1 Zarz¹dzanie i Edukacja Zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem Zarządzanie służbą zdrowia Edukacja społeczna NUMER 84 wrzesień październik 2012 ISSN X DWUMIESIÊCZNIK SZKO Y WY SZEJ IM. BOGDANA JAÑSKIEGO
2 Adres redakcji Dwumiesięcznik Zarządzanie i Edukacja ul. Elektronowa Warszawa tel./fax Redaktor naczelny Prof. dr hab. Kazimierz Korab Rada naukowa dwumiesięcznika Zarządzanie i Edukacja Mirosława Czerny, Jerzy Donarski, Janusz Gudowski, Krystyna Lubomirska, Zbigniew Matkowski, Jacek Nowak, Marek Pawlak, Wojciech Sroczyński Sekretarz redakcji Anna Janus Korekta Anna Janus Wszystkie artykuły są recenzowane Recenzenci prof. dr hab. Jerzy Donarski dr Małgorzata Stawicka dr hab. Łukasz Popławski Redakcja zastrzega sobie prawo dokonywania w publikowanych tekstach skrótów i zmian ISSN X wersja referencyjna czasopisma: papierowa numer dostępny w wersji elektronicznej na stronie: Skład, druk i oprawa: Oficyna Wydawniczo-Poligraficzna Adam
5 Spis treœci I. Zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem Julianna Bartosewicz Management of an enterprise in a changeable environment from a system perspective/zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem w warunkach zmiennego otoczenia w ujęciu systemowym... 7 Julianna Bartosewicz An educational approach to management of an enterprise/ Edukacyjne podejście do zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem Sabina Bartosewicz System podejmowania decyzji we współczesnym przedsiębiorstwie Sławomir Bartosiewicz Ocena konkurencyjności centrów logistycznych w Polsce metodą wielokryterialnej analizy porównawczej Bellingera 85 Tomasz Kochański Zmiany organizacyjne w przedsiębiorstwie Rafał Then Transport publiczny jako element polityki zrównoważonego rozwoju II. Zarządzanie służbą zdrowia Krystyna Kimak Sylwetka współczesnej pielęgniarki a dewiza Uczelni prawda, dobro, skuteczność Sławomir Stawicki Zarządzanie bezpieczeństwem informacji w placówkach ochrony zdrowia
6 Spis treœci Cezary Tomasz Szyjko Ochrona danych osobowych w świetle nowelizacji ustawy refundacyjnej III. Edukacja społeczna Rafał Pieja Europa Jana Pawła II czy Europa elit politycznych Paweł Bogumił Sobuś Działalność polityczna jako chrześcijański obowiązek. Jana Pawła II wizja polityki Marcin A. Stradowski Perspektywy dla Unii Europejskiej Noty o Autorach
7 R O Z P R A W Y I A R T Y K U Ł Y Julianna Bartosewicz MANAGEMENT OF AN ENTERPRISE IN A CHANGEABLE ENVIRONMENT FROM A SYSTEM PERSPECTIVE ZARZĄDZANIE PRZEDSIĘBIORSTWEM W WARUNKACH ZMIENNEGO OTOCZENIA W UJĘCIU SYSTEMOWYM Streszczenie W opracowaniu przedstawiono problematykę zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem w jego zmiennym otoczeniu. Uwzględniono zależność między procesem zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem a wewnętrznym i zewnętrznym jego otoczeniem (rys. 1). Firma, taktowana jak system otwarty, była inspiracją do propozycji nowatorskiego podejścia do zmian w otoczeniu poprzez uwzględnianie wytypowanych podsystemów w systemie zarządzania firmą (rys. 2). Propozycja rozwiązania problemu badawczego może przyczynić się do sprawniejszego zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem oraz profesjonalnej współpracy z otoczeniem, w kierunku poprawy sposobów jego działania oraz zachowania zrównoważonego rozwoju. SUMMARY The problem of enterprise s management in its changeable environment was introduced in the study. Interrelationship between the firm s management process and internal with an external environment was considered (fig. 1). An enterprise, treated as an
8 8 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik open system, was an inspiration for the proposal of an innovative approach to changes in environment with the use of subsystems of the firm s management system and components of environment (fig. 2). The proposition of research problem solution can contribute to more efficient management of an enterprise. It also can guarantee a professional cooperation with an enterprises environment so that to improve methods of its activities and support a sustainable development. Słowa klucze: przedsiębiorstwo, zarządzanie przedsiębiorstwem, otoczenie wewnętrzne przedsiębiorstwa, otoczenie zewnętrzne przedsiębiorstwa, dynamika otoczenia firmy, system otwarty, podsystem systemu zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem Key words: enterprise, management of enterprise, internal environment of enterprise, external environment of enterprise, dynamic of enterprise s environment, an open system, subsystem of a system of firm s management. INTRODUCTION The central motive of the article determines the management of enterprise process in the aspect of its environment. Essential is taking into consideration changeability, turbulence and dynamics of the present firm s environment in the modern world. The author decided to research on a possibilities scale of professional approach to firm s environment, with division into internal as well as an external environment, also the general acceptance of continuous changes. Ability to adopt the management process to changes, and their acceptance are essential with the aim of a firm s development, also the connection with all elements of environment, that can compete, for a better position on the market, as well as improve a level of enterprise s function. The proposal of the approach to management of a firm, as an open system, was introduced in the article, with regard to subsystems, such as aims and value, structure, technical-technological, ecological, psychosocial. They can cooperate
9 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise... 9 with both kinds of environment on a global scale, so that to improve methods of its function, and to support a sustainable development. The theoretical approach to firm s environment was described in the first part of the study, that is the basic of notions like internal and an external environment with their components. The second part of the article introduces the practical meaning of a firm s environment by presentation of the macro- and micro-environment examples. The third part of the study contains exact interrelationship between the process of a firm s management, and internal with an external environment. The proposal of the approach to management of a firm in a changeable environment from a system perspective, with taking into consideration the singled out subsystems of environment was also presented. The author made an attempt to prove of the research hypothesis, that is a modern enterprise can not correctly function without consider changes in environment from a system perspective. The professional management of an enterprise, in the direction of change in approach to environment, and improvement in ways of firm s function, also support a sustainable development, determines the most important duties of every firm. THEORETICAL APPROACH TO ENVIRONMENT OF AN ENTERPRISE A modern enterprise can not function without taking into consideration environment which determines its integral part. Role of an enterprise is complicated and unstable, due to changing unceasingly environment. The competent approach to realization of a firm plan in untypical conditions is essential. Environment of an enterprises is various for every kind of firm that have their own unique to themselves, characteristic of an individual firm. Kind of enterprise s environment depends on firm s closeness and independence or vice versa that is farther and dependence. Environment of an enterprise, according to Nasierowski, is composed of an internal environment (closer, dependent) and an ex-
10 10 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik ternal one (further, independent). An internal firm s environment is a result of decisions undertaken by an organization, it gives in to control processes in the limited range. An external enterprise s environment determines its elements, on which a firm does not have a direct influence. An internal environment of an enterprise is composed of the following elements: social factors (trade unions, economic government, attitudes of society to a firm and their expectations from an enterprise); suppliers of materials, semi-manufactured articles, technical equipment, credits, services, information; consumers of products, services; competitors in different organizations satisfying similar needs or having similar demand for services/benefits from environment; institutions, that influence on enterprise directly (the tax offices, local administrative authorities, and the like, also determines by them limitations, norms, conditions); state and self-governmental institutions; local institutions; banks; the local market of work (surfeit, abundance or shortage of the workforce on necessary qualifications); trade unions; technical-technological factors that influence on an enterprise directly (technołogical progress in determined fields of activity, modernization of products/services 1. An external environment of an enterprise is composed of the following elements: social environment s factors (demography/structure of society, the pace of population growth, education, the level of general and professional education, system of education and supplementing education, sociological aspect, social mobility, resourcefulness); cultural environment s factors; 1 Bielski M., Podstawy teorii organizacji i zarządzania, Wydawnictwo C.H. Beck, Warszawa 2002, p. 78.
11 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise demographical environment s factors; technical-technological environment s factors (products of technique, machines, devices, a technical infrastructure, a technical and a technological knowledge, from which an enterprise can use, a level of technique and the pace of its development); political environment s factors (binding political system, the way of authority s exercise, degree of interference of political interference in various fields of a social life (economy, culture)); legal environment s factors (binding legal order, detail degree of legal norms, especially related to formation and function of an organization, system of settle of disputes legally); economic environment s factors (micro-economic model of economy (liberal, regulated), economic system (command economy or the market economy), the pace also the level of the economic growth of country, the monetarist also the fiscal politics, the economic politics, led by states organs and organs of a local authority). natural/ecological environment s factors (natural resources, climate, quality of soil, hydrological system, degree of destruction or contamination of a natural environment as a result of people activity); international environment s factors 2. PRACTICAL APPROACH TO ENVIRINMENT OF AN ENTERPRISE Macro-environment of an enterprise can exist as a firm s environment (general, further, dependent). An organization must deal with its environment that can be turbulent and uncertain, in order to achieve goals. These uncertainties, leaders of organizations devise strategies to divide labor by area of expertise, so that the most qualified employees are in appropriate roles. Firms also use technology to support an ongoing production of goods and services. En- 2 Ibidem, p. 78.
12 12 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik terprises can manage an external/general environment by its own reinforcement and control over other organizations 3. People play an important role in addressing firm s environment, that can control organizations and organizations can control people. More specifically, as people can create organizations, by determination of goals they can achieve, how firms should be structured, and what processes could be used in firms operations. But conversely, through their roles, processes and structural elements, organizations can control employees behaviour. All organizations operate in environment. According to Daft, environment is composed of all elements that exist outside the boundary of organization, and have potential to affect all part of a firm. A general environment, so-called macro-environment, includes elements that may not have the direct effect on day-to-day operations of an organization, but may influence indirectly on an organization. Macro-environment includes elements such as economy, technology, politics, social and cultural forces, and demography 4. According to Bialasiewicz, macro-environment is a set of conditions, treated in various ways by individual firms, in which enterprises work in their own regions 5. Macro-environment of a firm was presented by subsystems, such as social factors, cultural factors, demographic factors, the economy, political factors, legal factors, technical-technological factors, natural/ecological factors, international factors of environment for needs of this study. The economy, as a factor of enterprise s environment, is connected with economic dimension of macro-environment that determines general condition of the economic system, in which a firm function. The economic dimension of a firm s macro-environment determines a general situation of the economic system, where a firm works. Every enterprise is element of a nationwide economic system, de- 3 Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., Contemporary sport management, 4 th Edition, Human Kinetics, Windsor 2011, p Ibidem, p Białasiewicz M. (red.), Podstawy nauki o organizacji. Przedsiębiorstwo jako organizacja gospodarcza, PWE, Warszawa 2011, p. 82.
13 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise pendent on development of a country in which it leads an economic activity 6. The position of the economy on the country (also in global point of view) determines long-term and operating an entrepreneur s decisions. Purchasing in the economy depends on the level of earnings, prices, savings, debts, accessibility to credits. Businessmen observe coefficients of a current and a future condition of the economy. Basic changing opinions of the current and the future economic growth, and the present and the future conditions of investing determines a rate of the real growth of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the inflation rate, the interest rates, the level and the range of the monetary rate courses, the unemployment rate 7. The economic conditions affect the way in which an organization operates. How does inflation affect an organization? For example, are consumers buying an expensive sport equipment when the inflation rates are high? How do the interest rates affect an organization s ability to acquire the inputs necessary for a company of its products? 8. Politic and legal factors of a firm s environment also influence on an enterprise s function. Politics influence on the economy is a results of the political system in the country system, that determines a way of the authority s exercise, and the range of state control country economy. Unreliability is an environment s feature of an firm s function, on account of susceptibility to occurrence, that can disrupt the market rules. The aim of the state politics is effective aid of the market mechanisms, and disturbances prevention, such as lack of predictability of tendency development, instability of rules of function on the market, uneven access to the market. The results of the state function can give rise to competition, but they can also result in negative consequences, like enlargement of susceptibility of the economic subjects to risk, and unjustified groundless economically behaviour. Politics led on a government stage, by instruments of an 6 Ibidem, p. 82, Ibidem, p Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., op. cit., p. 76.
14 14 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik economic activity control, e.g. a duty import, quotas, licences regulating turnover with abroad, norms of safety, sanitary norms, ecological, qualitative norms, can limit an enterprise s access to the foreign markets, create or abolish the barrier in the flow of the goods/trade, payment, technology, transfer of profits or invest liberty, to force sources of supplies, to create requirements in the range of products, to limit advertising function, to influence on solutions of distribution. Political transformations, urgent changes of ruling cabinets determine changes of the direction of the economic politics running, that is deregulation of the financial and fiscal politics also reduction in credibility of the economy on the international arena (risk of enterprise function grows). An economic order requires the proper legal base. The law system, binding in each country, that regulates the most important aspects of an enterprise function from its beginning to finish. A correct legal environment is in resourceful initiatives enterprise s favour. Cohesion of existing legal norms is essential, due to legal articles contradiction causes various interpretations, that result in making inappropriate decisions by various organs, A stability of a legal order prevents uncertainty about an enterprise function, with adaptation to new orders, as a result of frequent changes of legal articles. Transparency of the legal system causes elimination of difficulties in comprehension of legal articles 9. The political climate is another element of a general environment. Example determines development of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) between the Uunited States, Canada and Mexico in the 1990s has facilitated trade among three countries over the past two decades 10. The technical-technological factor of a firm s environment creates accessible methods of transformation enterprises resources into products and services. This kind of environment contains physical products of technique (machines, devices, infrastructure (roads, telephones), and knowledge resources from fields useful for individual organizations. The level of technique and technical knowled- 9 Białasiewicz M. (red.), op. cit., p Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., op. cit., p. 76.
15 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise ge, that was achieved so far, and the pace of technical development are essential, also can decide additionally on a firm s success. According to A. Toffler, technique functions in a self-funded way, and inspires economic transformations, determines an essential condition of a country economic development. Modern technologies and accessible devices for enterprises on the market allow to raise quality produced goods or reduction of their production costs. Use of the computer technology in the economic activity support for an enterprise efficiency, and can increase a firm effectiveness function, due to speed up of management procedures, operating larger resources of information, possibility of a quick attainment to customers, also coming in with them in interactions enlarges. The quick pace of technical-technological progress determines source of essential challenges for a modern enterprise, in the range of enlarged demand on elements, such as financial resources, indispensable to purchase of new technologies or modern machine park, enlarged risk of research-developmental works, more and more difficult protection of own inventions, shortening of the cycle of products life. The progress in technology creates chances for enterprises and new sectors, also threat to existed sectors. The structure of a competition sector can change as a result of technological changes 11. Technology strongly effects on most organizations. For instance, how computers, software, and Internet can help an organization by enlist more consumers. more precisely of inventory, communicate with suppliers, and monitor purchasing patterns? How does technology help an organization develop by more and better products? 12. Social-cultural, together with demographic factors of a firm s environment, influence on every organization s conditions. Elements of a social-cultural enterprise dimension determines culture, education quality, demographic and sociological features of the community in which a firm function. The above-mentioned variable can shape preferences, predilection, and tastes of organizations, households or social groups. 11 Białasiewicz M. (red.), op. cit., p. 86, Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., op. cit., p. 76.
16 16 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik They co-decide on establishment ways of a business contact and conduct bargaining, methods of a staff management at organizations, shape of marketing; and have essential meaning due to possibility to disseminate themselves. The high developed countries, that allot more resources on research and development, are exporters of innovative technologies and determine directions of progress. The risk of growing a technological gap exists in comparison with countries about a smaller dynamic development. An international influence on a social-cultural sphere is perceptible. The opening borders cause intensifying gainful migrating people from poorer countries to more developed ones. Changes of demographic features of individual societies are current and evident, also changed. Tendency steps out to standardizing of young people s life styles, and tastes all over the world, among other things, as a result of development of the computer technology such as Internet and creating trends by global corporations. The progress in technique of transport, and communication in the 20 th also continued in the 21 st, influenced on a further development on a large scale. Every organization, in a smaller or a larger range, is under influence of an international dimension 13. Social, cultural forces as well as demographical influence on an organization life to an extent degree, Population, level of education, and standard of living are essential elements of a firm s structure, that can decide about its effectiveness and results, also regulated by managers, as well as by all members, e.g. standard of living, with the level of additional education 14. The natural/ecological factor of firm s environment create natural conditions (climate, lie of land, access to natural resources, the level of contamination of natural environment and the like) characteristic of individual areas. It determines general possibilities of enterprises function, that use natural sources. Geographical also natural conditions shape a structure of purchases, features of consumption, and 13 Białasiewicz M. (red.), op. cit., p Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., op. cit., p. 76.
17 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise use of goods/services, style of life and other elements of consumers behaviour, with institutional buyers. A natural environment has an essential meaning in the process of making decision on industrial firms location, gaining over natural resources from the Earth. Negative effects of an enterprise function are more or less intensive. Use of resources, and continuous emission of dangerous gases (oxides of sulphur, oxides of nitrogen, oxide of carbon, methane, and so on) to air, drop of pollution to waters, wastes pollution on the Earth surface, also noise, are threat to a natural environment. Members of enterprises should be conscious, that many natural resources are not renewable. Continuous reduction of resources can cause rise in their prices, growing consumption, also changes of natural resources, strengths of nature, fauna and flora, together with more and more number of legal articles on protection of environment. A new approach to ecology diverse depends on the leadership place of economy activity is essential. Every firm has to make good costs of prevention, polluters and utilization of wastes, also protection of other environment components such as air, water. At present every economic subject is obliged to respect problems of environmental protection. It is worth to increase managers and all members of an organization ecological consciousness, by participation in the process of learning on a natural environment (environmental learning), with helpful tool, such as technical teams, manager experts, function in net, delivering knowledge and coordinating international politics in the range of ecology 15. The international factor of a firm s environment dictates a system of cooperation between national and foreign environment factors that characterize an international environment. In the system of the market economy (under growing influence of globalization process), a wider range of an enterprise function should be consider, not only on a national level, but also on an international scale. A global macro-environment determines conditions of leadership of economic activity in individual countries. Every enterprise has to consider growing competition of global corporations with the lo- 15 Białasiewicz M. (red.), op. cit., p. 88.
18 18 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik cal markets. Position of the largest world economies is essential as well. Economic crisis in United States, Great Britain or China cause unsettling equilibrium on markets of the whole world. The progressive process of the economic integration between individual countries give the rise to standardization of legal norms 16. The European Union is a good example, that associated 27 membership countries which resign from a part of their sovereignty, in the law sphere and the economy for the common union rules. The micro-environment of an enterprise (competitive, purposeful, task, closer, independent) is created by the whole of institutions and economic subjects, that influence on an enterprise, and vice versa, a firm can also impact on them. For example, by economic subjects such as other enterprises, households, financial institutions, searchingly-developmental centres, higher universities, authorities, subjects of economic democracy 17. Possibility of formation of the micro-environment by individual firms is diversified, that depends on a competitive position of a concrete subject. The micro-environment is easier to identification and observation in comparison with the macro-environment. Its future state/condition is more easily to predict, because of direct interactions between a firm and other participants of the micro-environment 18. The micro-environment of an enterprise is more institutionalized due to determination of conditions of enterprises function in definite sector. The specific environment, so-called a task environment, includes stakeholders external to organizations. Daft identified stakeholders, such as customers, employees, management, owners and stakeholders, unions, creditors, suppliers, community, and government as part of the specific organization s environment. The following important questions on elements of the specific environment should be considered. Who are consumers? What are their preferences? 16 Ibidem, p Ibidem, p Ibidem, p. 90.
19 Julianna Bartosewicz managment of an enterprise Who are suppliers? How easy is it for an organization to acquire its resources from suppliers? Does an organization deal with a labor organizations or unions? What does competition mean? 19. For instance, Nike, New Balanceand Asics are all competitors of Puma, Bur does Puma have other competition? What about nonsport shoe manufacturers? What about clothing manufacturers who also produce leisure wear? What role does the government play in environment? A government might be an element of the specific environment through its imposition of legislation and guidelines for treatment of employees, also consumers. Firms must also provide details to the government agencies for taxation purposes. The environment significantly influences and represents a major source of uncertainty for a firm. Leaders and managers of organizations must understand environment and carefully monitor its impact on an organization 20. Below is presented interrelationship between the management of enterprise process and internal with an external environment (fig. 1). An internal environment consists of social factors, suppliers, competitors, consumers, banks, the local market of work, trade unions, the state and self-governmental institutions, the local institutions, technical-technological factors, ecological factors, national factors. An external environment includes social factors, cultural factors, demographical factors, the economy, legal factors, political factors, technical-technological factors, ecological factors, international factors. A direct interrelationship between the management of a firm process and internal with an external environment exists between social factors, banks and the economy, technical-technological factors, ecological factors, national factors, also international factors. An indirect interrelationship, between the firm s management process and both kinds of environment, exists between suppliers, competitors, consumers in cultural factors context. Similarly, the local market of work, trade unions, the state and the self-governmental institutions, with the local institutions, exist together with legal also 19 Pedersen P. M., Parks J.B., Quarterman J., Thibault L., op. cit., p Ibidem, p. 76.
20 20 ZARZĄDZANIE I EDUKACJA nr 84/2012 wrzesień październik political factors apply to internal as well as an external environment. The economy relates to every element of this system, Management of a firm relates to both kinds of environment that must cooperate with each other. The whole system should function in order to support a sustainable development. Figure 1. Interrelationship between management of an enterprise and an internal with an external environment MANAGEMENT OF ENTERPRISE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Social factors Suppliers Competitors EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT Social factors Cultural factors Demographical factors Consumers Banks Economy Local market of work Legal factors Trade unions State and self-governmental institutions Political factors Local institutions Technical-technological factors Ecological factors National factors Technical-technological factors Ecological factors International factors SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT