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1 nr 2 (5) 2006 r. Spis treści Contents Zofia Alexandrowicz Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives)... 3 Geopark kategoria ochrony przyrody wspierająca promocję geoturystyki (perspektywy w Polsce) Bartolomej Baláž, Pavol Rybár Wine, Geology and Tourism...13 Wino, geologia i turystyka Paweł Różycki Metodyka prowadzenia imprez geoturystycznych Methods of conducting geotourist events Piotr Migoń Sanqingshan ukryty skarb Chin...33 Sanqingshan a hidden treasure of China Piotr Dmytrowski, Alicja J. Kicińska-Świderska Śladami górnictwa i hutnictwa w dolinach tatrzańskich Kościeliskiej i Chochołowskiej...41 Following the signs of the old mining operations in the valleys of the Tatra Mts. Kościeliska and Chochołowska. Monika Chrustek Geoturystyka na weekend krótka wycieczka geologiczna nad jezioro Iseo, Włochy...49 Geotourism for the weekend short fieldtrip on Iseo Lake, Italy Sławomir Bębenek Wybrane obiekty geoturystyczne w rejonie kanionu Colca w południowym Peru...53 Selected geoturist sites in the Colca Canyon area, Southern Peru

2 (Geoturism) jest czasopismem naukowym Stowarzyszenia Naukowego im. Stanisława Staszica, wydawanym wspólnie z Wydziałem Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej, ukazującym się jako jeden tom rocznie w kolejnych zeszytach. adres owy: Redaguje zespół w składzie: Tadeusz Słomka (redaktor naczelny), Marek Doktor (sekretarz), Mariusz Szelerewicz (redaktor techniczny), Andrzej Joniec, Alicja Kicińska-Świderska, Wojciech Mayer, Paweł Różycki, Elżbieta Słomka Rada Redakcyjna: Tadeusz Burzyński, Janusz Dąbrowski, Henryk Jacek Jezierski, Anna Nowakowska, Krystian Probierz, Pavol Rybar, Tadeusz Słomka, Antoni Tajduś, Janusz Zdebski Adres Redakcji: Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza, Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska, Zakład Geologii Ogólnej i Matematycznej; al. Mickiewicza 30, Kraków Na ten adres należy wysyłać rękopisy, korekty i wszelką korespondencje dotyczącą redagowania pisma. Skład i łamanie: Firma Rysunkowa Szelerewicz, Druk: Drukarnia Leyko Wydano ze środków Stowarzyszenia Naukowego im. Stanisława Staszica z pomocą finansową Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej i Wydziału GGiOŚ Copyright by Stowarzyszenie Naukowe im. Stanisława Staszica, Kraków 2005 PL ISSN Nakład 1000 egz.

3 Geoturystyka 2 (5) 2006: 3-12 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Geopark kategoria ochrony przyrody wspierająca promocję geoturystyki (perspektywy w Polsce) Zofia Alexandrowicz Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences, Av. Mickiewicza 33, Kraków, Abstract: Geoparks constitute a chance for protection of regional values of the geological heritage, including structural landscapes and for the promotion of their significance. Geoparks are also a chance for geotourism to develop and for people to be educated and to specialize in this specific domain at the university and others education level. They may become centers with a leading role in popularizing and educating for the general public in the field of Earth Sciences, as well as centers of activities and projects related to geo- and eco-conservation. The directly relation between geotourism and geoconservation affects the popularization of the geologic knowledge, didactics and scientific studies in this domain, as well as recreation and resting forms. In Poland ten national geoparks mainly within landscape parks are preliminary designated. Two areas are preferred now: Landscape Park Łuk Mużakowa and Complex of Jurassic Landscape Parks jointing with Ojców National Park. Key words: nature conservation, geopark, preliminary Polish list, geotourism Treść: Geoparki są szansą dla ochrony regionalnych wartości dziedzictwa geologicznego łącznie z krajobrazem i dla promocji ich znaczenia. Stwarzają one równocześnie dużą możliwość dla rozwoju geoturystyki oraz kształcenia uniwersyteckiego i innego w zakresie tej specyficznej dziedzinie. Mogą być one ośrodkami, które spełnią istotną rolę w popularyzacji i edukacji wiedzy geologicznej dla ogółu społeczeństwa, jak również centrami działalności i realizacji projektów ukierunkowanych zarówno na potrzeby geoochrony, jak i ekoochrony. Istnieje bezpośredni związek geoturystyki z geoochroną, a ma to wpływ zarówno na popularyzację geologii, oraz dydaktykę i badania naukowe w tym zakresie, jak też na formy rekreacji i wypoczynku. Dotychczas w Polsce wstępnie wytypowano 10 obszarów odpowiadających kryteriom geoparków, głównie w obrębie istniejących parków krajobrazowych. Spośród nich dwie propozycje zasługują na szczególne wyróżnienie, a dotyczą one Parku Krajobrazowego Łuk Mużakowa i Zespołu Jurajskich Parków Krajobrazowych łącznie z Ojcowskim Parkiem Narodowym. Słowa kluczowe: ochrona przyrody, geopark, wstępna polska lista, geoturystyka. Introduction The essence of nature conservation is to approach and treat its animated and inanimated elements in an integrated and sustainable way. A specific and characteristic feature of all the activities in the domain of the animated nature conservation is the overlapping of various national and international conservation systems, supported by conventions, agreements and directives. They all are aimed at one vital, ultimate target: the improvement of the biodiversity conserving global network. However, a certain disproportion in the treatment of animated and inanimated nature has been noted, since, until the present day, no international convention on, nor respective directives have been developed and established, that refer directly to geoconservation. And the impact of such a situation the geoconservation, contrary to bioconservation, has no necessary and effective enforcement and integration tools at the level of countries and continents. Geoparks are established within areas appearing representative from the point of view of particular geologic regions that have already been incorporated into diverse national categories of official, lawful protection and conservation systems. National authorities and bodies should certainly collaborate in establishing geoparks, but, first of all, local communities should be involved. In order to facilitate and prompt actions, and stimulate initiatives, UNESCO tries to make a Network of National Geoparks that would function on the basis of principles of the sustainable social and economic development of individual regions. For the first time, the geoparks have a real possibility to link up small areas and individual objects deserving to be conserved, into regional systems, which would be coherent with regard to geologic and geomorphologic evidences existing within given areas. This particular approach to and, further, the developing and utilizing of inanimated nature networks essentially impact the promotion and propagation of Earth Sciences, thus, raise their significance at a higher level in the global system of nature conservation. It also enhances, to a large extent, the development of national and international geotourism that promotes regions and areas interesting and attractive owing to their geologic and landscape features. On the one hand, geo-tourism should be classified as a qualified tourism, but, on the other hand, in the sense of a discipline, it should be placed in the domain of applied geology that is intended, mainly, for non-professionals. As in other countries, geotourism is a rather new term in Poland, and, therefore, needs to be precisely defined. And, probably, in the future, the category geotourism will be identified as a branch of geology important for the development of the national economy (Hose, 2000; Alexandrowicz & Alexandrowicz, 2002; Słomka & Kicińska-Świderska, 2004).

4 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Creation of geoparks The protection of geological features, nowadays commonly described as geoconservation, or, in a wider range, as conservation of the geological heritage became the subject matter of international interest and target of integrated research and investigations as late as in the 1980s. An event stimulating its spontaneous development was the formation of the European Association for the Conservation of the Geological Heritage ProGEO. This Association originated from the former Working Group established in The Netherlands (1988). During the First International Symposium at Digne (France) in 1991, a Digne Declaration of the Rights of the Memory of Earth was agreed, produced, and widely spread. Two years thereafter, ProGEO Association was granted the official status of a legal body (Germany, 1993). ProGEO members from individual countries in Europe are included in activities under the leading project Global Geosites set up by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS). The main objective of this project is to identify important geosites and to develop a Pan-European network that would be representative of the diversity of geological regions of both national and cross-border ranges. Essential materials used to elaborate this network are the following: registers of particularly important geologic outcrops, both natural and artificial, registers of specific forms of geological features and, also, information about them contained in the databank. Countries that have accessed this project established regional working groups; each group covered a particular part of Europe. Poland presides over the Central European Group of ProGEO, and, in Cracow, two international meetings of this Group (1997, 2003) have been held, organised by the Institute of Nature Conservation, Polish Academy of Sciences and Polish Geological Institute (Alexandrowicz ed., 1999; Ber, Alexandrowicz, Balabanis eds, 2004). The network of regional geosites includes all the locally important objects with the ability to designate a given area as a geopark to be supported by UNESCO. A concept of establishing an international network of Lithosphere Reserves (Geosphere Reserves) within the zone of areas protected by national laws was the first attempt and plan to promote important geologic regions in Europe which assemble numerous geosites. From the point of view of their scientific significance, these reserves were meant to be the equivalents to Biosphere Reserves MAB/UNESCO. The concept was presented by the author of this paper and by Mr. W.A.P. Wimbledon, Ph.D. (England), secretary of ProGEO, during The Second International Symposium of ProGEO in Rome (1996), and it won recognition and support (Alexandrowicz, Wimbledon, 1999). The planned name reserve was changed to geopark as ultimately approved by the Decision on Earth Sciences of UNESCO (1997) for it was necessary to link areas being promoted with the strategy of their social-economic development (Patzak, Eder, 1998). Since UNESCO gave no financial backing, the four countries members of the European Union (France, Spain, Germany and Greece) managed to receive a subsidy from the European Union s programme LEADER IIC, and as of mid-2000, works aiming at organizing a Network of European Geoparks within the countries - members of EU, commenced. Now, there is an INTERREG IIIC project that supports the initiatives connected with the development of geotourism in Europe, in particular within geoparks. During The First International Conference of Geoparks in Beijing (China, June 2004), held by UNESCO, two main streams of activities were combined, and a UNESCO World Network of Geoparks was set up. The 17 European geoparks, already established, were included, as were 8 new geoparks identified in China. Presently, there are 27 UNESCO Geoparks in Europe. The agreement between the Division on Earth Sciences of UNESCO and the European Geoparks Network has been confirmed by the Madonie Declaration (Italy, October 2004). Now, the newly established Division of Ecological and Earth Science of UNESCO support efforts within individual Member States of the creation the background for the geopark activities. The concept of UNESCO Network of National Geoparks has to be seen as complementary activities to the World Heritage and the Man and the Biosphere Reserves programmes (Patzak, 2005). UNESCO backed national geoparks are potential candidates to be incorporated into the gradually expanding world network. Special criteria and a procedure on how to draw up necessary documents have been developed for applicants seeking support and aid from UNESCO. Listing and, then, selecting geoparks should be the first phase of endeavours aiming at establishing, as a starting point, a European network of geoparks, and, later, a world network. The basic target of any geopark is to protect the geological heritage by using effective protection and conservation measures on geosites, wide promotion of geological sciences, and dissemination of their educational and tourist functions, and, on the other hand, the conflict-free use of natural values and amenities of a given area in the policy of sustainable social and economic development. The definition of sustainable development, as given by the World Commission for Environment and Development in a document entitled Our Common Future (1987), reads that sustainable development is the development that meets the needs and aspirations of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The criteria for a national geopark as pointed out in the aforesaid instructive document are listed in form of 11 items which define a geopark area from the point of view of requirements resulting from its scientific and educational importance, its social and economic role, and management methods. A geopark applying for a UNESCO support should: - comprise a territory of a sufficiently large area and with defined boundaries, be subject to national protection be governed by its own managing board and have a development plan; - contain a network of protected geological geosites of varying values that are accessible to touring and seeing, as well as other ecological, archaeological, historical, and cultural monuments; - favour sustainable social, cultural, and economic development; - be designated for, and serve environmental education,

5 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 1. The network of initially proposed geoparks in Poland 1 Geopark Yotwings in the cross-border Polish-Lithuanian area, 2 Muskau Arch Geopark in the cross-border Polish- Germany area, 3 Kamienna Valley Geopark in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts Region, 4 Chęciny-Kielce Geopark in the Świętokrzyskie (Holy Cross) Mts, 5 Jurassic Geopark in the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland, 6 - Ślęża Mt. Geopark in the Sudetic Foreland, 7 Intra-Sudetic Basin Geopark in the cross-border Polish-Czech area, 8 Śnieżnik Kłodzki Geopark in the cross-border Polish-Czech area in Sudetes, 9 Geopark of the Wieliczka Salt Mine or Geopark of the Bochnia Salt Mine or both jointing objects, 10 Pieniny Geopark in the Central Carpathians of the cross-border Polish-Slovakia Fig. 1. Sieć wstępnie proponowanych geoparków w Polsce 1 Geopark Jaćwingów na granicy polsko-litewskiej, 2 Geopark Łuku Mużakowa w obszarze pogranicznym Polski i Niemiec, 3 Geopark Doliny Kamiennej w północnym obrzeżeniu Gór Świętokrzyskich, 4 Geopark Chęcińsko-Kielecki, 5 Geopark Jurajski na Wyżynie Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej, 6 Geopark Ślęży na Przedgórzu Sudeckim, 7 Geopark Niecki Śródsudeckiej w obszarze pogranicznym polsko-czeskim, 8 Geopark Śnieżnika Kłodzkiego w obszarze pogranicznym polsko-czeskim, 9 Geopark Kopalni Soli Wieliczka albo Geopark Kopalni Soli w Bochni lub połączone obiekty, 10 Geopark Pienin w obszarze transgranicznym polsko-słowackim. training and interdisciplinary investigations and research; - cooperate with all environmental departments of national, regional and private administration, as well as with educational centres at various levels. Attempts to nominate a given area as a geopark require that data is provided and a special form is completed under current rules. National Boards, under the UNESCO organization, should play the role of first reviewer and intermediating agent in submitting a documentation referring to a given geopark to the UNESCO Department named above; in this Department, a special Team of Experts assesses the materials submitted and makes a local inspection visit to the area being nominated. A first attempt at the geopark concept in Poland In Poland, there are impediments to the process of planning geoparks, such as very poor information, improper understanding or incomprehension of the geopark definition and functions; moreover, there is a lack of initiatives to encourage local actions to support this concept from governmental bodies charged with responsibility for the state and development of diversified forms of nature conservation. During the first phase, endeavours should be undertaken towards creating a local body that would promote a given area, as well as towards developing the required documentations pursuant

6 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 2. The Nysa Łużycka River Valley the borderline between Polish and German parts of the proposed Muskau Arch Geopark, photo K. Miśkiewicz Dolina Nysy Łużyckiej granica między polską a niemiecką częścią proponowanego Geoparku Łuku Mużakowa, fot. K. Miśkiewicz to UNESCO requirements (Alexandrowicz, 2006a). Both organizations and people interested in geoparks become discouraged by lack of adequate and proper legal regulations. What is more, the Polish Law on Nature Conservation in force does not include the category geopark, and this fact makes the whole situation more difficult. However, it should definitely be added that the corresponding laws in the EU countries with geoparks already established do not have appropriate rules or regulations either. Nevertheless, this legal situation has neither dispirited initiators of geoparks nor was regarded a hindrance to their effective actions. Presently, consideration is being given to amending the Nature Conservation Law currently in force in Poland. One of the most vital needs is to enter into the law a category of national geopark similar to NATURA 2000 that has already been adopted. This proposed regulation would make it possible to nominate geoparks within areas having already been conserved. An initial Polish list of areas meeting the criteria of a geopark contains, so far, two areas in the lowland zone and eighth ones of the mountain and upland regions being proposed (Fig 1). The majority of those projects have already been presented during the international conference held in Cracow in 2003 (Ber, Alexandrowicz, Balabanis eds, 2004). They refer mainly to landscape parks, and, sometimes, to the national parks neighbouring them. Many Polish landscape parks have been established with the intention of creating, and meeting targets for, geoparks (Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2004; Kasiński et al., 2004; Urban, Wróblewski, 2004). Geoparks, similar to landscape parks, should include large areas of diversified relief reflecting regional geological evidence as well as the biological, cultural and historic diversity. Their features are very attractive for tourists and friendly to educational and research activity. For the purpose of achieving those targets, a network of nature reserves and of preserved inanimated objects from different categories appears particularly important (monuments and documentary sites) including, also, some geosites selected to be entered onto the European list provided they are adequately protected, and adapted for tourist visits. This initial list of the Polish geoparks should be made complete by incorporating into it additional areas, especially those from South-Western and Northern Poland; after the completion, a priority ranking and the final selection of all the listed geoparks should be made. At present, the most advanced project is Muskau Arch Geopark (the Polish name: Geopark Łuku Mużakowa). It is Polish and German trans-boundary area stretching on the both sides of the upper course of the Nysa (Neisse) Łużycka River (Fig. 2). Within Polish territory, this area is situated within the borders of a Landscape Park Łuk Mużakowa (Badura i in., 2002, Kasiński et al., 2004). In Germany, a Mecklenburg Ice Age Park has already been created. The attempts and endeavours to establish a German- Polish Muskau Arch Geopark has not been closed, and they are

7 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 3. The artificial lake with erosional forms on the shore in abandoned excavation in Bronowice near Łękawica, photo K. Miśkiewicz Sztuczne jezioro o erozyjnych brzegach w opuszczonym wyrobisku w Bronowicach w pobliżu Łękawicy, fot. K. Miśkiewicz still progressing (Bieniasz et al. 2005). In 2004, the described trans-boundary area was introduced into the UNESCO World Heritage (WH) List as an ideal man-made landscape of a culture park in Europe, created by Prince Hermann von Puckler-Muskau between 1815 and The Muskau Park (Park Mużakowski) UNESCO has been classified according to the criteria determining its significance as the masterpiece of human creative genius [criterion C (i)] and cultural landscape [criterion CL]. The crucial geological and geomorphologic values have not been pointed out when justifying why this particular area has been nominated to enter the UNESCO WH List. Generally speaking, in the case of other European objects entered in the UNESCO WH List, there is no reference to those two types of values in the sense of nature-related attributes of them, either (Alexandrowicz et al., 2006). The proposed trans-boundary Muskau Arch Geopark represents unusual morphologic structure of the Scandinavian ice-sheet s moraine lobe, which is 40 km long and about 25 km wide. The main outer lobe swell is composed of glaciotectonicaly deformed Miocene deposits and sediments of old Pleistocene glaciations witch pressed out were cut and younger moraines were brought into them. The zone of glaciotectonicaly deformations reaches 150 m of the thickness. The geological, industrial and cultural history of Muskau Arch area connects with Miocene brown coal mining and industry based on clays, sand and gravels excavated during the 19 th and 20 th centuries. The abandoned open-cast mines and open pits have been filled with water of varying chemical compositions of green and blue colour shades, forming exceptional anthropogenic landscape that looks like a lake district (Figs 3 and 4). Within the cross-border geopark designed, 95 geotops (geosites) with scientific and tourist-educational values have been documented (Kasiński et al., 2004). Museum exhibitions and numerous didactic trails, leaflets and publications just are arranged and prepared for general public. The first national suggestion presented during the conferences on nature conservations was the Jurassic Geopark in the region of the Cracow-Częstochowa Upland (Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2000, 2001). Further, this project was outlines during the International Conference in Cracow (2005), Fig. 4. The acidified lake colored in red by iron compounds, the abandoned excavation near Łękawica, photo K. Miśkiewicz Kwaśne wody jeziora zabarwione na czerwono związkami żelaza w opuszczonym wyrobisku w pobliżu Łękawicy, fot. K. Miśkiewicz and was entitled A concept to establish a Jurassic Geopark on the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. This conference was held by the Class of Natural Sciences of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as by the Institute of Nature Conservation of the Polish Academy of Sciences. During the conference, there was explanation of the procedure for establishing national geoparks; the project of the Jurassic Geopark triggered of a vivid discussion and was accepted. It can be only hoped that this debate, pursued in the presence of the Directors of the Jurassic Landscape Parks and Nature Conservators of Provinces (Voivodships), will be a key step towards the beginning and developing of initiatives for the benefit of the Jurassic Geopark. Within this Park, there are two other parks: the Ojców National Park and the Complex of seven Landscape Parks called Jurassic Landscape Parks with their buffer zone and proposed Jurassic National Park. The total surface area of the Jurassic Geopark being developed is 2460 km 2. The proposed Jurassic Geopark extends across Silesian- Cracow Monocline elevated in the northern peri-thetyan Shelf. The monocline structure inclined gradually towards north-east is build of geological formations representing the time span Middle Devonian Upper Cretaceous. Thick complex of Upper Jurassic massive and bedded limestones is the main geological background of the geopark. This region called Polish Jura Chain represents most typical karstland of Poland (Figs 5 8). The top plateau of the upland raising up to about 500 m a.s.l. is the Paleogene peneplain transformed and crowned now by numerous limestone hills with rocky forms described as mogotes or monadnocks and dissected by deep valleys (Pokorny, 1963). The massive limestones of monadnocks are connected exclusively with typical carbonate cyanobacterial-sponge buildups and distributed within the Middle Oxfordian particularly (Matyszkiewicz, 1997; Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2003). The relief of landforms has been shaped by karst processes generated the enlargement of joint, gravitational displacements of rocky mass, cave levels and rocky-shelters with traces of different prehistoric cultures. The ruins of medieval castles crowning rocky hills are enriching the natural landscape. In the southern part of

8 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 5. Rocky group of Jurassic massive limestones (Middle Oxfordian) separated by enlarged fissures on the plateau of Cracow Upland, photo Z. Alexandrowicz Grupa skałek wapiennych (wapienie skaliste środkowego Oksfordu) rozdzielone poszerzonymi szczelinami, wznoszące się ponad wyrównaną powierzchnią Wyżyny Krakowskiej, fot. Z. Alexandrowicz Fig. 6. Limestone hardrocks raising above the Paleogene planation surface; the view from the top of monadnock Grodzisko in Jerzmanowice (512 m a.s.l.) near Kraków, photo Z. Alexandrowicz Ostaniec Grodzisko (512 m n.p.m.) w Jerzmanowicach, wznoszący się ponad paleogeńską powierzchnią zrównania, fot. Z. Alexandrowicz the Upland the relief reflects tectonic structures belonging to the Carpathian Foredeep. Several horsts formed of Upper Jurassic limestones spread as narrow hills elongated from west to eastward. They are separated by tectonic depressions filled with Miocene clays. Pleistocene glacial and fluvioglacial deposits and Holocene tufa, travertines, and fluviatile sediments partly cover the upland. Fig. 7. The general view of the landscape rocky scenery near Ogrodzieniec village in the middle part of Jura Chain, photo Z. Alexandrowicz Widok na skalną scenerię krajobrazu w okolicy Ogrodzieńca, fot. Z. Alexandrowicz Diversified relief determined microclimate conditions manifest in great differentiation of habitats and the same, in great natural richness and biodiversity (Alexandrowicz et al., 2004). The phenomenon of Jura Chain lies in that it has preserved this natural richness and landscape scenery despite the many hundred years of man s impact. This area has long tradition of investigations in aspect to the nature and historic and cultural development as well as of tourist traffic (Gradziński i in., 1994; Partyka ed. 2002, 2004a, b, 2005). By the 19 th century, this

9 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 8. The ruins of the medieval castle into the stone town of Castle Hill near Ogrodzieniec. photo Z. Alexandrowicz Ruiny średniowiecznego zamku wkomponowane w grupę ostańców wapiennych Góry Zamkowej koło Ogrodzieńca, fot. Z. Alexandrowicz area was a frequently visited place owing to its alluring rocky landscape and numerous ruins of mediaeval castles situated here. During the nineteen-fifties, Prof. Zygmunt Novák, a professor at the Cracow Technical University (in Polish: Politechnika Krakowska) was an initiator of the project to conserve the landscape of the Kraków and Częstochowa Upland. Thanks to the endeavours of this Professor and his assistants, a wide Complex of the Jurassic Landscape Parks was established; the Parks were connected together by a buffer zone. Within this Complex, there are now 28 nature reserves including 16 geological and landscape reserves; five (5) from among them are promoted and suggested for entering the European List GEOSITES (Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 1999; Alexandrowicz, 2003, 2006b). The hitherto network of preserved objects contains a further approximately 200 monuments of inanimated nature; they are either single or small groups of limestones tors, caves, and springs. There are also numerous accepted and proposed items for the conservation documentary geosites, especially old quarries. The surface area of the geopark being planned is easy accessible; this geopark is situated close to university and other training centres. Particularly, the National Park of Ojców is very often visited by countless tourists, for example, in the year 2001, the total number of tourists was accessed to be 400,000 (Partyka ed., 2002). The areas covering alluring landscapes are available for tourists who can walk through them along the tourist routes established long ago; the most famous tourist route is The Route of Eagles Nests and connects historical places with hills on which castle ruins are still present. The didactic paths run along those tourist routes, or parts of them; some of those paths function as independent routes. High nature, landscape, and culture values promote the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland as the prospective geopark. Other circumstances facilitating prompt actions to establish the Jurassic Park are to be attributed to the two important factors: this area has been well reconnoitred from many wideranging aspects, and the management developed here has been adequate and proper. Now, the first step, and the initiative, belongs both to the directors board responsible for the areas under conservation and to the local governments. The role of geoparks in promoting geotourism Geoparks are created, pursuant to their definition, within the conserved areas and regions having especially interesting elements of inanimated nature and a structural landscape; the two latter determine and enable the popularization and education in the domain of Earth Sciences (Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2002). At the same time, they are the chief tasks of geotourism; however, it is necessary for geotourism to fulfil its role within a geopark that these two values must be revaluated, with long term protection, and adjusted to the visits of tourists. Geotourism does not only mean aesthetic impressions or briefly learning about the whole area; it is, first of all, the comprehension of its past and of the contemporary processes of transitions and transformations. In this particular range, promoting the knowledge is addressed to local and regional communities, but also to the international

10 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Fig. 9. Relation between geotourism and geoconservation (after Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2002) Geoturystyka i geoochrona wzajemne powiązania i zależności (według Alexandrowicz, Alexandrowicz, 2002) societies; it refers to the idea of world systems of conservation and protection. Within the domain of geotourism, there are preferred areas and objects conserved, which are the most attractive, except for those that are subject to a rigorous conservation. Examples of such areas are the properly organized, from the point of view of tourism and visits, and effectively promoted areas in Great Britain and France (Hose, 2000; Martini, 2000). Similarly as in other countries, the best area to actively promote geotourism in Poland are national and landscape parks and the latter better meet the principles and assumptions of geoparks. Beside the tourist functions, national and landscape parks can successfully carry out their educational tasks. There is a direct relation between geotourism and geoconservation; this relation directly influences on the popularization of the geologic knowledge, didactics and scientific studies in this domain, as well as recreation and resting forms (Fig. 9). University education should refer to the development of geotourism comprehended and outlined above. For this purpose, it is necessary to educate a team of geologists and geomorphologists prepared and ready to popularize and professionally guide both the excursions of this kind and the fields classes (Słomka, 2005, Słomka et al. 2006). In geotourism, from the point of view of learning about one s own country, it is especially important for the public that national values of geology and landscape relief are accentuated and enhanced, as is making them directly accessible, and popularizing them among people using popular-scientific publications, additionally, it is the utmost importance to enable people to identify themselves with those values, and, through this, to get more deeply and closely involved with the own country s nature and culture. 10

11 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Streszczenie Ochrona przyrody nieożywionej, określana dziś powszechnie jako geoochrona lub ochrona dziedzictwa geologicznego, dopiero w drugiej połowie ubiegłego wieku stała się przedmiotem zainteresowania międzynarodowego i integracji badań. W swojej działalności i osiągnięciach jest ona nadal znacznie opóźniona w stosunku do funkcjonujących od dawna konwencji i programów dotyczących ochrony współczesnego świata roślin i zwierząt. Przełomowymi momentami i milowymi krokami w rozwoju geoochrony były następujące wydarzenia: utworzenie inicjatywnej Grupy roboczej złożonej z przedstawicieli kilku państw europejskich (Holandia 1988), zorganizowanie pierwszego międzynarodowego sympozjum pod patronatem UNESCO (Francja 1991) i uchwalenie wówczas a następnie rozpowszechnienie Deklaracji Prawa Pamięci o Ziemi oraz powstanie Europejskiej Asocjacji Ochrony Dziedzictwa Geologicznego ProGEO (Niemcy 1993). Polska nie tylko uczestniczyła w tych znaczących wydarzeniach, ale również objęła przewodniczenie Grupy roboczej ProGEO krajów Centralnej Europy w programowych pracach zmierzających do utworzenia pan-europejskiej sieci ważnych geostanowisk, reprezentatywnych względem zróżnicowania regionów geologicznych o przestrzennych zasięgach krajowych i transgranicznych. Informacje o geostanowiskach gromadzone w bankach danych, niestety nierównomiernie w poszczególnych państwach, w dalszym etapie współpracy mają podlegać selekcji ułatwiającej wybór najważniejszych obiektów do wspomnianej sieci. Tego rodzaju bank, opracowany w Instytucie Ochrony Przyrody Polskiej Akademii Nauk w Krakowie, obejmuje dotychczas 175 obiektów i jest pierwszym w Europie, udokumentowanym zgodnie z instrukcją ProGEO. Sieć ochrony regionalnych geostanowisk, uzupełniona obiektami o znaczeniu lokalnym, jest głównym motywem dla nominacji obszaru jako geoparku wspieranego przez UNESCO. Inicjalnym zamiarem promowania w Europie ważnych regionów, skupiających liczne geostanowiska, była koncepcja utworzenia międzynarodowej sieci Rezerwatów Litosfery (Geosfery), jako odpowiedników Rezerwatów Biosfery MAB/UNESCO (Międzynarodowe Sympozjum ProGEO w Rzymie, 1996). Koncepcja ta mimo dużego poparcia uległa zmianie, bowiem decyzją UNESCO już w następnym roku dla takich obszarów przyjęto nazwę geopark. Jego podstawowym, niezmienionym zadaniem jest ochrona dziedzictwa geologicznego poprzez efektywne zabezpieczanie zespołów wartościowych obiektów, szeroką ich promocję w dydaktyce i turystyce. Ta działalność ma się opierać na bezkonfliktowym wykorzystaniu naturalnych walorów obszaru w polityce zrównoważonego rozwoju społecznego i ekonomicznego. Pod kątem tych wymagań zostały opracowane kryteria wyboru oraz procedura nominacji geoparku. Tworzy się go na obszarze podlegającym już narodowej prawnej ochronie. Szczególnie preferowanymi obszarami są parki krajobrazowe i innego rodzaju chronione duże obszary z włączeniem niekiedy sąsiadujących parków narodowych. W Polsce wstępna lista proponowanych geoparków obejmuje dotychczas 10 obszarów (fig.1). Dwa spośród nich, zaprezentowanie już w czasie różnych konferencji krajowych i zagranicznych jako przyszłe geoparki, powinny być uwzględnione w pierwszym etapie starań o ich zatwierdzenie zgodnie z obowiązującą procedurą UNESCO. Są to: transgraniczny Geopark Łuku Mużakowa, który po stronie polskiej ma objąć Park Krajobrazowy Łuk Mużakowa (fig. 2 4) oraz Jurajski Geopark w obrębie Zespołu Jurajskich Parków Krajobrazowych łącznie z Ojcowskim Parkiem Narodowym (fig. 5 8). Europejskie Geoparki uznane przez UNESCO, których obecnie jest 27, są utworzone w obszarach o szczególnie interesujących elementach geologicznych, wyraźnie wyeksponowanych w krajobrazie. Te walory są nieodzownymi nośnikami, które warunkują i umożliwiają popularyzację i edukację w zakresie nauk o Ziemi, a zatem również w geoturystyce. Aby ona mogła w pełni rozwijać się, wytypowane obiekty muszą być zwaloryzowane, trwale zabezpieczone i przystosowane do zwiedzania. Nadrzędną funkcją geoturystyki jest ułatwienie zrozumienia przeszłości geologicznej i współczesnych procesów przemian jak również kojarzących się z tym potrzeb ochrony i przestrzegania jej zasad. Obszary i obiekty chronione jako najbardziej atrakcyjne są szczególnie preferowane w geoturystyce, za wyjątkiem tych, które podlegają ścisłej ochronie. W Polsce, podobnie jak w innych krajach, czynne uprawianie geoturystyki ma największe możliwości w parkach narodowych i parkach krajobrazowych. Te ostatnie najbardziej odpowiadają założeniom geoparków, bowiem obok funkcji turystycznych można z powodzeniem realizować programy edukacyjne. Istnieje bezpośredni związek geoturystyki z geoochroną, a ma to wpływ zarówno na popularyzację wiedzy geologicznej, dydaktykę i badania naukowe w tym zakresie, jak też na formy rekreacji i wypoczynku (fig. 9). Kształcenie na różnym szczeblu powinno nawiązywać w swoich programach do tak rozumianego kierunku rozwoju geoturystyki. W tym celu konieczne jest wykształcenie kadry geologów i geomorfologów jako przewodników, przygotowanych do popularyzacji i profesjonalnego prowadzenia tego typu wycieczek i zajęć terenowych. Upowszechnienie wiedzy o geologii, a zwłaszcza poprzez publikacje popularno-naukowe oraz ścieżki turystyczno-dydaktyczne, jest dla szerokiego ogółu społeczeństwa szczególnie ważne nie tylko ze względu na poznanie kraju, ale także na identyfikowanie się i głębszą więź z jego przyrodą i kulturą. Te cele ściśle łączą geoturystkę z geoparkami. 11

12 Geopark nature protection category aiding the promotion of geotourism (Polish perspectives) Literatura (References) Alexandrowicz, S.W. & Alexandrowicz, Z Pattern of karst landscape of the Cracow Upland (South Poland). Acta Carsologica, 32/1; 4: Alexandrowicz, S.W. & Alexandrowicz, Z Selected geosites of the Cracow Upland. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 2: Alexandrowicz, Z. (ed.) Representative geosites of Central Europe. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 2: Alexandrowicz, Z Ochrona dziedzictwa geologicznego Polski w koncepcji europejskiej sieci stanowisk. Przegląd Geologiczny, 51; 3: Alexandrowicz, Z. 2006a. Geoparki nowe wyzwanie dla ochrony dziedzictwa geologicznego. Przegląd Geologiczny, 54; 1: Alexandrowicz, Z. 2006b. Framework of European geosites in Poland. Nature Conservation, 62: Alexandrowicz, Z. & Alexandrowicz, S.W Draft project of Jurassic Geopark in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland (Southern Poland). Ann. Meeting ProGEO, Prague. Abstracts: 6-7. Alexandrowicz, Z. & Alexandrowicz, S.W Wyżyna Krakowsko-Częstochowska w koncepcji międzynarodowej sieci UNESCO GEOPARK. W: Partyka J. (ed.), Badania naukowe w południowej części Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Materiały Konferencyjne, Ojcowski Park Narodowy, Ojców: Alexandrowicz, Z. & Alexandrowicz, S.W Geoturystyka a promocja dziedzictwa geologicznego. W: Partyka J (ed.), Użytkowanie turystyczne parków narodowych. Ruch turystyczny zagospodarowanie konflikty zagrożenia: Alexandrowicz, Z. & Alexandrowicz, S.W Geoparks the most valuable landscape parks in Southern Poland. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 13: Alexandrowicz, Z., Dyduch-Falniowska, A. & Mróz, W The pattern of geo- and biodiversity conservation in Poland. In: Parkes M.A. (ed.), Natural and Cultural Landscapes The Geological Foundation: Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Alexandrowicz, Z., Urban, J. & Miśkiewicz, K Geological values of selected Polish sites of the UNESCO World Heritage List. In: Brilha J. (ed.), Proceedings of IV Intern. Symp. ProGEO on the Conservation of the Geological Heritage. Univ. Braga, Portugal. Alexandrowicz, Z. & Wimbledon, W.A.P The concept of world lithosphere reserves. Mem. Descr. Carta Geol. d Italia, 54: Badura, J., Gawlikowska, E., Kasiński, J.R., Koźma, J., Kupetz, M., Piwocki, M. & Rascher, J Geopark Łuk Mużakowa proponowany transgraniczny obszar ochrony georóżnorodności. Przegląd Geologiczny, 51: Ber, A., Alexandrowicz, Z. & Balabanis, P. (eds) Proceedings of the Conference Geological heritage concept, conservation and protection policy in Central Europe. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 13: Bieniasz, J.J., Kupetz, M. & Mielchen, V The German-Polish Geopark Muskau Arch Concept and development. 6 th European Geoparks Network Meeting, Lesvos Island, Greece, Abstracts: Gradziński, R., Gradziński, M. & Michalik, S Natura i kultura w krajobrazie Jury. Zarząd Zespołu Jurajskich Parków Krajobrazowych w Krakowie, Tom Przyroda, Kraków, 119 pp. Hose, T. A European geotourism geological interpretation and geoconservation promotion for tourists. In: Barettino D., Wimbledon W.A.P., Gallego E. (eds), Geological Heritage its Conservation and Management: Madrid, Spain. Kasiński, J. R., Koźma, J. & Gawlikowska, E Geotopes of the proposed Muskau Arch Geopark inventory, classification and evaluation. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 13: Martini, G Geological heritage and geo-tourism. In: Barettino D., Wimbledon W.A.P., Gallego E. (eds), Geological Heriage its Conservation and Management: Matyszkiewicz, J Microfacies, sedimentation and some aspects of diagenesis of Upper Jurassic sediments from the elevated part of the Northern peri-tethyan Shelf: a comparative study on the Lochen area (Schwäbische Alb) and the Cracow area (Cracow-Wieluń Upland, Polen). Berliner Geowiss. Abhandl., E, 21: Operational Guideline for National Geoparks seeking UNESCO s assistance. UNESCO, 2004, Paris, 14 pp. Partyka, J. (ed.) Użytkowanie turystyczne parków narodowych. Ruch turystyczny zagospodarowanie konflikty zagrożenia. Instytut Ochrony Przyrody PAN, Ojcowski P.N., Ojców: 770 pp. Partyka, J. (ed.) 2004a. Zróżnicowanie i przemiany środowiska przyrodniczo-kulturalnego Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Tom 1 Przyroda: 389 pp. Partyka, J. (ed.) 2004b. Zróżnicowanie i przemiany środowiska przyrodniczo-kulturalnego Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Tom 2 Kultura: 414 pp. Partyka, J. (ed.) Zróżnicowanie i przemiany środowiska przyrodniczokulturalnego Wyżyny Krakowsko-Częstochowskiej. Tom 3 Suplement: 320 pp. Patzak, M UNESCO Geoparks Activities. 6 th European Geoparks Network Meeting, Lesvos Island, Greece. Abstracts: Patzak, M. & Eder, W UNESCO GEOPARK. A new programme a new UNESCO label. Geol. Balcanica, 28, 3-4: Pokorny, J The development of mogotes in the southern part of the Cracow Upland. Bull. Acad. Pol. Sci., Ser. Geol. and Geogr., 11/3: Słomka, T Geoturystyka w Akademii Górniczo-Hutniczej w Krakowie. Przegląd Geologiczny, 53: Słomka, T. & Kicińska-Świderska, A Geoturystyka podstawowe pojęcia. Geoturystyka, 1: 1-7. Słomka, T., Kicińska-Świderska, A., Doktor, M. & Joniec, A Katalog obiektów geoturystycznych w Polsce. Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Krakowie: 260 pp. Urban, J. & Wróblewski, T Chęciny-Kielce Landscape Park an example of officially not proclaimed geopark. Polish Geol. Inst. Special Papers, 13:

13 Geoturystyka 2 (5) 2006): Wine, Geology and Tourism Wino, geologia i turystyka Bartolomej Baláž and Pavol Rybár Technical University Košice, Faculty BERG, Slovakia, Letná 9, Košice, Slovakia Abstract: Wine is a unique drink, which, when consumed moderately, can significantly improve the health condition. Quality and uniqueness of wine is predominantly dependent on the geological structure of the vineyard locality. Slovakia is lucky enough to possess all elements for high-quality wine production, being able to compete with European, as well as worldwide products. Brief description of history of divine liquor is presented, as well as characteristics of Slovak wine regions and produced wines. Geotourism is connected with the existing and planned Wine Routs. Key words: vineyard, wine, wine varieties, viticulture regions, wine quality, wine producing companies, climate, geological setting and chemical composition, viticulture tourism, Wine Route. Treść: Wino jest napojem niezwykłym. Jeśli spożywamy je w umiarkowanych ilościach może w sposób znaczący wpłynąć na poprawę naszego stanu zdrowia. Jakość i wyjątkowość wina uzależnione są głównie od budowy geologicznej obszaru, na którym znajduje się winnica. Słowacja jest w szczęśliwej sytuacji, gdyż posiada wszystkie elementy niezbędne do produkcji wysokiej jakości win, mogących konkurować z winami europejskimi, a nawet światowymi. Autorzy przedstawiają krótką historię tego boskiego napoju wraz z charakterystyką regionów produkcji win na Słowacji i samych win. Geoturystyka wiąże się ściśle z istniejącymi i planowanymi Szlakami Winnymi. Słowa kluczowe: winnica, wino, rodzaje win, regiony produkcji win, jakość wina, producenci win, klimat, budowa geologiczna i skład chemiczny, turystyka winna, Szlaki Winne. Introduction In the past few years wine drinking, in terms of cultural and social consumption of this alcoholic beverage, has become increasingly popular. Wine is no less the discovery of the XXIth century it is an old-time drink, i.e.: timeless and transnational. Vine grape and its product wine has played a central role in human culture for more than 8,000 years. It has always been associated with mythology, religion and cultural development. In ancient Egypt grapevine plant and wine were connected with the rebirth of God Osiris. Ancient Greeks honored the god of wine Dionysus (identified with the Roman Bacchus). Wine reached its foremost sanctity in the Christian religion. In the Bible grapevine and wine are mentioned a great deal. According to the Bible, the very first and well-known winemaker and user was Noah: And Noah, the man of soil began to cultivate the land and planted a vineyard. And he drank of the wine, and was drunken and was uncovered within his tent (Genesis, 9, 20-21). Jesus first miracle was turning water into wine for the marriage celebration at Caana. (John, 2, 1-12). The greatest transubstantiation (the process in which one substance changes into another) of wine in the Christianity is the symbolic change of wine into the blood: When he had given thanks he took his grail with the words: You all drink of it; this is my blood of the covenant which will be poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins (Matthew, 26, 27-28). Up to these days communion wine has been used (according to Jesus words) as a symbol of sacrifice at the Holy Mass. Recently, scientific reasons have been raised in order to support moderate wine drinking,. It has commenced with the introduction of a new term: the French Paradox. In France a research was carried out to determine the effect of wine consummation among the population of middle-age and elder males who are physically inactive junk-food eaters and heavy smokers,. The study focused on the influence of wine drinking on the death rate and resulted in the statistics displayed as J-letter-shaped graph (the x axis showed the numbers of wine glasses emptied daily, the y axis indicated the number of mortalities per 100,000 inhabitants). The minimum death rate (cca 1,250 mortalities/100,000 people) corresponds to the consumption of 1 or 2 glasses of wine per day. The studies carried on in other highly developed countries, e.g. in the USA proved that people consuming wine in moderation were in a significantly better shape than those who did not drink wine at all (Malík, et al., 1999) (Fig. 1). Wine chemistry So what are the components contributing to the positive influence of wine on human body? Based on scientific research, the cardio-vascular diseases as well as aging are caused by so called free radicals oxidants. Substances successfully reducing their effect are called antioxidants. The human body is capable of creating its own protective substances (antioxidants), but in insufficient quantities. Wine is, in fact, a sort of alcohol 13

14 Wine, Geology and Tourism Fig. 1. J - shaped diagram. Function of mortality of men in the USA (vertical axis y: mortality per 100,000 inhabitants) versus amount of drunk cups of wine (horizontal axis x: number of cups) (after Malík et al., 1999) Wykres zależności pomiędzy śmiertelnością mężczyzn w USA (oś y liczba zgonów na mieszkańców) a liczbą spożywanych dziennie szklanek wina (oś x liczba szklanek wina dziennie) (wg. Malika et al. 1999) diluted in water: approx. 75 % water and other components: sugar, acids and microelements acting as bioaccelerators stimulating hormone and ferment levels (Cu, Fe, Co, Mn, Br, J). Wine contains also vitamins (B-complex, H and C) and other important compounds: polyphenols, flavanoids, antocyans and catechins (www.vitis.sk). Among phenolic compounds (flavonoids, oligocatechins, catechins, stilbens), that are present in relatively large amounts in most fruits (apple, peach, strawberry, orange) and in tea (black and, even more, in green tea), most occur in the red wine, as well. Commonly, querticin and non-flavonoid stilben resveratrol were indicated (Malík et al., 1999). Wine helps the heart by stimulating the liver to produce good HDL cholesterol, which prevents the attachment of bad LDL-cholesterol to the walls of blood vessels. Finally, at least half of wine beneficial influence on human body is contributed by alcohol. Wine consumed with meals reduces the intensity of blood coagulation that is, in most cases, the last blow when the myocardial infarction occurs. Alcohol in wine decreases the risk of dysentery, gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer (some gastric ulcers and forms of gastric cancer may be caused by Helicobacter pilori). Moderate and regular consumption of wine adds to prevent the hepatitis-a. A higher concentration of alcohol in blood is not beneficial regarding its direct elimination. Direct alcohol elimination works through acetaldehyde, thus, stimulating an excessive oxidation that is harmful and may damage important body organs such as the heart, brain and blood vessels (Malík et al., 1999). We should remember to consume wine in moderation (one or two glasses) moreover, even in France male mortality caused by the liver cirrhosis is mostly linked to the alcohol overindulgence! The grapevine Grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is a liana, which, just like any other plant, has specific demands for its own biotope primarily the lowest and the highest temperature, the amount of precipitation, the duration of vegetative period and the duration of daylight and sunshine. Most of these factors are determined by local, geographic and climatic conditions. Virtually all the vineyards, either in the northern or southern hemisphere, are located in the mild climatic zone, between the latitudes 30 and 50, where the average annual temperatures range from +10 to +20 C (except for Germany the areas reaching 53 latitude are balanced by the continental climate). If the average temperature gets lower, grapevine would not produce grapes suitable for wine production. The optimal temperature ranges between +14 and +15 C whereas summer temperatures should not drop below +10 C and the winter ones below -1 C (Stevenson, 2002). Minimal temperatures are hazardous, especially in springtime when frosts may damage the vineyard. The amount of sunshine should reach at least 1,300 solar dials (or as much as 1,500) and the optimal rainfall should be around 680 mm (marginal numbers from 600 to 1,500 mm) as excessive rain under warm conditions can be more damaging than under cold ones (Stevenson,2002). Another important determinant proves to be the hill slope gradient and orientation. The most suitable orientations for the northern temperate climate zone are SE and SW whereas vineyards of the subtropical Greek islands are situated on the northern slopes (e.g. Crete). The oldest known occurrence of the Vitis goes back to the Jurrasic period with its estimated age of 150 My. There are findings of the Vitis leafs imprints in the chalk layers in Bohemia and in Portugal. Recently, the well-known species Vitis vinifera sativa does not originate from Vitis vinifera sylvatica, widespread in Europe but from the Caucasian species Vitis vinifera caucasica, that has extended from the Indus River to the Black Sea. Vitis vinifera had existed all over the northern hemisphere as early as since the Tertiary, (ca 40 My ago). At the beginning of the Quaternary the vine had been supplanted to the South a couple of times and, after climate warmings, it migrated as far to the north as to Sweden and Norway. Additionally, in Greenland recently occupied by the arctic climate the Vitis arctica species still exists (Bezák and Suk, 1999). The art of grapevine growing extended from the Indus River valley to Asia, to the Near East, further on to the East, to China, and to the Middle East (Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, Egypt). In the tombs of Egyptian pharaohs a great number of wall paintings were found depicting the full technological procedure of grapevine growing and wine making, up to their consummation. In Egypt the viticulture reached its peak in the years 2,700 2,400ys B.C. There were discovered jars made of burnt clay with marked wine quality, origin and the name of the vineyard manager (!). The names of cultivated grape varieties are also known (Staněk, 1998 fide Andráš, 2004). Later on, grape growing expanded from Egypt to Greece and was spreaded throughout the whole Mediterranean world by the Greek colonists. The Greek god Dionysus was considered the originator of winemaking. Growing grapevine and drinking wine (diluted in water) became a part of Greeks dining and culture. The Greeks transported wine in the amphoras and leather bags for their own use or for sale. 14

15 Wine, Geology and Tourism Fig. 2. Iron pruning knife from the IIIrd century AD, found at Alamenev site near Nižná Myšľa village, Košice county. Knife is approx. 15 cm long. (Phot. L. Olexa, 2002). Żelazny nóż to przycinania pędów winorośli z III wieku n.e., znaleziony na stanowisku Alamenev koło wsi Nižná Myšľa, powiat Košice. Długość noża ok. 15 cm (fot. L. Olexa, 2002) The European wine producers experienced the hardest times at the end of the XIXth century, when Phylloxera vastaterix destroyed almost all vineyards. Paradoxically, this disaster has contributed to a growing demand for wine and has stimulated the planting of resistant varieties in order to rise the production. However, the quality of European grapes and wines significantly decreased. After Phyloxera invasion highly resistant sorts of American grapes (Vitis vinifera ssp. berlandieri, riparia or rupestris) had to be introduced and replanted again in the best and safest vineyards. In this way changing a disaster into gain the stronger grape resistance and the higher quality of European wines were attained (Stevenson, 2002). The cultivation It is estimated that grapes cultivation has reached the Slovak territory along with wheat, barley, rye and poppy from Asia Minor about 3,000 B.C. In the vicinity of Smolenice wine containers and prune-knives from the VII-VIth centuries B.C. were found (Andráš, 2004). In the Eastern Slovakia (Nižná Myšľa), pruning knife from the IIIrd century was discovered (Olexa, 2002) (Fig. 2). The Romans who adopted the advanced Greek cultural heritage significantly contributed to the expansion of viticulture throughout Europe. The Roman Empire introduced wine grape cultivation in all the countries occupied by the Roman legions. In these times vine was grown in Italy and also imported from Greek islands, Asia Minor, Hispania and Dalmatia. The Romans launched vine growing in the provinces of Pannonia, Dacia and far beyond the Roman Empire. The Roman historian Eutropius provided the information on Marcus Aurelius Probus ( A.D.) who ordered his soldiers to plant the vineyards in Gaul and in Pannonia (Matuška, 1985). A new flourishing period for the viticulture began in the XIII century the century of wine at the peak of Medieval Ages. Wine was exported to all parts of Europe, predominantly by rivers and by the sea. As bottles were rather unusual and expensive, it was transported in barrels. White wines were meant for the rich and the red ones for the poor consumers. Varieties of cultivated grapes contained significantly less sugar and, as wines were not sweetened, the alcohol content was low. This, on the other hand, caused a very low preservability: when the barrel was opened, wine had to be consumed immediately. The Tartar invasion of the Central Europe depopulated many countries and, consequently, most of the vineyards disappeared. Viticulture in Ugrian territory recovered soon after the Tartars withdrawal. The King Belo IV invited German and Italian settlers who very likely introduced the Furmint one of the most popular Tokaj wine varieties originating from the area of Formina. At this time, based on the climate conditions and the relief, six vineyard areas have been established (Hronský, 2001), which have survived until now. The next favorable period for the development of viticulture was the Renaissance. Since then viticulture began to develop up to the present time. Good health of vine grapes depends on the climatic impact during vegetation, as well as the quality of vineyard services. The quantity is influenced by the variety of grape as well as the quality of maintenance, cutting and fertilizing. The less grape is picked from a shrub the better is the wine characteristics: its composition, taste and aroma, i.e., its quality. In many countries, including Slovakia (Act No.182/2005 Zb.) the state regulations were issued determining the amount of harvested wine grape from one hectare. In Slovakia the maximum is 14,000 kg per hectare for making prime-quality and high-quality wines from a registered vineyard (so called regional wines ), and 9,500 kg/ha for production of wine with the attribute. Under the Central European climatic conditions vine producers have been trying to accomplish their grapewine harvest as late as possible in order to secure the highest possible natural sugar content in the grapes. However, sugar content is not the only criterion of high quality: to get the richness, wine has to have enough acids to give wine the flavor. Wine low in acids is said to be dull (flat, short) whereas this with high acids content becomes heavy and harsh. If acidity is in harmony with the rest of wine components, its flavor is crisp, well-balanced and lasting (Malík, 2004). For the grape must and the wine the content of the following acids is crucial: tartaric, malate, lactic and citric. Some acids transfer to wine from grapes, the other ones are generated in the process of fermentation (lactic and carbonic acids). One of the factors determining quality and specific flavor of wine is the soil on which grapevine is cultivated. The wine experts pay more attention to the physical characteristics of soil than to the chemical composition. The most important is the depth of the soil profile the thicker it is, the more nutrients vine may extract from it. Vines cannot stand excessive moisture, that is why well-drained subsoils are the most favourable. Dark, dry soils are more suitable than light and wet ones, as they absorb more sun heat. The soil structure given by the percentage of components: rock fragments, sand grains and clays, is also substantial. Stony surface soils have more advantages for vine growing as these enable heat to be absorbed to greater depth of soil profile and shield the soil surface against evaporation. With slower wheathering the soils provide less nutrients but wines made from them reach 15

16 Wine, Geology and Tourism higher quality (Bezák and Suk, 1999). Similar properties can be detected in the gravel soils. Sandstone soils are well drained but contain very little nutrients so it is necessary to use fertilizers. It is remarkable that at the content of over 60% quartz grains in the sand the grape vine is less vulnerable to Phyloxer. Clay soils have more nutrients but the worst physical properties, being heavy, impenetrable and compact. Thus, vine grown on them is bushy but its quality is lower such soils are good enough only for table wine production. Vines need a blend of nutrients to produce fine wine. Wine quality depends on chemical elements present in the soil as vine extracts some biogens (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and some trace elements (Sr, Co, Cu, Zn, V, B a.o.). Therefore, the ph of a soil is vital to take up the nutrients. Vines require a weak alkaline ph, around 7-8 (Sýkora, 1959 fide Bezák and Suk, 1999). Though the soil ph is controlled by the bedrock lithology, it could be modified to a certain extent. Crystalline, igneous (granite) and metamorphic (gneiss) rocks help to produce acidic soils whereas sedimentary rocks (limestones, dolomites, calcareous clays, etc.), and the basic volcanics produce neutral and alkaline, carbonate soils. The correlation between the bedrock and the wine took the attention of numerous geologists. At the 4 th International Congress of vine producers in Lausanne, held in 1935 French geologist Maurice Lugeon gave a classical speech on the magic of wine produced on granite and gneiss ( you can feel its fire ), wines from sandstones ( as sharp as a quartz rock ), wines from limestones ( rounded and sweet ) and wines produced on the river sediments ( wines of youth ) (Bezák and Suk, 1999). Grapes and wines in Slovakia Grape growing and wine making in Slovakia are located in the warmest part of the country, which is practically the continuous stripe of land alongside the southern border, km wide and 500 km long. The total vineyard area reaches 21,047 ha situated predominantly in the Western Slovakia (Tab. 1). Under the Act No.182/2005 Zb., 8, the following viticulture regions were established: Small-Carpathian, Southern-Slovakian, Nitra, Central-Slovakian, East Slovakian and Tokay (Fig. 3). Table 1. Areas of viticulture regions in Slovakia (data for January 5th, 2004) (after Malík, 2004) Viticulture regions Area [ha] Percentage [% ] Small-Carpathian 5,970,0 28,4 Southern-Slovakian 6,167,0 29,3 Nitra 4,029,0 19,1 Central-Slovakian 2,368,0 11,2 East-Slovakian 1,526 7,3 Tokay 987,0 4,7 Total : 21,047, For the first time in Slovakia the Act No.182/2005 Zb. takes into account legal regulations of the European Union (EU), Fig. 3. Regions of wine-dressing in the Slovak Republic, according the Act 182 / 2005, 1: Malé Karpaty region, 2 Southern Slovakia region, 3 Nitra region, 4 Central Slovakia region, 5 Eastern Slovakia region, 6 Tokay region (Slovakian part) Regiony uprawy wina w Republice Słowacji wg. Ustawy 182/2005, 1: 1 region Małe Karpaty, 2 region Południowa Słowacja, 3 region Nitra, 4 region Centralna Słowacja, 5 region Wschodnia Słowacja, 6 region Tokaj (część należąca do Słowacji) regarding the classification of wine quality (in terms of achieved sugar content in the cultivated grape), maximum yield per hectare of a vineyard, geographical origin of grapevine, etc. Each of the above mentioned vine producing regions (Tab.1) has its own characteristics geological composition of the bedrock, type of soil, climate (temperature and precipitation), typical strains of grape vine, tradition, and, at last but not least, its own vine growers and wine makers. The Small-Carpathian region The largest and the best known viticulture area covers the southeastern, southern (the regions of Stupava, Šaštín-Stráže and Skalica) and partly southwestern slopes of the Small Carpathians (Malé Karpaty) mountain range. Historically verified data on the Small-Carpathian viticulture history goes back to VIIth century B.C.. From this time some wine containers and 7 pruning knives were found at the hill fort Molpír close to Smolenice (Andráš, 2004). The Small Carpathians are the part of so-called core mountains composed of granitoids (granites, granodiorites) and metamorphic rocks (gneisses, mica schist, phyllites). Precisely, this is the crystalline terrain belonging to the tectonic unit called Tatricum, which includes Proterozoic granitoids (the Bratislavský and the Modranský massifs) and metamorphics (gneisses, amphibolites, migmatites, mica schists, graphitic schists, phyllites) of the Harmon and the Pezinok- Pernek units. Sedimentary cover (Permian-Cretaceous) is also a part of the Tatricum and comprises quartzites, quartz sandstone, limestones, marls and siliciclastics. The crystalline core (in the southern part of the Small Carpathians, in Pezinok vicinity) is overthrusted by so-called Krížňanský Nappe and in the Biele vrchy Mountains, by the so-called Chočský Nappe. In the northern part of the Small Carpathians the Paleogene (conglomerates and nummulitic limestones) and the Neogene sediments occur. The Small-Carpathians show variable geochemical composition. It significantly lacks P and Mg, has a very low content of Cu, Ni, V and Zn and, in the higher mountains there is a 16

17 Wine, Geology and Tourism deficit of Ca. Content of B and F is satisfactory all over the mountain range. Limestones contain natural surplus of Ca, but they lack K, P, Zn, Co, V and Cr. Granites are low in Ca, P and Mg, and in trace elements (Pb, Ni, V, Cu, Cr and Zn). Metabasites lack K, P, B a Cu (Bezák and Suk ed., 1999). Thanks to favourable conditions and long-lasting vine growing traditions, the Small Carpathians host very effective wineries producing first-quality wines that have been highly awarded at various viticulture competitions. Some of the famous wine producing companies are: at Modra: Viticulture company Inc., School property of the Secondary viticulture vocational school, Nature Vine, Richard Bríza and VMD (Víno Miroslav Duna), at Pezinok: Vitis Pezinok, Ltd., VPS (Vinohradníctvo Pavelka-Sobolič), Ltd., Víno Matyšák, Ltd., Hacaj Ltd., Vinkova, Ltd., Víno Ludvik, Ltd., at other localities: Limbach Limbašské vinohradnícke družstvo; Šenkvice Karpatská Perla,Ltd., Vinárstvo Bočko; Skalica Víno Masaryk, Doľany JM Vinárstvo Doľany; Trnava Víno Mrva & Stanko, Vinesa, Ltd. The Southern-Slovakian and the Nitra regions Vineyards around Hlohovec, Radošiná and Nitra are located on southwestern slopes of the Tríbeč Mountain and on southern and southeastern slopes of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. where the soil bedrocks are Lower Triassic granites and Upper Triassic and Jurassic quartzites, dolomites and sandstones (Biely, 1975). In its central part the substratum consists of Quartenary sediments: flood plain gravels and sands of the Danube River. River embankments buit of sandy sediments are suitable for vine cultivation. In the northern part, predominantly in the Galanta vineyard region, the aeolian sediments (loesses) are widely distributed. In the eastern parts of this area (vicinity of Želiezovce) Tertiary calcacerous clays occur (Bezák and Suk, ed., 1999). The well-known Nitra wineries are Víno Nitra, Ltd., Vinanza Vráble and Vinárske závody Topoľčianky, Ltd. The Central-Slovakian region The soil substrate are predominantly volcanics and sedimentary rocks (clays and sands) intercalated by volcanics. In the southern part of the region sedimentary rocks dominate: calcareous clays, claystones, silts, sandstones, tuffs, coaly clays, coals, conglomerates and organodetritic limestones. Significant part of the slopes of Fiľakovo area results from relief inversion caused by alkaline basalt flows which filled the former river valleys and cooled. In the northern part Quartenary loesses occur. Soils developed on loesses contain enough Ca, but very little P, Mg, Zn, Cu. The most favourable bedrocks are young volcanics which give rise to soils high in Mg ang Ca but low in P and K. These soils reveal also anomalously high contents of As and Sb (Bezák and Suk, 1999). The Agro Movino, Ltd. and the Natural Alimentaria, Ltd. Veľký Krtíš are very well-known wine producers in the Central Slovakia. The East-Slovakian region This area is situated on the nothern slopes of the surrounding mountains and in the interior of the East-Slovakian basin. This area is subdivided into five sub-regions: Moldava, Michalovce, Sobrance, Kráľovský Chlmec and Tokay. The Tokay viniculture region (precisely, its Slovak part), famous of its very specific wines will be presented in a separate article. The Moldava viticulture sub-region It covers the southwestern part of the Eastern Slovakia basin, the western part of the Košice basin (the Moldava and the Turna basins) and also a part of the southern and southwestern slopes of the Slovak Karst. The basins are filled mostly with delluvial post-tertiary sediments and fluvial deposits of the Turňa River. The bedrock of the Slovak Karst gentle slopes is delluvial clays (terrarosa), claystones and rubble of Triassic siliceous limestone. In the eastern part of the Moldava basin gravels and sands laid down by the Bodva River occur contain boulders and rock fragments derived from the Spiš-Gemer Ore Mountains (Mello et al., 1996; Bezák and Suk,1999). Over the past a few years, vine cultivation in this area have decreased and some vineyards were abandoned. The Michaloce viticulture sub-region This area extends west of the Vihorlat Highlands built up of Neogene (Karpatian to Pannonian) marine sediments, very rarely exposed at the surface. The bedrocks are greenish and gray, calcareous clays as well as claystones with intercalations of sands, tuffs and tuffites, coaly clays and local gravels and sands. Within a narrow stripe of land extending from Nižný Hrabovec up to Pusté Čemerné the zeolitized ryodacitic tuffs and tuffites of Badenian age occur. In the vicinity of Pozdišovce typical, colorful gravels are observed. Majority of land surface in this region is covered by Quartenary sediments. In the southern part of the Ondava River valley extended layers of organic sediments occur. The western edge of the Ondava Plain is rimmed with delluvial sediments and common loesses (Vass et al., 1991; Bezák and Suk, 1999). In the region of Michalovce only one important winery exists: the Plodoovošč Michalovce. The company purchases wine grapes, makes musts and wine and exports these products to Ukraine for further production of wines and winedistilled beverages. The Sobrance viniculture sub-region This region reveals outstanding conditions provided by its localization and bedrock lithology. The region includes the southern slopes of the Vihorlat Mountains and the southwestern slopes of the Popriečne. The hills are built up of andesite lava flows (leucocratic andesites of the Petrovce Formation) as well as andesitic epiclastics and pyroclastics. In the western part extrusive bodies and breccias of amphibolite-pyroxene andesites (the Vinné Formation) occur. The foothills are covered by aeolian-deluvial sediments (loess clays) and boulder clays (Žec et al.,1997). Bedrock of vine-growing soils is composed of clayey material produced from the volcanics, loesses and deluvial sediments. These soils have sufficient amount of chemical components with basic biogenic elements, very suitable for vinegrowing (Figs 4 and 5). 17

18 Wine, Geology and Tourism VIHORLATSKÉ VRCHY Mts: GEOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL MAP QUATERNARY Holocene fluvial and proluvial sediments: gravels, sands, clays, loams organic sediments. fen peals Pleistocene fluvial and proluvial sediments: sandy gravels, gravels, loams, clays eolian-deluvial sediments: loessy loams, sands, loamy-stony Quaternary, unspecified deluvial sediments: runoff, loams, sandy loams, loamy-stony-blocky Neogene Andesitic stratovolcanoes (Lower Pannonian-Upper Sarmatian) SOKOLSKÝ POTOK STRATOVOLCANO Sokolský potok Formation andesite lava flows, II stage of development andesite lava flows, I stage of development epiclastic volcanic breccias KYJOV STRATOVOLCANO Kyjov Formation andesite dykes altered andesites, a) diorite (in section only) andesite lava flows II, stage of development andesite lava flows I, stage of development fallout pyroclastics (breccias and agglomerates) redeposited pyroclastics (unspecified) epiclastic volcanic breccias Molasse sediments (Pannonian-Eggenburgian) Badenian Nižný Hrabovec Formation Hrabovec redeposited rhyodacitic tuffs alternation of sandstone with claystone Eggenburgian claystones, siltstones and disintegrating sandstones with sparse conglomerate intercalations GENERAL EXPLANATIONS geological boundaries: observed, inferred faults: observed, inferred, covered strike and slip of beds boreholes a) springs; b) mineral water springs and acidulous waters line of geological section rocks cliffs and block-fields castle ruins church, chapel manor house hotel, housing facilities, camping forester s house view point boundary of military area boundary of nafure reservafions marked hiking trails bike trails numbers of accounted objects Andesite and rhyodacite volcanics (Middle Sarmatian) VINNÉ COMPLEX Extrusive andesite bodies and their breccias andesite extrusive body / breccia Fig. 4. Fragment of the geological-educational map of the Vihorlatské vrchy Mts. eastern part (Sobrance Tibava Orechová). (courtesy of B. Žec et al., Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic) Fragment wg mapy geologicznej Gór Vihorlatské vrchy, część wschodnia (obszar Sobrance Tibava Orechová) (dzięk i uprzejmości B. Žeca ze Słowackiej Służby Geologicznej) 18

19 Wine, Geology and Tourism VIHORLATSKÉ VRCHY Mts: GEOLOGICAL EDUCATIONAL MAP QUATERNARY Holocene fluvial and proluvial sediments: gravels,sands, clays, loams Pleistocene fluvial and proluvial sediments: sandy gravels, gravels, loams, clays eolian-deluvial sediments: loessy loams, sands, loamy-stony Neogene Andesitic stratovolcanoes [Lower Pannonian-Upper Sarmatian) POPRIEČNY STRATOVOLCANO Petrovce Formation andesite lava flows redeposited pyroclastics epiclastic volcanic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones GENERAL EXPLANATIONS geological boundaries: observed, inferred faults: observed, inferred, covered boreholes bath a) springs; b) mineral water springs and acidulous waters rocks cliffs and block-fields archaeological locality church, chapel view point airport Popriečny Formation andesite lava flows fallout pyroclastics (breccias and agglomerates) redeposited pyroclastics (unspecified) epiclastic volcanic breccias and conglomerates Bystrá Formation epiclastic volcanic conglomerates, breccias and sandstones Fig. 5. Fragment of the Geological-educational map of the Vihorlatské vrchy Mts. western part (Trnava pri Lab. Vinné - Kaluža Klokočov Jovsa). (courtesy of B. Žec et al., Geological Survey of the Slovak Republic). Fragment wg mapy geologicznej Gór Vihorlatské vrchy, część zachodnia (obszar Trnava pri Lab. Vinné - Kaluža Klokočov Jovsa) (dzięki uprzejmości B. Žeca ze Słowackiej Służby Geologicznej) 19

20 Wine, Geology and Tourism b Fig. 6. Label (etiquette) for a wine bottle from the Regia TT Orechová Ltd. (courtesy of the Regia TT Orechová Ltd.) Etykietka butelki wina z winnicy Regia TT Orechová Ltd. (dzięki uprzejmości Regia TT Orechová Ltd.) Fig. 7. Label (etiquette) for a vintage ice-wine Tramín červený (Red Traminer), year 2003 (a big, frontal; b small, rear). (courtesy of the VinoVin Tibava, Ltd.) Etykietka butelki wina lodowego Tramín červený (Red Traminer), rocznik 2003 (a duża etykietka, przednia część butelki, b mała etykietka, tylna część butelki) (dzięki uprzejmości VinoVin Tibava, Ltd.) a Fig. 8. Label (etiquette) for a wine bottle from the VinoVin Tibava Ltd. (c ourtesy of the VinoVin Tibava, Ltd.) Etykietka butelki wina z winnicy VinoVin Tibava, Ltd. (dzięki uprzejmości VinoVin Tibava, Ltd.) 20

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