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1 Uniwersytet Warszawski Wydział Lingwistyki Stosowanej i Filologii Wschodniosłowiańskich Michał Kluz Nr albumu: 1170 Archaizacja i starzenie się języka na podstawie dwóch polskich tłumaczeń Podróży Guliwera Praca magisterska Na kierunku: Filologia W zakresie: Lingwistyka Stosowana Praca wykonana pod kierunkiem dr hab. Krzysztofa Hejwowskiego Instytut Lingwistyki Stosowanej Warszawa, maj 2006

2 Warsaw University The Faculty of Applied Linguistics and East-Slavonic Languages Michał Kluz Album number: 1170 Archaisation and ageing of language on the basis of two Polish translations of Gulliver s Travels MA Thesis Field of study: Philology Scope of study: Applied Linguistics MA Thesis Supervisor Krzysztof Hejwowski, PhD Institute of Applied Linguistics Warsaw, May 2006

3 Oświadczenie kierującego pracą Oświadczam, że niniejsza praca została przygotowana pod moim kierunkiem i stwierdzam, że spełnia ona warunki do przedstawienia jej w postępowaniu o nadanie tytułu zawodowego. Data Podpis kierującego pracą Oświadczenie autora pracy Świadom odpowiedzialności prawnej oświadczam, że niniejsza praca dyplomowa została napisana przez mnie samodzielnie i nie zawiera treści uzyskanych w sposób niezgodny z obowiązującymi przepisami. Oświadczam ponadto, że niniejsza wersja pracy jest identyczna z załączoną wersją elektroniczną. Data Podpis autora pracy

4 Streszczenie Celem niniejszej pracy jest analiza naturalnego starzenia się tekstów oraz ich celowa archaizacja. Analizowane w niej są dwa przekłady Podróży Guliwera Jonathana Swifta na język polski. Pierwsze wyszło spod pióra anonimowego tłumacza w roku 1784, drugie natomiast jest dziełem Macieja Słomczyńskiego z 1976 roku. Część teoretyczna mówi o typach i aspektach tłumaczeń, w szczególności literackich. Omówione są również sposoby archaizacji tekstów oraz naturalne starzenie się języka, a także ich konsekwencje dla współczesnego czytelnika. Część praktyczna skupia się na analizie wybranych przykładów archaicznego języka w obu tłumaczeniach. W załącznikach znajduje się pełna lista przykładów oraz wyniki i omówienie ankiety przeprowadzonej wśród trzydziestu osób. Słowa kluczowe archaizacja, archaizować, modernizacja, modernizować, ankieta, tłumaczenie, przekład, język Dziedzina pracy (kody wg programu Socrates-Erasmus) 0.94 Translatoryka

5 Table of contents Introduction Translation: definitions and types What is translation: theories and definitions Types of translation by Theodore Savory Direct and indirect translation/retranslation Language as system of communication Sources of language Types of languages Changes in language Archaisation and ageing of language Deliberate archaisation Natural ageing of language Gulliver s Travels in Polish as archaic translations Archaised translation by Słomczyński Archaic translation by an anonymous author Consequences of archaisation Practical analysis of selected examples Conclusions Summary Streszczenie Appendix Bibliography

6 Introduction The theme of this thesis is natural and deliberate archaisation of translations and their reception by contemporary readers. As an example I have used two different renditions of Jonathan Swift s Gulliver s Travels. They are not the only translations of this work into Polish, however, they represent the oldest and youngest renditions of the novel. The first translation of Gulliver s Travels, which has been used for the purpose of this thesis, was conceived in 1784 in Supraśl by an anonymous author. As most translations in the Polish Enlightenment also this translation was based not on the original, but on a French translation. The other translation chosen for this work, by Maciej Słomczyński, with its final corrections comes from Maciej Słomczyński based his translation on the first London edition from 1726 and partially on the Leipzig edition from Obviously, between these two translations there were others. They were, however, editions that did not render the real Gulliver s Travels. The time span between the anonymous translation and the one by Maciej Słomczyński is sufficient to look closer at the notion of archaisation of translations and its consequences for the reader. Swift s novel, together with Defoe s Robinson Cruzoe, was the most famous book of English Enlightenment. They were both adventure books and drew from the rich tradition of descriptions of travels real, imaginary and philosophical. Although in its abridged form Gulliver's Travels is known as a classic children's adventure story, it is actually a biting work of political and social satire. In these fantastic tales, Swift satirised the political events in England and Ireland in his day, as well as English values and institutions. He ridiculed academics, scientists, and Enlightenment thinkers who valued rationalism above all else, and finally, he targeted the human condition itself. Such range of areas of life covered by Swift abounds is terms from everyday life, naval terms, terms related to politics or science. This makes this book prone to archaisation as during the time span of over 200 years life has changed and so has the language. The Theoretical Part of this paper focuses on the aspects of translation, language, its components and the notions of archaisation and ageing of the language as a system of communication. Chapter 1 presents types of translation and concentrates on literary translation and its unique features in comparison to other types. Language is the main point of interest in Chapter 2. Here, language as a system of communication is 6

7 discussed. The features of language, which make it prone to archaisation are enumerated and described. Chapter 4 focuses on the techniques and aspects of archaisation. Subchapter 3.1 describes deliberate archaisation, techniques and reasons why translators give their translations archaic shapes. Subchapter 3.2 concentrates on natural ageing of language and its consequences for contemporary readers. In Chapter 4 I have analysed and categorised those aspects of the translations of Gulliver s Travels into Polish that make them archaic in the eyes of contemporary recipients. In Chapter 5 the analysis of consequences of archaisation and ageing of language in renditions is presented. The Practical Part is an analysis of selected examples found in the anonymous author s and Maciej Słomczyński s renditions of Gulliver s Travels into Polish. The items are discussed and their reception by contemporary readers is analysed. To facilitate their analysis they have been divided into several categories. In the case of the 1784 translation examples of modernised fragments are provided. The analysis of archaisms in Słomczyński s translation focuses on their reception by contemporary readers. In Appendix there are many more examples of obsolete linguistic forms and vocabulary found in the two renditions. The final part of this paper enumerates conclusions drawn on the basis of the analysed examples. Summing up, this paper is an attempt to show how the changes within language, especially within lexis, affect the reception of both naturally and deliberately archaised renditions. 7

8 Chapter 1: Translation: definitions and types In this chapter I will deal with some basic definitions, which have to be explained before I proceed to the main notion of this thesis, i.e. archaisation. First, I will outline briefly the origins of the notion of translation. Later on in this chapter I will cope with language, its origins and definitions. Translation will exist as long as there are differences between languages. Language as a changing system of communication will also undergo archaisation. I have deliberately omitted the discussion of the latter in this chapter as I will deal with it in detail in the following chapters. 1.1 What is translation: theories and definitions. Translation as an art and bridge joining different languages has a very long history. Wojtasiewicz (1996:7) claims that it emerged around 5000 BC and developed a thousand years later in the Ancient East. Despite the long history there is still no one definition of translation. Several linguists have attempted to define translation, but none of the definitions is perfect. The reason is that language is not as strict as the sciences and any conclusion, if not undermined by others, is only a compromise. Every author of a translation has his own idea about what the theory of translation is or should be, depending on his educational background and his own experience. This situation often creates the impression that every specialist in a given field of knowledge has something to add to the theory of translation. That is why, theoretical works on translation are written by linguists of different theoretical orientations, teachers of foreign languages, translators, specialists in cultural studies and comparative literature and many other specialists. Not surprisingly, if there are so many contradicting ideas about what translation theory is and what it should do, there is an equal number of statements about translation and translating. Every translator trying to define his activity tackles this task differently. Any definition of translation is like all translations themselves: there are no two exact translations, nor two exact definitions of translation. There are, however, some established definitions of this notion. Below are some examples of how experts in the matter define translation: 8

9 Translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace a written message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/or statement in another language. Each exercise involves some kind of meaning due to a number of factors. It provokes a continuous tension, a dialectic, an argument based on the claims of each language. The basic loss is continuum between overtranslation (increased detail) and undertranslation increased generalisation). Peter Newmark (1982:7) Translation can do everything except mark the linguistic difference inscribed in the language, this difference of language systems inscribed in a single tongue. At best it can get everything across except this: the fact that there are, in one linguistic system, perhaps several languages or tongues. J. Derrida (1985:100) Translation is an activity, both spiritual and practical, related to the activity of communicating. Consequently, it shares in all the characteristic features of the category of activity in its broadest sense. Translation is not a productive but a reproductive activity, not a primary but a secondary activity. M. Brandes [in:] Zlateva (1993:77) A (good) translation is the one, in which the merit of the original work is so completely transfused into another language, as to be as distinctly apprehended, and as strongly felt, by a native of the country to which that language belongs, as it is by those who speak the language of the original work. Alexander Fraser Tytler [in:] Wojtasiewicz (1996:12) As stated in the definitions cited above, the primary function of translation is communication of meaning from one language to another. The success or failure of translation depends on several factors. The most important include: the structure of the target language, skills of the translator and type of the translated material. Due to the fact that there are several types of translated materials, there must be as many types of translation. Although many difficulties which translators face are common in all types of translation, there are several differences between them. Before deciding if all these types of translation face the problem of archaisation they will be described briefly. 9

10 1.2 Types of translation by Savory To a translator the type of translated text is crucial and can aid him in selecting the appropriate strategy of translating. Savory (1953:20) divides translation into four types: purely informative statements, adequate translations made for the general reader, translations of scientific and/or of technical matter and the translation of literature. Informative statements These include statements of purely informative character, such as are encountered by travellers or used in advertisements. They contain advice of identical meaning despite the fact that they are not identically phrased. This type of translation is important for two reasons. One is that they are among the most numerous translations, and the second reason, even more important than the former, is that many of them could be described as perfect translations. Savory (1953:21) claims that the perfection of the translation is a result of the nature of the original message. It is direct and unemotional and it is made in plain words to which no very intense associations are attached. In other words, such plain and purely informative texts need not be stylistically rich. It must be functional and this makes the work of a translator less complicated. Adequate translations To this category fall all the translations, including translation of prose, done for a general or an undemanding reader. These translations are adequate but deprived of fine style and the qualities for which the conoisseurs read them. An average translator may have changed or omitted whole sentences, distorted the meaning, selected improper vocabulary and impoverished the content of the book, but the reader will still be satisified, as for him the matter may be more important than the manner. Translations of this type are not to be considered genuine and faithful. They only have informational value. Translation of scientific and technical manner This type of translation may seem to be similar to the adequate translations as here the matter is the most important. Yet, any distortion of meaning is absolutely 10

11 impossible. Fine style can be neglected, but the content must converge with the original and evoke the same impression. This means that the translators of technical and scientific texts must possess at least basic knowledge of the matter translated. Incomprehension and brief acquaintance with the matter may lead to misunderstandings. Translation of literature Literary translation is considered by many linguists as the only type of translation deserving this name. Dzierżanowska (1977:6) claims that translation of non-literary texts is not a work of art. Many theoreticians support this view. This is due to the fact that when translation is described as an art it does include other than literary texts. Many, who do not know much about the matter, associate translation solely with the first-quality translations of the literature of Greece and Rome and other translations by the most eminent men of letters. One of the most conspicuous differences between literary and non-literary translation is the significance of the translator and his attitude to the author of the original. Non-literary translations are impresonal. Translations of literature contain the spirit of its author and according to Pieńkos (1993:77), a literary translation is not a mere communication of a neutral semantic substance: it is at the same time a transposition of the total artistic value of the original text. Dzierżanowska (1998) claims that translation of a literary work is invariably a kind of reconstruction and involves changes in many aspects of the original. It is often unavoidable that translation of a literary work involves several changes of the components of the original. These may sometimes be so deep that it is no longer a translation but an adaptation, a paraphrase of the original or an utterly new work. Generally, translation involves transposing a given meaning expressed in one language as to be understood by a speaker of the target language. Literary translation does not merely concern its communicative function because in this case words are as much important. Words carry an aesthetic function and a substantial load of associations. That is why, a translator must reconstruct the whole process of writing, otherwise no literary work will function in another language. This depends mainly on the translator s skills. The translator gives a new life to an existing work, but in a different linguistic, social and historical environment. The genuine art of translation as a cultural phenomenon 11

12 clashes with its essence because the aim of translation is to transpose a given work existing in one language to another language, maintaining all the features of the original. If the translation is not accepted, it will certainly not be considered as a work of art. On the other hand, if the work does not retain the property of the people speaking the language in which it was written, it will not be considered as translation (Dzierżanowska 1998). It would be a great mistake to examine the possibilities and impossibilities of a literary translation using solely linguistic methods. To build or not to build a separate theory for literary translation is not as important. The most important thing is not to forget about the specificity of this kind of translation and the fact that the rights ruling the literary translation belong to the sphere of art. 1.3 Direct and indirect translation/retranslation The act of translation, as it was mentioned above, is roughly to replace a written text in one language by the same text in another language. The definition of retranslation, to quote Jianzhong (2003: 193) is: to translate for a second or more times from the original or from the translated versions of the original. Following this definition it might be said that there are two kinds of retranslations: direct and indirect. The former refers to the translation for the second or more times from the original and the latter refers to the translation not from the original but from another translation of the original in another language. The two translations of Gulliver s Travels by Jonathan Swift are representatives of a translation and a retranslation. The rendition by an anonymous author is the first known Polish translation of the book based on the French version by Desfontaines. Słomczyński s translation, even though he based it mainly on the original, can be called to some extent an indirect translation because he made use of some 19 th century renditions of Swift s novel into Polish. To look closer into the matter the two types of retranslation are discussed below. Direct retranslation Direct retranslation concerns both literary and science works but as the latter is not the subject of this paper, it will be omitted. The retranslation of literary classics (such as Gulliver s Travels) is supported by most translators. As Jianzhong (2003: 193) defines it, a literary retranslation is an artistic recreation and can outshine the former 12

13 one or more translations. This is because, as most translators agree, there is no perfect translation. There are a few reasons for that. The first is that when a translator undertakes to render a given text that had already been rendered, he or she does not want to create a mere copy of it. The constant pursuit of better versions of literary works brings better understanding and interpretation of the original. Successive translations convey more accurately the style and spirit of the original works, thus make them better and better. The second reason for retranslation is that with the deeper study of famous classics, no matter from which epoch, readers find that the former translation of a given work has some misunderstandings and incorrect expressions. Another cause of a successive rendition is that people nowadays have much wider knowledge of the world and grasp new cognition of the concepts raised in the book. In other words, with time some concepts that were inexpressible/ untranslatable in the past may become expressible/ translatable. The last reason for retranslation is the changes of the language itself. Therefore, a former translation needs to be revived in order to appeal to a contemporary reader and help him with understanding it better. Indirect retranslation Indirect retranslation is a type of translation derived from another existing translation of the original text. In the past, especially when French was the lingua franca, it was common to retranslate various literary texts via this commonly spoken language (the anonymous translation of Gulliver s Travels from 1784 analysed in this paper is one example). The situation nowadays is slightly different. English replaced French as an international language and most retranslated texts are based on it. In the early years of the 20 th century, a lot of Greek, Italian, Spanish and Russian works were indirectly translated into Chinese from English. There are languages spoken as frequently as English like, for instance, Chinese or Hindi, but due to their level of difficulty or the lack of interest in them, literature written in such languages is not so well known internationally. Obviously, retranslation acts as a bridge joining them with international readers. Yet, if retranslation continues there is a danger that the original text may be contorted. Franz Kuhn ( ), a famous German translator, in his long career translated several Old Chinese literary classics. Fifty of them have been retranslated into eighteen other languages. A retranslator must be very cautious not to change a retranslation into an adaptation. 13

14 Differences between translation and retranslation The process of translation consists of two stages: understanding of the source language and expressing in the target language. However, the situation is quite different in the case of retranslation. Jianzhong (2003: 193) enumerates four stages: understanding of the target language, transforming into (intermediary) target language, understanding of the (intermediary) target language and transforming it into final target language. It is believed that in the course of such an action there is some loss of information. As indirect translation has an intermediary, some information of the source language is vulnerable to a certain loss a second time. When comparing direct and indirect translations, it is possible to see that the accuracy of the latter is poorer than the former. The indirect (re)translation often diverges to some extent from the original text. The main idea may be the same, yet the style and spirit are lost partially or completely in extreme cases. This could mean that indirect (re)translation ought to be abandoned. However, in the era of a global village and increasing international contacts indirect (re)translation acts as an intermediary in cultural exchange. It is better for international readers to familiarise themselves with indirectly translated literature than not to know it at all. In addition, when a direct translation appears, the indirect one will be out of date but it will have fulfilled its mission. Jianzhong (2003: 193) concludes that in the future the cultural exchange may increase to such an extent that indirect (re)translations will appear less frequently, but they may not disappear. In some cases it is a necessity and a complement to a direct translation. It may also be an interesting source of comparison. The readers can obtain a general view that various translators (speaking different languages or living in different epochs) understand and interpret the source texts differently. The significance of retranslation lies in outshining its predecessor(s). This act is not a mere repetition but artistic recreation. That is why, it is a difficult task as a former version (or several versions) is present and readers are acquainted with it. A translator must possess the skills and artistry to attempt to create a new one. It must be said that if the retranslation is not better than the former, it is a waste of time and it will not be praised but criticised. And if it is plagiaristic it should be banned (Jianzhong 2003: 194). All the above types of translation may differ in the approach of a translator. As far as archaised texts are concerned both the style and language used are vital. That is why, in the following chapter, I will look at the language as a system of communication 14

15 and those features of language that make it susceptible to archaisation. Then, in chapter 4, reasons why texts become archaic, and ways of stylising them as such employed by translators in the case of deliberate archaisation, will be presented. 15

16 Chapter 2: Language as system of communication 2.1 Sources of language The origins of language are not known. Otto Jespersen s proposal from 1921 reads as follows: The genesis of language is not to be sought in the prosaic, but in the poetic side of life: the source of speech is not gloomy seriousness, but merry play and youthful hilarity. In primitive speech the laughing cries of exultation were used to attract the attention of the other sex. Language was born in the courting days of mankind. Jespersen s attempt to unveil the mystery of the origins of language is endearing, however, it still remains a speculation. Going back a million years to the cradle of humanity we will not find any traces of evidence relating to the speech of our distant ancestors. Because of this there are only theories concerning the origins of the language. Yule (1996: 1) describes the following: The divine source In most religions there appears to be a divine source who provides humans with language. For instance, in Christian tradition it was God who provided humans with the ability to speak. The Bible describes this with the words: [God created Adam] and whatsoever Adam called every living creature that was the name thereof. In the past the explanation was to such an extent believable that a few experiments were carried out in order to prove the theory. However, the experiments failed through as it turned out, and has been confirmed by modern science, that when a child grows up in isolation, it loses the ability to learn a language. The reason is that at the age of 3 or 4 the part of the brain responsible for this ability becomes inoperative if not stimulated. The natural sound source A more academic theory of language coming into existence is based on the concept of natural sounds. It assumes that the first primitive words were the imitations of natural sounds surrounding early humans. For instance, if a bird flew making a caw caw or cuckoo sounds, the natural sound was used as a name for the animal. The theory 16

17 becomes more valid when we realise that each modern language possesses numerous examples of words resembling naturally occurring sounds. In Polish we can find kukułka, szum, kukuryku or plusk. In English there are words such as: cuckoo, splash, buzz, hiss, screech or bow-wow. Thus, the theory is often referred to as the bow-wow theory. It may explain how the words describing natural sounds came into existence, however, it does not explain how words describing soundless or abstract objects emerged. Two similar theories seem to complement the bow-wow theory. The first says that the primitive sounds of language evolved from natural cries of emotion such as pain, pleasure or exasperation. Such words include exclamations like hey, aw, ouch, etc. But such words constitute merely a fraction of sounds produced by humans. The second theory referred to as yo-heave-ho theory assumes that joint physical effort could be the reason for the production of sounds. A group of workers might produce simple sounds used to facilitate and coordinate their work. The theory of the development of human language set in social context becomes more valid. Still, it does not explain the origins of the sounds produced. Primates have different grunts and sounds to organise life in a group but they have not developed speech. Oral-gesture source The oral-gesture theory is based on the assumption that there is a connection between physical and oral gesture. A set of physical gestures was developed for communication purposes. Later a system of oral gestures emerged which consisted in the moves of tongue and lips imitating the physical gestures. For instance, vertical movement of the tongue might imitate waving of the hand when greeting of saying goodbye. However, there is a large number of messages which are impossible to transmit. As an example let us take a simple sentence: My uncle thinks he s invisible (Yule 1996:4). That is why, this theory does not seem very believable. Physiological adaptation One further theory of the emergence of human speech is based on the fact that humans possess some unique physical features. They would not lead to speech production but favour species possessing these features when the development of speech is concerned. These features include the positioning of teeth (enables the 17

18 production of sounds such as f, v and th), the positioning of larynx (can act as a resonator) or the build of muscles in human lips (production of sounds like p, b and w). In addition, the human brain is lateralised, i.e. it has specialised functions in each of the two hemispheres. Analytical functions like the use of tools and language are mainly confined to the left hemisphere. There may be an evolutionary connection between the use of tool and the use of language and both may be related to the development of human brain. 2.2 Types of languages Wojtasiewicz (1996:13) defines language as a system of signals used by people to communicate in space and time. Signal is to be understood broadly as a material form of expression. It can take the form of a spoken or written text, sound or optical signal, map, etc. To enable communication signals are ascribed to psychological states of both the speaker and the recipient. Wojtasiewicz (1996:14) divides languages into two types: natural and artificial. Artificial languages emerged when certain rules were prescribed prior to their construction and use. Such languages are usually narrow and specialised (e.g.: symbols used in mathematics or chemistry, language of traffic signs, etc.). Artificial languages cannot be used in everyday communication situations. There are special types of artificial languages imitating natural ones (e.g.: Esperanto). They do not evolve, but are created in a short time. The second type of languages is natural languages. As opposed to the above mentioned, such languages emerged in the course of time. They are used to communicate among certain ethnic groups, such as nations or nationalities. Languages of this type, at least at the beginning of their existence, are closely connected with speech. Their form is shaped by gradual accepting of certain linguistic habits of their users and not by a one-time operation. 3.3 Changes in language Natural languages, unlike artificial languages undergo constant change. When we compare contemporary and, say 15 th century Polish, it becomes clear that it has changed (see examples in Chapter 5). Obviously, there are no spoken, but only written records of the language, which present various aspects of the change within the language. After a certain time span old language becomes incomprehensible for its 18

19 younger counterpart user. Also, it may not even bear any resemblance in writing. Language change is a long gradual process. Some changes are caused by important social transformations provoked by wars, upheavals and other circumstances. Still, the dominant force seems to be the constant process of generation change. As Yule (1996: 177) explains: Each new generation has to find a way of using the language of the previous generation. It means that some parts of language are used by a new generation more willingly than others. Such change can be easily seen in the vocabulary. Some words replace the existing ones, new words are coined or adapted from other languages to name items that appear and existing words change their meaning throughout the history of language (Wen-li 2001). The process of the change of meaning and other changes, such as sound and syntactic changes, causes that language as system is not stable. However, it is inevitable. Palmer (1981: 9) suggests four reasons why elements of vocabulary undergo changes of meaning. The first is that some words replace others by accident; the second reason is that changes arise because there is a need to name new items; the third consists in the fact that scientific vocabulary gained specialised meanings and has no close relationship to its everyday use; the last reason is taboo words meaning something unpleasant are replaced by others. Bloomfield (1933:426) classifies changes of meaning into the following categories: 1) Narrowing (e.g.: meat food ), 2) Widening (e.g.: bird nestling ), 3) Metaphor (e.g.: bitter biting ), 4) Metonymy nearness of space or time (e.g.: jaw cheek ), 5) Synecdoche whole/part relation (e.g.: town fence ), 6) Hyperbole stronger to weaker meaning (e.g.: astound strike with thunder ), 7) Litotes weaker to stronger meaning (e.g.: kill torment ), 8) Degeneration (e.g.: knave boy ), 9) Elevation (e.g.: knight boy ). The last classification of changes of meaning presented here is the one by Baugh and Cable (1978: 308). They enumerate: extension of meaning (generalisation), narrowing, degeneration and regeneration. Generalisation happens when a word, formerly having a narrow sense, gains new wider meaning and goes beyond its former meaning. 19

20 Narrowing is the opposite of the former, i.e. a given word with time acquires a narrower sense and is often used in one special connection. A classic example frequently quoted by translators is the word doctor. In the past it meant a learned man, so there were doctors in several fields other than medicine. Degeneration of meaning consists in changing the meaning of a given word into something less sophisticated, important, etc. For example the word knave used to mean male servant, but now it means rogue. The last category of change of meaning is regeneration and is the exact opposite of degeneration. Such changes can be found in all languages and at all times. 20

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