1 CULTURAL HERITAGE MANAGEMENT IN THE LIGHT OF THE CONCEPT OF TERRITORIAL MARKETING dr hab. Łukasz Gaweł (Institute of Culture, Jagiellonian University)
2 Introduction Territorial marketing ( also called place marketing) is a relatively new concept growing out of core marketing, thus an area of practical managerial knowledge oriented to studying, creating and fulfilling the needs of clients. It is a result of the adaptation of the theories and mechanisms developed with a view of commercial market ( the spheres of consumption and production) to the requirements and realities of public sector, especially to the city and regional management. Currently we can come across many different definitions of territorial marketing, but the differences between them are not substantial. Andrzej Szromnik defines territorial marketing as the totality of coordinated actions of local, regional or national entities aiming to create the processes of exchange and interaction by identifying, developing and meeting the needs and desires of inhabitants. [Szromnik 1997, p.36]
3 Territorial marketing basic assumptions In terms of the marketing management of local government units the following assumptions are accepted: in each settlement unit lives a community, whose desires, aspirations and needs are the basic guidelines for the functioning of the governing bodies of local government, meeting these needs and aspirations is connected with many areas important from the point of view of local government management, in the long term the inhabitants needs evolve, that is why it is necessary to conduct regular marketing research meeting the needs and desires of the inhabitants has to be based on rational management of the resources held by the local government, meeting the needs and desires of a settlement unit, perceived as a complementary whole, cannot be in conflict with the needs and desires of individuals or parts of the community, speaking about the desires and needs of the community we cannot only concentrate on the improvement of the material conditions of life ( a necessary complement is the possibility of self-realization of the inhabitants in the spiritual sphere).
4 Tangible and intangible cultural heritage and territorial marketing In practice, every detailed grasp of the problem of territorial marketing pays special attention to the issue of rational management of all resources remaining in the possession of local government. In these terms local cultural heritage, both tangible and intangible, gains a particular importance. In today s reality dynamically changing external conditions play a main role in the process of every settlement unit management. The complicated socio-economic situation generates a lot of variables, on which the managers of local governments do not have entirely an influence (or have a very limited influence). In the situation of constant changeability the main task becomes identifying resources demonstrating high stability and being able to create competitive advantage for functioning of the city or region. Without a doubt, to these resources belong both cultural heritage ( including sacral one) and natural heritage of the region. In modern conceptions they are treated as a inseparable whole, called cultural landscape.
5 Wealth and diversity of cultural heritage Cultural heritage is a wealth of every region properly used, might bring its inhabitants affluence and an optimistic view into the future. Certainly not every city and not every region can demonstrate equally substantial heritage resources. However, it is not possible to imagine a place completely deprived of them. If we look closely at our surroundings we will notice that the cultural landscape surrounding us is full of places and objects which can become a true advantage of our city; however, to make this happen two circumstances are necessary. First, we have to learn to perceive value in what is ordinary for us, has always been with us and our ancestors. Second, a domestic concern is needed of the whole local community for the local heritage. And it is not only about taking care of the most precious monuments. Who will notice a beautifully renovated little chapel when the road leading to it is full of holes and the roadside is full of litter? The concern for cultural heritage cannot be expressed only within the confines of the work of appropriate services. The concern for the cultural heritage of the region must manifest itself in a responsible attitude of every member of the local community.
6 Wealth and diversity of cultural heritage Duisburg, Landschaftspark Zielonki municipality, a village shrine Zwierzyniec, a Jewish cemetery
7 Cultural heritage as an element of promotional strategy The importance of the cultural heritage of a region or a city can be understood the most easily while browsing through varied promotional materials, brochures or leaflets from various places in the world. In all of them appear historic buildings, objects or places. They are not only a visible sign of the attractiveness of the place, but also of rich past, creating their historical context. Minoga, a palace
8 The perception of local cultural heritage Local cultural heritage depending on the capacity of its recourses, its character and condition to a large extent plays a decisive role in how the particular city ( region) is perceived by different groups of stakeholders, including potential investors, tourists or people looking for a place to live. Tarnów, tenement houses on the market square Nowy Sącz, the main entry to The Sądecki Ethnographic Park (2011)
9 Cultural heritage and stakeholders The notion of stakeholders comes from the management sciences and according to the definition created by R. Edward Freeman it is every group or a person that can have an influence or is having an influence on the achieving of goals by the organization. It is clear then that the basic division of stakeholders will determine their position towards the organization, which is as follow: 1. internal stakeholders (employees, executives, board members, investors) 2. external stakeholders ( suppliers, goods or services consignees, also people not involved directly with the organization, e.g. local authorities, media). Transplanting this concept to the sphere of heritage management it is worth to consider what entities can be called the stakeholders of cultural heritage. A precise map of stakeholders will probably be different in details in different cities or regions, however, in the main framework it will remain the same.
10 The stakeholders of regional cultural heritage
11 The potential of the cultural heritage stakeholders The full recognition of the stakeholders of local cultural heritage can bring unexpected effects for its protection, formation and management. However, achieving this will only be possible when local decision-makers or the owners (managers) of the historic objects demonstrate features characteristic for local actors. Without personal engagement, authentic concern for the city, attachment to the region, it is hard to imagine cooperation with people who want to support local heritage. If there is a leader who is able to integrate the local environment, many tasks, which normally require large financial resources and a lot of time, can be carried out more quickly and more effectively. The preservation of a historic monument, guide services, the elaboration of a monograph of the object (city or region), the elaboration of promotional materials, creating and maintaining a website, the organization of tourist flows, publishing a book, cultural volunteering, conservation actions, financing different actions related to local heritage, original education programs, acquisition of EU funds, mediation in dealing with conservation authorities all of that are authentic actions taken in different municipalities thanks to the involvement of the stakeholders of the local cultural heritage.
12 Good practices collaboration with local stakeholders Monographs ( of a municipality, a village, a monument) prepared in cooperation with living in the region scientists, social activists and entrepreneurs.
13 Branded tourist product in the promotion of the region The most effective action in the process of promoting the region with the help of local cultural heritage is to build on its basis a branded tourist product. It is a complicated process that requires involvement of different entities, however, the achieved effect compensates for the involved forces and means. A branded product on the market of tourist and cultural services gives a clear competitive advantage, it also becomes an important element in the promotional strategy of the city ( region). By the term branded tourist product should be understood integrated product easily recognized by tourists among the market offer of the competitive areas, subjected to a process of professional management in order to maintain a high level of quality. The main difficulty in building a branded tourist product on the basis of the local cultural heritage is the fact that the tourists coming to the region will not perceive it only by the substantial offer ( the core of the product, for example valuable group of historic buildings), but they will perceive the surroundings as a whole. In other words, even the most perfect heritage objects will not compensate for the inconvenience of transport in the region (the state of roads), tourism infrastructure, and additional services ( e.g. recreation base). We cannot forget that an important element in the assessment of the product will also be the atmosphere of the place. First priority will therefore be to apply the principle that tourist-friendly city in the first place must be friendly to its inhabitants.
14 Good practices branded tourist product Bled (Slovenija)
15 Cultural heritage route as an example of a cooperation network Cultural route is a marked out and labeled material route, combining objects and places selected according to established criteria of thematisation, which are unique and representative examples illustrating widely understood cultural heritage of the region, community, ethnic group, minority or nation. Through the representation of tangible heritage, a route should make it possible to understand and popularize intangible heritage, treating both of these areas as an inseparable whole. Subjected to an efficient and effective management, a cultural route might become an important tool of protection, development and popularization of cultural heritage, equally affecting local communities and the tourists visiting these places. Cultural routes are an excellent example of the possibilities offered by the network of cooperation. Properly managed, a route becomes not only a branded tourist product, but it is also a powerful promotion tool for a city or a region. It also gives opportunities for the creation and protection of a cultural landscape the main advantage of the routes is the fact that they incorporate not only a certain amount of objects but also the communication routes connecting them.
16 Among the hundreds of cultural routes marked out in Poland ( some of them are only virtual), only two of them can be identified as structures subjected (partially) to conscious management. However, it is not possible to achieve full professionalization of a tourist product, if there will not be created an entity managing the resources in a planned, purposeful and steady way. On the other hand, making such an effort will result in obtaining a very strong promotional asset of the city/ region. Wooden Architecture Route Industrial Monuments Route
17 How to present heritage? Three categories: authenticity, uniqueness, originality should be considered essential in the presentation of cultural heritage.
18 How to present heritage? Even the most unusual places, objects and spaces cannot do without the most important element of the story about the cultural heritage people.
19 Uncommon heritage The creation of tourist products based on the heritage requires the ability to look at what is ordinary, common and close to you through the eyes of a stranger, arriving here for the first time. Spectacular objects of cultural heritage are easy to promote, it is much more difficult to spot something unusual in the places and objects which at first glance do not cause strong emotions. Energy Rout (German)
20 Promotion is not everything While speaking about the promotion of the heritage it is not possible not to mention its natural environment and location they (to large extent) determine if the tourists are authentically interested in the place. However, this interest might be very often stimulated by taking advantage of the neighbors success. The statistics of the visitors to the UNESCO churches in Małopolska in season 2013 Place Number of visitors Period Dębno Podhalańskie Binarowa Lipnica Murowana Sękowa V 31 X 16 V 30 XI 16 V 30 XI 16 V 30 IX
21 The promotion of a region through regional products Regional products are one of the most recognizable elements of intangible cultural heritage of a region. This concept comprises the goods and services that the community of the region associates itself with. At the same time, they are unique products, created in an individual manner, according to traditional recipes. The importance of regional products as a form of the protection of intangible cultural heritage has been recognized by the European Commission, which created: The Register of Protected Designations of Origin and Protected Geographical Indications and Register of Traditional Specialties Guaranteed (there are 36 regional products from Poland on that list so far). We cannot forget that there are also created national registers of traditional products in Poland by The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. There have been 106 products from Małopolska entered on that list so far. The creation and protection of local products and services is one of the ways to promote a city or a region.
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