campaigns, marketing tools used and the effectiveness of the executed information activities. The text also characterized the selected campaigns and its goals. The article examined the effectiveness of each campaign based on conducted market research. As a result of the campaign there was an increase of Poles knowledge about food and its certification system. As well as increase in consumption of dairy products, juices, honey, fruits and vegetables average from 10% to 20%. Also sales of polish food products increased on European markets. Introduction Promotional campaigns are an important tool in reaching out to customers and providing information about existing products. These activities aim at increasing demand for agricultural and food products, supporting producer groups and consumers interests in food quality, its specific properties and advantages. Information activities are designed to emphasize specific characteristics, quality of products and production methods. The promotion covers a share of activities related to advertisement, personal sales, sales promotion, public relations and direct marketing [Flaszewska, Lachiewicz 2013]. Conducted so far informational and promotional campaigns on the EU market and the markets of countries outside the European Union supported the specific brand names, trademarks, and certain companies. Conducted activities mainly covered public relations, participation in trade fairs, trainings, website production, and television and radio advertisement. Material and methods In order to analyze the types and effectiveness of the use of various marketing tools, article used secondary sources in the form of reports on the activities of the Agricultural Market Agency for the period and materials industry. In the article rated all completed campaigns both domestically and internationally. As a preliminary point various marketing activities undertaken during the implementation of programs were analyzed. The article used secondary data, including market research conducted by renowned centers for marketing research. It analyzed the results of consumer tests conducted after the end of each promotional and informational campaign. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of promotional activities for the economic (growth in sales and consumption of food products) and transport (change in the attitude of promotion receivers and increase in awareness of consumers).
2 FUNDING AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL The basic objectives of conducted informational and promotional food campaigns The primary objective of conducted so far food promotion campaigns was to improve the image of Polish food products among Polish consumers, as well as increasing interest in Polish food in other countries such as the USA, South Korea, Japan and China. Information campaign on pork produced in accordance with national quality scheme Pork Quality System (PQS) the aim of the campaign was to provide information on the properties of pork (in accordance with the quality system PQS) and its practical application. Tradition, quality and European taste implemented project aimed at promoting in the world original European meat its preserves and creating, among consumers from non-european countries, the perception of meat from the EU as a product of high quality and unique taste. European table tradition, modernity, quality the main purpose of the campaign was to deepen the knowledge of the method of production and get to know meat taste of the European meat among consumers in each country; the campaign aimed at informing local dealers about the availability of EU products and opportunities of obtaining these products on their market. Put on milk and dairy products assumption of the campaign was to educate children and their supervisors in terms of drinking milk and eating dairy products and increased consumption of promoted products. Fruit and vegetables x 5 a day the aim of the campaign was to increase the demand for fresh and processed fruits, vegetables and juices, as well as building awareness of the need to of consuming-5 products per day. Ecology project aimed at providing consumers and producers with information on the benefits of organic farming the purpose of the campaign was to educate producers and advisors in the field of organic farming methods; Life sweetened with honey aim of the campaign was to highlight the taste and nutritional value of honey, and deepen consumers awareness about the beneficial properties of bee products. Meat and its products, tradition and taste campaign was focused around issues of quality, taste and traditional character of the meat from the European Community. Table full of flavours purpose of the planned promotional activities was to build and preserve a positive image of meat products from the European Union. The campaign was designed to encourage distributors from targeted countries to enhance trade offer for promoted products. Originality under protection aim of the campaign was to disseminate knowledge about the existence and the principles of the determination of regional and traditional products. Frozen food full of nature the campaign aimed at encouraging Polish to eat frozen fruits and vegetables. Carrot campaign promoted the consumption of juices and carrot and fruity nectars. Marketing activities in informational and promotional food campaigns One, two, three-year promotional and informational programs were conducted separately on the EU market and the markets of non-eu countries. Activities consisted of activities within public relations, participation in trade fairs, organization of training, the operation of internet service as well as the production and broadcast of television commercials and radio. Their goal was to increase consumption and improve the reputation of Polish products on foreign markets. A good reputation may in fact affect attracting better quality capital and provide support and reinforcement for new products entering the market [Rydzak 2011]. As the research T.J. Brown and P.A. Dacina show what consumers know about the company can influence their feedback on company s products. In addition, campaigns were aimed at building awareness and greater recognition of the Polish brands [Brown, Dacin 1997]. To have the character of integrated campaigns to take action to connect tasks across all stages of the design and implementation of the campaign [Lachiewicz, Matejun 2007]. Communication tools are used differently perceived by different target groups to whom they are addressed. It is worth to note the departure from the
3 154 Agnieszka Maciąg traditional way of creating brand image. Increasingly, these campaigns have the character of the brand image campaigns, not just information [Witek-Hajduk 2011]. One of the main tools for promoting food was organizing informational actions via the Internet using website and social networking sites. These activities were commentary, research and discussion character. High financial resources for the implementation of programs also allowed the use television advertisements, mainly in the implementation of such campaigns as I put on milk and dairy products, and fruit and vegetables 5 x a day. Television advertisement is a very good source of affecting on customers, both visualizes, and audiles. Its main purpose is to surprise, gain and provide customers information about the product [Drop, Maćkiewicz 2012]. Other taken actions include: promotions at trade fairs and working with entrepreneurs. The primary benefit of participation in such events was an opportunity to showcase a group of potential customers and make new contacts with business partners in the industry. Table 2. Effectiveness of informational and promotional analyzed food programs Tabela 2. Skuteczność analizowanych kampanii informacyjno-promocyjnych żywności Title of campaign/tytuł kampanii Effectiveness of campaign/skuteczność kampanii Information campaign on pork produced in accordance with national quality Increase of knowledge certificates and food quality systems/safety of scheme- Pork Quality System (PQS)/ meat by 18% among Polish people/wzrost wiedzy Polaków na temat Kampania informacyjna na temat mięsa systemów jakości żywności o 18% wieprzowego produkowanego zgodnie z krajowym systemem jakości Tradition, quality and European taste/ Tradycja, jakość i europejski smak European table- tradition, modernity, quality/europejski stół- tradycja, nowoczesność, jakość Put on milk and dairy products/ Stawiam na mleko i produkty mleczne fruit and vegetables x 5 a day/ 5 x dziennie warzywa i owoce Ecology/Ekologia Life sweetened with honey/ Życie miodem słodzone Meat and its products, tradition and taste/ Mięso i jego produkty, tradycja i smak Table full of flavours/ Stół pełen smaków Originality under protection/ Oryginalność pod ochroną Frozen food full of nature/ Mrożonki pełne natury Carrot/ Marchewka Source/Źródło: own study based on the results of market research Źródło: opracowanie własne na podstawie wyników badań rynkowych Increase in exports of Polish meat to South Korea/Wzrost eksportu polskiego mięsa do Korei Południowej Change in eating habits of society in third countries, improve the image of EU products in Asian countries/zmiana nawyków żywieniowych społeczeństw w krajach trzecic, poprawa wizerunku produktów unijnych w krajach Azjatyckich Increase by 10 litres per capita in the consumption of dairy products (over the duration of campaign)/wzrost konsumpcji produktów mlecznych o 10 litrów na jednego mieszkańca (w trakcie trwania kampani) Increase in consumption by 10% of juices, fruits, vegetables during the campaign/wzrost spożycia soków, owoców oraz warzyw o 10% w trakcie realizacji kampani Increase knowledge about organic agriculture. 70% of consumers stated that campaign s logo encourages them to purchase organic foods/wzrost wiedzy na temat rolnictwa ekologicznego. 70% osób stwierdziło, iż logo kampani zachęca ich do zakupu żywności ekologicznej Increase in honey consumption among polish people. 93% people were encouraged to buy honey as a result of the campaign/wzrost konsumpcji miodu wśród Polaków. 93% osób zostało zachęconych do zakupu miodu w wyniku kampani Improvement of image and increase of interest in the Polish meat in Japan and China. Start of conversations in order to expand the market/ Poprawa wizerunku i wzrost zainteresowania polskim mięsem w Chinach i Japonii. Rozpoczęcie rozmów mających na celu poszerzenie rynku Increase in exports of Polish meat to South Korea/Wzrost eksportu polskiego mięsa do Południowej Korei Notification to the European Commission by the producers 30 applications for system protection products/złożenie 30 wniosków przez producentów do KE o ochronę produktów Increase in consumption of frozen foods by 20%/Wzrost konsumpcji mrożonek o 20% Increase in sales of juices, carrot nectars and carrot- fruity by 84% in Bulgaria/Wzrost sprzedaży soków, nektarów marchiowych i marchwiowo owocowych w Bułgarii o 84%
4 FUNDING AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL Table 1. Funding and effectiveness of selected global informational and promotional food campaign in Tabela 1. Finansowanie i efektywność wybranych kampanii żywności informacyjnych i promocyjnych w Professional organisation/ Organizacja zawodowa Polish meat association/ Związek Polskie Mięso Producers and employers union/ Unia Producentów i Pracodawców Przemysłu Mięsnego Producers of Processed Meat Association/ Rzeźników Wędliniarzy National asso-ciation of dairy cooperatives/ Krajowy Związek Spółdzielni Mleczarskich National Association of juices Producers/ Krajowa Unia Producentów Soków Agricultural Market Agency (ARR)/ Agencja Rynku Rolnego Title of campaign/tytuł kampanii Information campaign on pork produced in accordance with national quality scheme Pork Quality System (PQS)/ kampania informacyjna na temat mięsa wieprzowego produkowanego zgodnie z krajowym systemem PQS Tradition, quality and European taste/ Tradycja, jakość i europejski smak European tabletradition, modernity, quality/ Europejski stołtradycja, nowoczesność, jakość Put on milk and dairy products/ Stawiam na mleko i produkty mleczne Fruit and vegetables x 5 a day/ 5 x dziennie warzywa i owoce Ecology/Ekologia Product/Produkt Target market/ Rynek docelowy pork/ wieprzowina beef and pork/ mięso wołowe i wieprzowe beef and pork/ mięso wołowe i wieprzowe milk and dairy products/ mleko i produkty mleczne vegetables, fruits, juices/ warzywa, owoce, soki organic agriculture and ecological products/ rolnictwo ekologiczne i jego produkty Duration of the campaign in years/ Czas trwania kampanii w latach Year of campaign ending/rok zakończenia kampanii Poland/PL South Korea/ KR, United States/US, Vietnam/VN Russian Federation/RU, Ukraine/UA China/RC Singapore/SGP Thailand/THA Poland/ PL Poland/PL Poland/ PL Kind of marketing activities/rodzaj działań marketingowych advertisements in the media (idea placement, cinema, internet)/ reklama w mediach (koncepcja idea placement, reklama w kinach i internecie)/public relations, website/ strona internetowa, organisation of workshops for horace market/ organizacja warsztatów dla rynku horace participation in trade fair/udział w targach, tasting /degustacje, conferences/ konferencje public relations, advertisements in the media/ reklama w mediach, participation in trade fair, exhibitions, seminars, training, websites, competitions/ uczestnictwo w targach, szkoleniach, seminariach, wystawach, konkursach, strona internetowa television/ telewizja, internet/ internet, contact with consumers during events in selected cities and schools/ kontakt z konsumentami podczas imprez w miastach i szkołach, tasting at points of sale/degustacja w punktach sprzedaży television advertising( spots emission- 30 and 15 seconds)/ reklama telewizyjna- emisja spotów po 30 i 15 sekund, advertisement in the press/ reklama w prasie, national competition for schools (posters preparation) / ogólnopolskie konkursy dla szkół (przygotowanie plakatów) advertisement in the press/ reklama w prasie, television/ telewizja, radio/ radio, participation in wholesale events (earth day, taste, ecological fair)/ uczestnictwo w impreazach (dzień ziemi, degustacje, targi żywności ekologicznej) Total budget/ Budżet [EUR] , , , , , ,00
5 156 Agnieszka Maciąg Table 1. Funding and effectiveness of selected global informational and promotional food campaign in Tabela 1. Finansowanie i efektywność wybranych kampanii żywności informacyjnych i promocyjnych w Professional organisation/ Organizacja zawodowa Professional beekeepers association/ Pszczelarzy Zawodowych Producers of Processed Meat Association/ Rzeźników Wędliniarzy Producers and employers union/ Unia Producentów i Pracodawców Przemysłu Mięsnego Agricultural Market Agency (ARR)/ Agencja Rynku Rolnego Frozen food association/ Title of campaign/tytuł kampanii Life sweetened with honey/życie miodem słodzone Meat and its products, tradition and taste/mięso i jego produkty, tradycja i smak Table full of flavours/ Stół pełen smaków Originality under protection/ Oryginalność pod ochroną Frozen food full of nature/ Mrożonki pełne natury Mrożonej Żywności National Association of juices Producers/ Carrot/ Marchewka Krajowa Unia Producentów Soków Source/Źródło: [Activity Report ] Product/Produkt Target market/ Rynek docelowy Duration of the campaign in years/ Czas trwania kampanii w latach Year of campaign ending/rok zakończenia kampanii honey/ miód Poland/ PL beef and pork/ mięso wołowe i wieprzowe beef and pork/ mięso wołowe i wieprzowe community system of regional and traditional products protection/ wspólnotowy system ochrony produktów regionalnych i tradycyjnych Ukraine/ UA Japan/ JPN China/RC United States/ US South Korea/KR Poland/PL Kind of marketing activities/rodzaj działań marketingowych television campaign/ kampanie telewizyjne, women s magazine/ prasa kobieca, internet, website campaign/ strona internetowa kampanii website/ strona internetowa, fair/targi, mailing/ , outdoor advertisement/ reklama bezpośrednia, publications/ publikacje, promotional materials (pens, lanyard, stickers with project logo)/ materiały promocyjne (długopisy, smycze, naklejki z logo projektu) public relations, advertisement in the media (press, TV, internet)/reklama w mediach, w prasie, telewizji i internecie, information and promotional materials/ materiały informacyjno- promocyjne, participation in trade fair/uczestnictwo w targach, campaign website/ strona internetowa kampanii, study tour/wyjazdy studyjne public relations/pr, media/media fruits and frozen food/ owoce i warzywa mrożone Poland/PL information and promotional materials/ materiały informacyjno- promocyjne, media/media carrot juice/ soki marchwiowe Romania/ RO Bulgaria/ BG website/ strona internetowa information and promotional materials/ materiały informacyjno-promocyjne, media/media Total budget/ Budżet [EUR] , , , , , ,50
6 FUNDING AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL Evaluation of informational and promotional campaigns effectiveness based on conducted surveys The aim of the campaign on the PQS system was to strengthen the market position of producers of pork and enriching culinary offerings targeted at consumers [Blicharski et al. 2010]. According to research conducted by the Red Code Institute for the CAM Media Agency, in the opinion of Polish women, PQS system motivates people to buy meat from its logo. Familiarity with PQS system in a group of female consumers was 23% and increased in comparison with the results of research carried out in The PQS system was most associated in Poznan while the greatest knowledge of the PQS certificate were respondents from Warsaw and Poznan. Awareness of the system increased the most in a group of respondents aged and years. For most subjects the meat from PQS means a higher level of security. According to research of consumers, interest in pork increased in the result of the conducted promotional campaign. Interest in pork has also increased among meat distributors [Report- POST-TEST 2013]. The campaign Tradition, quality and European taste, targeted at importers and meat distributors. After the end of the campaign, there was noticed an increase in meat exports due to educating and encouraging wholesalers, importers and consumers to buy European meat and dairy products. Through the three-year activity, campaign Put on milk and dairy products, has visited 108 cities in the whole country, including 324 schools. Promotional activities included over 330 thousands of children aged 7-13 years and adults. In 2008, balanced consumption of milk per capita was around 180 litres, in litres, and in litres. Due to the extensive promotional activities (mainly advertising on TV), an increase in milk consumption in this period was associated with the campaign results. According to the detailed data in 2008, the consumption of milk including milk intended for preserves was 178 litres per capita [Milk Market 2009]. In 2009, the balanced consumption of milk was 3.8% higher than in the previous year [Milk Market 2010]. CATI survey results after the end of the 5 a day fruit and vegetables showed a 10% increase awareness about the consumption of vegetables, fruits and juices, and increase willingness to feed children fruits and vegetables. The campaign was carried out over the next 36 months. The study of evaluation of the effectiveness of campaigns included mothers aged years with children aged 3-10 years. Research shows that 33% of mothers believe that fruits and vegetables should be consumed daily x 5, 40% have declared that their children receive the proper amount of fruits and vegetables each day. 84% of respondents say that their children like fruit, but do not like vegetables (54%). 7 out of 10 parents give children fruits to school every day. 42% of respondents are aware that vegetables and fruits cannot be replaced in a diet [Results of the second 2010]. The campaign showed a slow increase in knowledge and awareness of the necessity of eating 5 servings of fruit and vegetables. According to statistics, the number of organic producers in Poland is constantly growing. At 31 st December 2010 (end date of the campaign Ecology) the number of organic producers has increased from to Analysing the statistical data it can be concluded that organic farming in Poland is dynamically developing. As a result of the campaign as much as 70% of consumers stated that they re encouraged to purchase by the logo Organic Farming, which became one of the most recognizable marks of organic food in Poland [Report on the state 2011]. The aim of the campaign Life sweetened with honey was to make honey consumption widespread among Poles and overcome seasonality in consumption. According to the study summarizing the effectiveness of the campaign in nearly every fourth house in Poland, honey is consumed at least once a week. 7% of Poles admitted that they eat honey every day or almost every day. Advantages of honey are the most appreciated by women. The most popular varieties of honey are flower honey and lime. 70% of the respondents eat honey with bread or sweeten drinks with it, 38% of people eat honey for breakfast, and 52% consume honey in the autumn and winter [Life sweetened 2009]. The result of the campaign promoting polish meat was an increase in exports of polish meat to South Korea and an increase in the number of polish companies operating on Asian markets.
7 158 Agnieszka Maciąg Campaign has brought measurable results originality under the protection. At the beginning of the campaign 9 manufacturers were reported, at the end of the project, a campaign sponsored 32 original polish goods. At the end of the campaign polish producers sent about 30 applications for the protection of its products within the implemented system to the European Commission [Campaign originality 2011]. Campaign-Frozen food full of nature- aimed at showing Poles that frozen food is tasty, easy to prepare product with nutritional value. The effectiveness of the campaign was evaluated in the study conducted by TNS. Studies conducted in February 2007 showed that 12% of Poles declared that they consumed more of frozen fruits and vegetables in the last year. 52% of the population consumed frozen food at the same level as before. Every third Pole (34%) claims that frozen food is tasty. 38% of respondents claimed that freezing is a process that does not reduce the nutritional value of vegetables and fruits [Campaign Final 2007]. As a result of the realized campaign Carrot, Bulgaria s carrot segment in 2006 increased by 84% over Campaign was positively evaluated by manufacturers, more than 70% of women, after seeing the TV spots, showed a willingness to buy carrot juices [Summary of Promotional. 2007]. Conclusions The total budget of programs implemented amounted to more than EUR 30 million. At the moment, EU programs are supported by the budgets of individual countries. 50% of the funding comes from the EU budget, 30% of the national budget subsidies and 20% from industry organizations gathered in promotion funds. The funds accumulated in the funds come from entrepreneurs and farmers. Completed campaigns produce tangible benefits in the form of an increase in consumption of Polish food (Tab. 2). The European Commission is preparing a change in policy to promote agricultural and agri-food products. In connection with these actions will quadruple the budget for the promotion of food produced in the EU. The new promotion policy is to strive for recognition of EU products worldwide. The amendments will raise awareness of consumers that the food produced in the EU is high quality. Most described campaigns have been or are being continued in subsequent years. Continuation of the campaign is linked to the necessity of consolidating the changes in the consciousness of society. Changes in eating habits are formed for years thus it is important to continue realising actions, to draw attention to each product, stimulating the interest and sales. Bibliography Activity Report of Agricultural Market Agency in ARR, Warszawa. Blicharski T., Warda A., Hammermeister A. 2010: PQS system s promotional campaign, Polish Nationwide Bulletin for Farmers and Pig Producers, vol., 10, 3. Brown T.J., Dacin P.A. 1997: The Comapny and the Product: Corporate Associations and Consumer Product Responses, J. Market., vol. 61, no. 1. Campaign Final Frozen food full of nature. 2007: TNS OBOP Poland, Warsaw. Campaign originality under protection 2011: Gospodarz.pl Portal, Agriculture news, Drop E., Maćkiewicz M. 2012: Young psychology, vol. 1, Liberi Libri, 468. Flaszewska S., Lachiewicz S. 2013: Social and organizational factors of entrepreneurship development, Technical University of Lodz, 301. Lachiewicz S., Matejun M. 2007: Problems of modern management practices, Technical University of Lodz, 322. Life sweetened with honey- the end of the campaign. 2009: Report Marketing&Communications Consultants. Apiary, vol., 6, 4. Milk Market state and perspectives. 2009: Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics. Market analysis, April,. vol. 23, 3. Milk Market state and perspectives. 2010: Institute of Agricultural and Food Economics, Market analysis, October, vol., 39, 3.
8 FUNDING AND EVALUATION OF SELECTED GLOBAL INFORMATIONAL AND PROMOTIONAL Report on the state of organic farming in Poland in : Agricultural and Food Quality Inspection (IJHRS), 19. Report- POST-TEST research. 2013: Red Code Business Progress Institute. Results of the second stage of the campaign- fruit and vegetables x 5 a day. 2010: National Association of Juices Producers., Rydzak W. 2011: Reputation and information activities organization in crisis and the determinants of their choice, Poznan University of Economics, 24. Summary of Promotional and Informational Campaign Carrot Producers. 2007: National Association of Juices Producers, X International Symposium of the National Association of juices, , Zakopane. Witek-Hajduk M.K. 2011: Management of strong brand, Wolters Kluwer Business in Warsaw, 354. Streszczenie Głównym celem pracy była analiza i ocena wybranych światowych kampanii promocji żywności finansowanych ze środków Unii Europejskiej. Zaprezentowano analizę wydatków na poszczególne kampanie oraz ocenę skuteczności narzędzi marketingowych wykorzystywanych w procesie realizacji kampanii. Scharakteryzowano również poszczególne kampanie i ich cele. Przeanalizowano skuteczność poszczególnych kampanii na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań rynkowych. W wyniku przeprowadzonych kampanii zanotowano wzrost wiedzy Polaków na temat żywności oraz systemów jej certyfikacji. Zauważono wzrost spożycia produktów mlecznych, miodu oraz soków, owoców i warzyw średnio od 10% do 20%. Wzrosła również sprzedaż polskich produktów żywnościowych na rynkach europejskich. Correspondence address PhD Agnieszka Maciąg Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Warsaw Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences Department of Organization and Consumption Nowoursynowska St. 159, Warsaw