1 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja VOLUMEN 13, NUMER W R O C Ł AW 2012
2 RADA NAUKOWA SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE PRZEWODNICZĄCY RADY NAUKOWEJ SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN prof. Janusz Sowiński Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja, Wrocław CZŁONKOWIE MEMBERS doc. Tomáš Dohnal PaedDr. CSc Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic doc. Stefano Epifani Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy prof. Jedrzej George Frynas Middlesex University Business School, London, Great Britain prof. Urszula Kalina-Prasznic Uniwersytet Wrocławski mgr Jan Kędzierski TVP Wrocław, Przewodniczący Zarządu Stowarzyszenia Dziennikarzy RP Dolny Śląsk prof. Janusz Martan Politechnika Wrocławska dr Piotr Oleśniewicz Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, Wrocław prof. Eugeniusz Prystupa Lviv State University of Physical Culture, Lviv, Ukraine prof. Grażyna Rosa Uniwersytet Szczeciński prof. Narcyz Roztocki, Ph.D. State University of New York at New Paltz, New Paltz, United States of America prof. Antonin Slany Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic prof. Martin Zvonař, Ph.D. Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic REDAKTOR NACZELNY EDITOR-IN-CHIEF dr Henryk Żeligowski SEKRETARZ REDAKCJI EDITORIAL SECRETARY dr Paweł Urbaniak REDAKTORZY TEMATYCZNI ASSOCIATE EDITORS prof. Janina Kundera prof. Leon Jakubów prof. Mirosława Wawrzak-Chodaczek dr Adam Gurba REDAKTOR STATYSTYCZNY STATISTICAL EDITOR dr Jolanta Kowal REDAKCJA i KOREKTA EDITING AND PROOFREADING mgr Beata Jarczyńska REDAKCJA i KOREKTA TEKSTÓW ANGIELSKICH CORRECTION AND PROOFREADING OF ENGLISH TEXTS dr Marcin Walczyński Kwartalnik GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA jest indeksowany w: Quarterly ECONOMY MARKET EDUCATION is indexed in: INDEX COPERNICUS INTERNATIONAL; CEEOL Central and Eastern European Online Library; NAUKOWEI BRANŻOWE POLSKIE CZASOPISMA ELEKTRONICZNE ARIANTE REDAKCJA EDITORIAL OFFICES GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja ul. Krakowska 56-62/p Wrocław Kwartalnik GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA ukazuje się w wersji poligraficznej (głównej) i w wersji elektronicznej dostępnej na stronie: GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA comes out four times a year as a printed (primary) and online publication. The articles are available from ISSN
3 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA kwartalnik Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja SPIS TREŚCI TABLE OF CONTENTS Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 ARTYKUŁY ARTICLES Grzegorz Omelan Wojciech Opioła POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE. THE CASE STUDY OF GAS AS AN ENERGY SOURCE... 5 RÓWNOWAGA ENERGETYCZNA W POLSCE I JEJ PRZYSZŁOŚĆ. PRZYKŁAD GAZU JAKO ŹRÓDŁA ENERGII Krzysztof R. Mazurski BROWN COAL AND THE THREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF THE LEGNICA ŚCINAWA DEPOSIT (POLAND) WĘGIEL BRUNATNY I ZAGROŻENIE ŚRODOWISKA: PRZYPADEK ZŁOŻA LEGNICA ŚCINAWA (POLSKA) Miroslav Fašanok Zuzana Fischerova Martin Zvonař Igor Duvač ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND OCCURRENCE OF THE TERMS RELATED TO THE FIELD OF SPORT SCIENCE POCHODZENIE, ROZWÓJ I PRZYKŁAD TERMINÓW POWIĄZANYCH Z NAUKAMI O SPORCIE Sylwia Bielawska Sylwia Bem CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) W BIBLIOTECE AKADEMICKIEJ W KONTEKŚCIE NOWYCH FORM KOMUNIKACJI CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM) IN THE ACADEMIC LIBRARY IN THE CONTEXT OF NEW FORMS OF COMMUNICATION Jerzy Jarowiecki O KSIĘGOZBIORZE JÓZEFA IGNACEGO KRASZEWSKIEGO W DWUSETNĄ ROCZNICĘ URODZIN ABOUT THE BOOK COLLECTION OF JÓZEF IGNACY KRASZEWSKI IN THE TWO HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS BIRTHDAY RECENZJE I SPRAWOZDANIA REPORTS AND REVIEWS Józef Szocki Wystawy biblioteczne w ramach Festiwalu im. Brunona Schulza we Wrocławiu (14-18 listopada 2012)... 55
4 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA kwartalnik Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja 2012 VOLUMEN 13 Nr 1-4 Recenzenci artykułów zgłoszonych do publikacji w kwartalniku GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA w 2012 roku: dr Anna Augustyn prof. dr hab. Adela Barabasz dr hab. Tomasz Bernat dr Jan Bieliczyński dr Ilona Biernacka-Ligięza prof. dr hab. Ksenia Czubakowska dr Adam Drosik prof. dr hab. Tomasz Gabryś dr Patryk Gałuszka dr Ewa Glińska prof. dr hab. Mirosława Janoś-Kresło dr Piotr Jermakowicz prof. dr hab. Waldemar Kuligowski dr Michał Kuś dr Tadeusz Leszczyński prof. dr hab. Piotr Mickiewicz dr Grzegorz Nieć prof. dr hab. Jerzy Olędzki dr Piotr Oleśniewicz prof. dr hab. Maria Pidłypczak-Majerowicz dr Kamila Pronińska dr Magdalena Szpunar prof. dr hab. Janusz Ślusarczyk dr Paweł Urbaniak prof. dr hab. Mirosława Wawrzak-Chodaczek dr hab. Agnieszka Weiner prof. dr hab. Aleksander Woźny dr Henryk Żeligowski Uniwersytet w Białymstoku Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny we Wrocławiu Uniwersytet Szczeciński Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Krakowie Uniwersytet Opolski; Karkonoska Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa w Jeleniej Górze Uniwersytet Szczeciński Uniwersytet Opolski Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Bronisława Czecha w Krakowie; Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa im. Rotmistrza Witolda Pileckiego w Oświęcimiu Uniwersytet Łódzki Politechnika Białostocka Szkoła Główna Handlowa w Warszawie Politechnika Warszawska Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza w Poznaniu Uniwersytet Wrocławski Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Przyrodniczy im. Jana i Jędrzeja Śniadeckich w Bydgoszczy; Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Ciechanowie Dolnośląska Szkoła Wyższa we Wrocławiu Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie Uniwersytet Warszawski; Uniwersytet Kardynała Stefana Wyszyńskiego w Warszawie Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego we Wrocławiu Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny im. Komisji Edukacji Narodowej w Krakowie Uniwersytet Warszawski Akademia Górniczo-Hutnicza im. Stanisława Staszica w Krakowie Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jerzego Kukuczki w Katowicach; Podhalańska Państwowa Wyższa Szkoła Zawodowa w Nowym Targu Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja we Wrocławiu Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja we Wrocławiu Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej w Lublinie Uniwersytet Wrocławski; Karkonoska Państwowa Szkoła Wyższa w Jeleniej Górze Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja we Wrocławiu
5 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 5 Grzegorz Omelan Uniwersytet Opolski Opole Wojciech Opioła Uniwersytet Opolski Opole POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE. THE CASE STUDY OF GAS AS AN ENERGY SOURCE ABSTRACT The aim of the article is to present the case study of the Poland s energy balance with regards to the natural gas. The article states that natural gas will play an increasing role in the balance with Poland s attempts at diversifying its deliveries. The authors reviewed a lot of sources, mainly Polish, and synthesized them so that the article s theses could be developed and defended. Among the sources reviewed were governmental official documents issued by Poland s, Russia s and European Union s authorities, academic texts and highly specialized press articles. Natural gas will inevitably increase its position within Poland s energy balance in the next decades. Poland s authorities are planning to diversify gas deliveries in order to lessen its dependency on Russian gas. It is a difficult task and needs developments in many fields (constructing new pipelines, among others). If Poland s shale gas resources prove as high as predicted, the country might become an exporter of the fuel, which will radically alter Poland s position in the world. KEYWORDS: energy policy, natural gas, sources of energy, Poland, Russia, European Union Energy balance constitutes a vital part of countries energy safety policy and strategy. This factor, if well-developed, may serve as one of the sources of the countries high stand on the international arena, may become the basis for people s well-being and fast development of economies. As for Poland, the topic has been at the centre of debate since 1989 the year when Eastern Europe had freed itself from the Soviet influence. At that time Poland was no longer politically dependent on Soviet Union, yet economic ties remained strong, especially in the field of fossil fuels trade. This is mirrored in today s Poland s energy balance, which will be discussed shortly in the following part of the article. For decades, the main fossil fuel as regards Poland s energy balance has been coal. Also in the first decade of the 21 st Century coal was still by far the main source of energy in Poland. As for 1997, the shares of energy carriers in gross inland consumption structure was as following: coal 72% (black coal 59%, brown coal 13%), crude oil 15%, natural gas 9%, renewable energy sources 3% 1. In 2004, coal constituted 62% of the country s energy consumption (black coal 48%, brown coal 14%), with 20% for crude oil, 13% for natural gas, 5% for renewables. In 2008, the balance looked quite similar 60% for coal, 20% for crude oil, 12% for natural gas and 8% for renewables 2. Since coal is still the main energy source for Poland by such a wide margin, successive governments have been trying to make the use of it more and more effi- 1 S. Kowalik, J. Herczakowska, M. Gajdowska, Analiza polskiego rynku paliw na tle Unii Europejskiej, Polityka Energetyczna 2009, z. 2/2, p Polska strategia energetyczna, _lix/mg.html [date of access: ]; Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne Polski, stwo.pdf [date of access: ].
6 6 POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE Grzegorz Omelan, Wojciech Opioła cient and environment-friendly. The current government (with Donald Tusk as the prime minister) issued a document entitled Poland s energy policy until 2030 on the matter. As the document states, Poland s energy balance s main part will still be black and brown coal. Apart from these, Polish government plans to support investments in areas of gas, nuclear and renewable energy. Despite the fact that natural gas, as shown above, plays a minor role within Poland s energy balance, this fossil fuel has grown to be probably the most important politically-wise. It is so for a number of reasons: because of Poland s post-1945 reliance on Soviet and Russian natural gas, which, after Eastern Europe freed itself from the Moscow s dominance, became a burden that proved to be highly difficult to get rid of; before the Nord Stream become reality, Poland was an important transit state for Russian gas imported by Western European countries, which, with the addition of the fact that Russian Federation has been playing its fossil fuels resources like a political game in recent years, put Poland in quite an uncomfortable position towards its EU allies in case of any supply problems; Poland is able to satisfy only 35% of its natural gas demand from its own sources, thus Russia, where Poland imports the majority of this energy source from, may easily use it to put political and economic pressure 3. Another reason, directly connected to the one mentioned in point a, is that Poland s dependency on Soviet and Russian natural gas has created a specific infrastructure, with pipelines running from the East to the West. It has limited Poland s capabilities of quick diversification of natural gas supplies in the last 20 years. Today Poland is constructing natural gas pipelines that run from the South to the North and other ways round as a step towards becoming safer energy-wise. As for June 2011, the length of natural gas pipelines in Poland was 9768 km, there were also 854 gas stations, 14 gas compressor stations, and 57 gas junctions. This network enabled to transport more than 15 billion cubic metres (bcm) of the fuel a year. It is impossible, for example, to import gas through pipelines from other directions than Ukraine and Belarus, which only adds to Poland s dependency on importing the fuel from the countries east of Poland. Polish investor, Gaz-System, 3 A. Chmielewski, Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne państwa. Geopolityczne uwarunkowania, Warszawa 2009, p. 45; M. Lasoń, Polska wobec wyzwań bezpieczeństwa energetycznego, [in:] Międzynarodowe bezpieczeństwo energetyczne w XXI wieku, ed. E. Cziomer, Kraków 2008, p is planning to construct new pipelines inside of the country, as well as connect Poland s gas network to more pipelines from the south and north of Europe. Up to 2014, the company wants to construct 1000 km of new gas pipelines in the north-west, central and southwest of Poland. These investments will improve energy safety of the above-mentioned areas of Poland and enable gasification of some new regions of the country. As regards international natural gas infrastructure, Gaz-System understands the importance of connecting Poland s pipeline network with the systems of neighbouring countries. Among the crucial investments here is rebuilding the connector in Lasowo (Poland-Germany border) and improving its transmission from the current 0,9 bcm up to 1,5 bcm. Not any less important is the connector between Polish and Czech gas pipeline systems. This short (32 km) pipe will allow both countries to pursue the idea of building a connection between the north and the south of Europe. The plan to create so-called North-South Corridor between LNG terminals in Świnoujście and Adria in Croatia will allow for the gas to be transported from the top to the bottom of Europe, and will make it easier to invest in the internal gas pipeline networks among countries through which the pipeline will run. As has been mentioned, natural gas placed itself around 12-13% within the Poland s energy balance in the second part of the first decade of the 2010s. As one of the government s documents (Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2025 roku) states, the demand for this fuel is and will be growing steadily ,2 bcm, ,6 bcm, ,4 bcm. It does not automatically mean that its participation in the energy balance will grow at the same rate, because Poland is planning to produce more electricity and heat originating from renewable sources, moreover, the country is working on introducing nuclear energy into the balance. As regards Poland s own production of energy sources, gas, as for 2004, occupies 2 nd place with 5%. As to Poland s import of energy sources, gas is listed at 28%, with crude oil at 72%. In 2005, Poland imported natural gas from the following countries: Russia (4,65 bcm), Kazakhstan (0,98 bcm), Uzbekistan (0,61 bcm), Norway (0,35 bcm), Turkmenistan (0,32 bcm) and Germany (0,19 bcm) 4. RUSSIA S AND EU S ENERGY POLICIES Poland s dependency on Soviet Union in the not-sodistant past created the situation, where currently Poland 4 M. Lasoń, op. cit., p
7 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 7 still relies on Russian supplies, especially in the case of natural gas. Of course, the same pertains to west European countries, but their dependency on Russian gas and oil is less political, more economic and commercial, whereas Poland s one bears the burden of few dozens years of general dependency on Moscow which was disliked by common Poles, that is why its current energy dependency on Russia is now unwelcome on more levels that in the rest of Europe. RUSSIAAS A NATURAL GAS GIANT Russia s energy policy constitutes an integral part of its international relations, moreover, the economic potential of Russian Federation is primarily based on its natural resources, natural gas especially, and their prices in the world markets 5. Russia possesses the biggest confirmed reserves of natural gas in the world 47,8 trillion cubic metres (tcm), which is 1/3 of all the reserves on our planet. Natural gas production is 1/4 of the world s production, with over 600 bcm a year ( bcm, ,7 bcm). In 2005, the country exported over 206 bcm, within which over 47 bcm were sold to former Soviet Union countries and almost 160 tcm to the rest of buyers (mainly central and western Europe), in 2006 the export was bigger 202 bln (former Soviet Union 1/3, Europe 2/3). The main pipelines for exported Russian gas are the ones running via Ukraine, which is of high political importance 6. In 2003 Russian government issued a document entitled Russia s energy strategy until The document states, among others, that energy sources constitute the basics of economic development and important tools in internal and foreign politics of Russian Federation. As to natural gas, it states, in an optimistic variant, that in 2020 Russia will increase gas production up to bcm. Central and western Europe will remain the most important markets for Russian gas, as the westward export will rise by 23% up to However, this document, after a few years of being in force, proved to be out-of-date, especially in the field of natural gas and oil production projection. In its place Moscow created another document Russia s energy strategy until Here, the projections are adjusted, but the main goal remains the same. This is to be achieved by gaining sole access to pipelines and transit routes and prevent former Soviet Union countries from gaining energy independence and disallowing them to construct new pipelines 5 B. Molo, Polityka bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Federacji Rosyjskiej, [in:] Międzynarodowe bezpieczeństwo energetyczne..., op. cit., p Ibidem, p that would go around Russian Federation 7. This is just an example of how Russia is harnessing its richness in oil and especially natural gas. Russian Federation has enough potential to become an energy empire, and this way influence the world 8. One of the Russia s projects in which Poland s energy interests are at stake is the Nord Stream. This pipeline (technically started in September of 2011, and made operational in November 2011) runs from Vyborg in Russia through the Baltic Sea to the town of Lubmin in Germany. After the natural gas reaches Lubmin, it will be transported through Germany by two pipes OPAL, which will run along Poland-Germany border to the Czech Republic, and later, pipe NEL will transport the gas to Holland and Great Britain. The main goal of the Nordstream project is to directly connect Russian natural gas pipeline system with the European one going around Poland and other traditional transit countries, especially Ukraine and Belarus. Russia s determination to achieve this goal can be seen in its decision to abandon Jamal II project. Jamal pipeline was a major project for the EU countries (Poland among them), running since the mid-90s, allowing to supply as much as 65 bcm of gas if two Jamal pipelines were built. However, after opening the first Jamal pipe Russia decided to abandon the second leg of the project in favour of Nord Stream, which better suits current Russia s energy policy. Thus one may come to the conclusion that Moscow is pursuing a aggressive energy policy, trying to co-operate with individual European countries rather than EU as a group of countries 9. EUROPE S ENERGY STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF GAS European Communities had not regarded energy safety as one of its main international policies until the energy crisis of the 70s, when suddenly oil and gas prices went up and the reserves were belittled substantially. Then the countries importing energy sources realized that those who sold them were starting to treat this commerce as a tool to press the recipients politically. It was back then when energy safety became one of the key elements in general international relations. 7 Ibidem, p R. Kłaczyński, Ropa naftowa i gaz ziemny obszaru postradzieckiego. Rola i znaczenie surowców energetycznych w polityce Kremla, Kraków 2010, p J. Osoba, Rosyjsko-niemieckie konsorcjum ord Stream a dywersyfikacja, [in:] Rosja. Ambicje i możliwości w XXI w., ed. K.A. Kłosiński, Lublin 2010, p ; M. Lasoń, op. cit., p. 258; Jamał przegrywa z ord Streamem, sci/artykul/jamal;ii;przegrywa;z;nord;stream,240,0, html, [date of access: ].
8 8 POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE Grzegorz Omelan, Wojciech Opioła The first step was to establish the Green Book (2006), which constituted European strategy for sustainable, competitive and safe energy. There were 6 main points in this document, among them finishing off with creating internal oil and natural gas markets in member countries, safety and competitiveness of energy supplies, innovations within energy technologies and common external energy policy. In 2007 EU continued to work on creating basis for common action within the field of energy sources. The conclusions were quite negative first, it was stated that current energy policy did not guarantee reducing CO 2 emission, it would rather rise by 5% until 2030, moreover, with this policy EU s dependency on importing energy would rise from 50% to 65% within this time frame. As to oil and natural gas, the dependency would be substantially higher the former up to 93%, the latter 84%. The European Commission further stated that it was not known as for back then how to satisfy the growing demand, which brought political and economic risk. The most important conclusion, however, was the one stating that with current state of affairs EU did not have any mechanisms of assuring solidarity among member states in the wake of any incoming energy crisis. Basing on these assumptions, European Commission put forward few areas, in which its energy policy would develop: creating the internal energy market, which would boost competition, investments; constructing new pipelines and gas hubs in the Baltic and Central European states; developing mechanism of energy solidarity among member countries; better effectiveness of energy consumption; reduction of the basic energy consumption by 20% until 2020, which would save about 100 mln euros a year and reduction in CO 2 emission by 780 mln tons a year; the Commission proposed that the level of renewable energy sources in general energy balance of EU would be 20% in 2020; the Commission stated that it was inevitable for EU to continue co-operating with non-member states in the field of energy commerce and safety. Thus EU should work out the common energy policy, which would assure geopolitical safety for the whole organization 10. However, the main goal for EU S policy in the field of natural gas import, is to arrange its relations with Russian Federation in such a way so that natural gas supplies from this country would be highly stable. It 10 M. Tatarzyński, Polityka energetyczna Unii Europejskiej, Bezpieczeństwo Narodowe 2011, nr 3-4, p has proven to be very difficult, among others due to Germany s policy towards Russia in the field. Germany, being the most innovative country as regards energy producing and consuming, and a significant energy importer, plays a major part here. The country exports a lot of gas from Russia, however at the same time it is looking for alternative sources of energy supplies in Norway, Africa, Central Asia and Middle East. Currently, however, the construction of the Nord Stream, where German energy companies play major role, and Berlin strongly backs this project, created the situation, in which energy safety of some European countries, Poland among them, has been reduced. Germany is interested in direct access to Russian energy resources and development of transporting network. On the other side Moscow is interested in German investments in the field, its innovations and direct access to natural gas buyers on European markets. It seems that Germany- Russia energy relations do not go with UE-Russia ones. However, one may hope that this fact will bring about, stronger than previously, the subject of European solidarity in the field of energy commerce and safety. It is one of the major aims for EU to develop partnership with Russia in the natural gas sector, however its conditions must allow Europe to look for and use different sources and producers 11. In 2010 the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union Commission passed the 994/2010 resolution. This law is supposed to strengthen the energy safety of EU member states, with particular regard to the Easter European countries, for they suffer the most once an energy crisis occurs. The resolution names three levels of crisis: 1. early warning level (reliable information that deterioration of gas supply might occur); 2. alert level (significant deterioration of gas supply occurs); and 3. emergency level (the above-mentioned situation occurs plus exceptionally high gas demand with the market no longer able to rectify it by itself). What is very good for the Eastern European EU members, according to the document, is the fact it is compulsory for the European Commission, to announce the emergency level when as few as two countries file a motion to announce one. This gives confidence to countries like Poland, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia and the Czech Republic among others, as they are first in line to be troubled by any deterioration of Russian gas supply. The resolution also orders to modernize the existing natural gas infrastructure, by, for example, enabling to transport gas in both directions within Russian pipelines Brotherhood and Friendship, which, as for now, do 11 J. Osoba, op. cit.
9 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 9 not provide the recipients with such a possibility. The resolution also sees the necessity of constructing pipelines connecting Poland with the Baltic states, because these countries are, as of now, connected to Russian pipeline system only. One of the attachments to the resolution states the means of non-market actions that night be taken when an energy crisis occurs and is at the emergency level. It states that a country which has found itself in such a situation may use its strategic gas reserves, increase its own production of the fuel or introduce mechanism that reduce the demand for it 12. POLAND S ENERGY POLICY IN THE FIELD OF NATURAL GAS Natural gas, as has been stated at the beginning of this article, is not the most important energy source in Poland s energy balance. Coal, however, does not satisfy Poland s energy needs in total, that is why the country is in constant need to buy gas and oil from foreign traders. Since Poland s oil supplies are regarded to be quite safe, it is natural gas that wins the attention of Polish policy makers. Natural gas comprised as little as 11,6% of the final energy within Poland s energy balance in It is, among others, caused by the strong pro-coal lobby uninterested in decreasing the importance of coal in the energy balance, and the lack of actions towards protecting the environment from being polluted by coal and steel production industries 13. As regards the definition of energy safety, of which diversification is an integral part, the Energy Law Act of Poland s parliament stated in 1997 that it is the state of economy enabling covering the current and future needs within the field of fuels and energy in the way that is economically justifiable, with environmental protection granted. As far as natural gas is concerned, two elements are important here: geographical one (ensuring natural gas supplies from different geographical directions) and infrastructural one (both creating transporting infrastructure enabling to transport gas from these directions and producing energy from different sources like nuclear plants or renewables) P. Turowski, owe prawo Unii Europejskiej, a bezpieczeństwo gazowe Polski, Bezpieczeństwo Narodowe 2011, nr 17, p A. Toś, Polityka Polski w zakresie dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego ocena rozwiązań alternatywnych, narodowe.info/artykul,762,polityka_polski_w_zakresie_dywersyfi kacji_dostaw_gazu_ziemnego_?_ocena_rozwiazan_alternatywnych [date of access: ]. 14 Ibidem. DIVERSIFICATION OF SUPPLIES The diversification of energy sources supplies has become one of the main markers of Poland s energy policy. It is crucial for the policy makers to ensure, above all, continuity of supplies, which will allow Poland to carry out a fluent alteration of supplies direction in case of any interruption in deliveries. The main document issued by Poland s authorities on its energy policies, Polityka energetyczna Polski do 2030 roku, stated firmly, that Poland s energy policy would ensure the diversification of directions of energy supplies, suppliers, routes and types of transport. It saw the need to overcome the significant dependence on one supplier. It is crucial, the document stated, to take action aimed at winning new sources of supply and types of transport, increasing Poland s own production and abilities to store natural gas. Former Poland s government s regulation of 2000 states that the relation of natural gas imported from one direction to the whole amount of the imported fuel must not exeed 70% between That s why the government and its controlled enterprise PGNiG started diversifying the suppliers by buying more gas from Germany (8% in 2009) and Asian countries (5%) 15. Before discussing the ways to diversify Poland s natural gas supplies, it is advisable to state where the faults within the whole energy policy in Poland are. The biggest one seems to be the fact which has already been mentioned above majority of imported gas is bought from Russia. This brings about another foreseeable problem Poland might become affected as soon as Russia interrupts its deliveries to, for example, Ukraine and Belarus, with which Kremlin has had energy conflicts over the last decades. And finally, Poland s energy balance is still dominated by coal, which means that the environment is polluted significantly and that increasing the amount of natural gas within the balance, as well as the percentage of renewable sources of energy are among the ways to cope with this problem 16. There are many possibilities for Poland s authorities to rectify the above-mentioned faults within Poland s natural gas field. Let us first discuss the ways of diversifying the suppliers geographically. NORWEGIAN GAS Poland has had a long history of trying to buy natural gas from gas-rich Norway in the last 15 years. At the 15 M. Lasoń, op. cit, p See also: R. Wójtowicz, Z. Gebhardt, A. Strugała, Możliwości dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego do Polski w świetle obowiązujących w kraju wymagań jakościowych, Polityka Energetyczna 2011, t. 14, No. 1, p A. Toś, op. cit.
10 10 POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE Grzegorz Omelan, Wojciech Opioła very end of his term as prime minister, Jerzy Buzek even signed a contract to do so, but it was not ratified by the parliament and rejected by the next government under prime minister Leszek Miller. The government returned to the idea in 2005, but then again economical reasons prevailed and it was rejected, too. Some time later a better idea came up to connect Poland to Danish and Norwegian pipeline systems and, effectively, with the natural gas resources in the North Sea. Poland s PGNiG and Gaz System signed the contract to build the interconnecting pipeline (230 km) with the Denmark s Energinet.dk, and since 2008 the plan has been co-financed by the European Union.As for now it is believed that the pipeline will serve not only as a way of transporting Norwegian gas to Poland, but also to transport Russian gas to Denmark, which would ensure a wellfunctioning market on both sides 17. It is important here to note that, in general, European Union has been backing this project since its inception, understanding the need to build the new northern gas infrastructure in Europe. However it has had its ups and downs, having been cancelled and revived few times already, nevertheless, if realized, it is a real chance to diversify Poland s gas import s directions. NABUCCO PIPELINE This project ensures gas supplies from the Caspian Sea region and Iran and is highly advantageous for Poland. However, Poland s authorities would have to invest into constructing the connector from Austria to the Czech Republic and Poland s border. The company behind the project Nabucco Gas Pipeline International is planning to build a 3000km-long pipeline with the transporting abilities of 30 bcm of the fuel a year, going around Russia. If realized, Nabucco will open a new transport route to Europe from the Caspian Sea area and increase energy safety for the countries participating in the project 18. In case of Poland, this pipeline, which may be operational as soon as 2014, and fully finalized around 2019, will increase the number of directions from which the country would import natural gas and make a way for decreasing the amount of fuel imported from Russia after One important aspect is of financial nature the cost of participating in the project is quite low for Poland 1 b euros- in relation to the possibility of winning access to non-russian natural 17 Denmark and Poland considering gas pipeline, _gas_pipeline [date of access: ]; Gazociąg Baltic Pipe uzyskał dofinansowanie UE, htm [date of access: ]. 18 M. Lasoń, op. cit., p gas source. However, there are some negatives, too. This pipeline will be very long, running from the Asian Middle East countries, of which quite a few might be regarded as politically unstable. Moreover, the length of the pipeline means it will transit many countries in Asia and Europe, which increases the final price of the fuel. And, although Poland s participation in the project seems very advantageous, its authorities have not decided yet if they would join in 19. It is worth noticing that in 2012 it turned out that Nabucco would probably not come to existence in the form previously planned, but, as EU Energy Commissioner Guenther Oettinger has lately stated, Caspian gas will be transported to Europe via any other pipeline that Azeri authorities choose in the immediate future 20. BERNAU-SZCZECIN PIPELINE This is a project of interconnecting Poland s and Germany s pipeline systems. The volume of fuel transported through this pipeline was to be 2 bcm, and the cost was to be 320 milion zlotys. It was planned that the pipeline would start in 2006, but the Polish side opposed it for the anticipated high cost of the fuel (because of the transit through Germany). Andrzej Lipko, one of Poland s experts in the field of energy safety, stated that the project had never been a diversifying one, its aim was only to connect two pipeline systems. However, another expert, Roman Ney, said the project was a good one, because Poland did not have, at that time, any significant interconnections with western and southern neighbours. He also stated that such interconnector would serve as a safety-providing pipeline in case of any interruptions of eastern supplies 21. This pipeline is highly interesting because of different reasons, too. Poland s authorities had for years rejected the idea of the Bernau-Szczecin pipeline, however PGNiG put forward its own project to construct the Boernicke-Police pipeline. The company has already started carrying out market research to establish if the project will be economically effective. At the same time, PGNiG has been trying to buy the Bernau-Szczecin project from Bartimpeks, so at present it is not certain which project will prevail A. Toś, op. cit. 20 Maciążek: a trupie abucco. Czyli przyszłość południowego korytarza gazowego, /10/13/maciazek-na-trupie-nabucco-czyli-przyszlosc-poludniowe go-korytarza-gazowego/ [date of access: ]. 21 Siedem sposobów na dywersyfikację dostaw gazu, pl/artykuly/siedem-sposobow-na-dywersyfikacje-dostaw-gazu, 3114_0_0_0_0.html [date of access: ]. 22 Powrót do pomysłu Bernau-Szczecin?, html [date of access: ] Bartimpeks sprzedaje PG ig
11 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 11 It is worth adding that Poland has already opened a pipeline connection with the Czech Republic and Germany, and is carrying out market research before deciding to construct another pipeline connecting it with Lithuania. The latter seems to be highly advantageous for both countries. Lithuania is totally dependent on Russian gas, which in case of any interruption puts the small country at risk, and Poland s gas infrastructure in the north-east corner of the country is particularly badly developed, which might be rectified if the connector was constructed 23. LNG TERMINAL Apart from constructing new pipelines, natural gas supplies to Poland will be diversified by placing a LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) terminal on Poland s Baltic shore. This project had been talked about within Poland s authorities circles for years and the green light was given in 2008, and the terminal was situated in Świnoujście in the north-western corner of the country. It is projected that in the first years of its operational activity the terminal will be able to receive 5 bcm of the fuel a year, with future capabilities of 7,5 bcm. What is important, the terminal will be equipped with two gas storages with operational capacity of m 3. The facility will be open at the turn of 2013/ This way of diversifying natural gas supplies has a lot of advantages. First, the whole characteristics of such terminal does not limit the choice of the source of fuel geographically. The main factor determining purchasing this natural gas and not that one will be economic conditions, not geographical or historical ones, which will be quite a new fact as far as Poland s natural gas trade is concerned. Thus it is natural to consider buying gas through the terminal from Qatar, Algeria, Libya, Egypt or Norway. Fuel from these directions may satisfy over 50% of Poland s natural gas demand when the terminal becomes fully operational. The terminal will also make it possible for Poland to alter the way gas is transported. Third, the country s natural gas market will become more flexible, for there is no need to use pipelines to bring the imported fuel to the terminal. When the importer and the exporter do not have to be projekt rurociągu Bernau-Szczecin, bartimpex_sprzedaje_pgnig_projekt_gazociagu_bernau_szczecin. html [date of access: ]. 23 Połączenie gazowe z Litwą korzystniejsze dla naszych sąsiadów?, niejsze-dla-naszych-sasiadow,154099_1_0_0.html [date of access: ]. 24 A. Toś, Ocena budowy w Polsce terminala do odbioru skroplonego gazu ziemnego (L G) w kontekście dywersyfikacji dostaw gazu ziemnego, Raport Pułaskiego 2010, nr 4, p linked by pipelines, the importing country is less vulnerable to blackmail. One must remember that the price of LNG delivered by sea is 20-30% higher than the one delivered by pipelines. All in all, however, Poland s authorities decision to construct the LNG terminal in Świnoujście is regarded to be a very positive one, for the number of advantages is higher than disadvantages. Of course, there is still much to be done by the government and investors (new suppliers, buying a fleet of tankers, searching for Poland s own sources for natural gas abroad), but this investment has a very good chance to start real diversification of Poland s natural gas supplies. As has been stated earlier in the article, diversification of supplies occurs within two fields geographical one (different directions of supplies) and infrastructural one (developing energy infrastructure and creating different means of producing energy). The former has just been discussed above, the latter, including nuclear energy issue and renewable energy sources will be touched upon below. SHALE GAS Currently shale gas is being talked about by each and every energy industry specialist around the world. It is so because in 2009 a US company developed the latest technique that tapped the previously inaccessible supplies of natural gas and spread it to the rest of the world. Specialists say it might change the geopolitics of natural gas, and increase the fuel s resources for at least 20%, conservatively estimating. It is also stressed that more extensive use of natural gas will reduce CO 2 emissions, for gas produces less greenhouse pollution than coal and oil 25. Estimates state that more than 5 tcm of shale gas might lay under the territory of Poland. The stratum of shale extends from the Baltic coast, via central Poland to the south-eastern corner near Zamość. It lays between m under the ground, so it means that the gas field is similar to this in US, which proved so rich in the fossil fuel. With around 14 bcm a year of Poland s natural gas consumption, the country might become a net exporter of the fuel in the future. It will be so on the condition that the authorities provide well-thought policy that will ensure a long-lasting process of shale gas exploitation. All this means that Poland is about to enter a very interesting period of its energy history 26. Shale gas ex- 25 C. Krauss, ew Way to Tap Gas May Expand Global Supplies, gas.html_r=1&partner=rss&emc=rss&src=ig [date of access: ]. 26 Shale gas to boost Polish energy sector, pl/shale,gas,to,boost,polish,energy,sector,11107.html [date of access: ].
12 12 POLAND S ENERGY BALANCE AND ITS FUTURE Grzegorz Omelan, Wojciech Opioła ploitation seems to be a very good chance for Poland to become independent from Russian natural gas. It will take years before it materializes, but with some help from American companies, which are trail blazers in the newest technology of releasing shale gas from the depths of our planet, it is highly possible. But it is important that the authorities understand the importance of these developments, and are acting to make sure Poland s energy sector grows as strong as ever. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION POLAND S POSITION ON ENERGY CHESSBOARD IS ABOUT TO CHANGE As has been presented in the above article, the issue of energy safety in case of natural gas supplies is not an easy one. There are so many factors contributing to security of supplies in this very sector of energy policy, that is seems almost impossible to have them all in place at one time. Moreover, the situation of Poland as to this issue is heavily influenced by both historical and geopolitical factors, which makes things even worse. So, there must be, and there are, certain actions aimed at diversifying the structure of gas supplies, and there are different ways to do so. First of all, Poland s gas pipeline network is of eastwest orientation, for the country has been dependent on Russian natural gas for decades. As late as 2011, Poland s authorities finally opened a pipeline of north-south direction. Another one, connecting Poland and Lithuania is in the last stage of planning. These two might be highly important for both sides, as all of them, but especially the Baltic republic, are dependent on Russian supplies. Opening the Poland-Czech Republic connections opens the way to get the fuel from the planned Nabucco pipeline through Austrian and Czech pipeline networks, which will further diversify the supplies geographically. At the same time Poland is considering being connected to German pipeline system, which is even of more importance provided that if Warsaw starts buying gas from Berlin it will not be Russian gas, but, for example, German or Norwegian. Another very important way to prepare ground for diversification of supplies geopolitically is to construct an LNG terminal in Świnoujście. When this facility becomes operational, Poland will buy liquefied gas mostly from Qatar. However, the country must order the fuel from other exporters, for the quantity of the already contracted Qatar gas is far from enough to satisfy the technological capabilities of the terminal. The facility must not only work to diversify Poland s gas supplies, but also be economic in the face of the energy market which is still undergoing deep liberalization. A totally new issue has emerged lately in the field of Poland s energy safety shale gas. It turned out the country might be highly rich in this type of natural gas right after the Americans introduced a new way to release it from previously inaccessible sites deep under the ground. Specialists say that if Poland s shale gas deposits are confirmed, the country may even become an exporter of the fuel, which will reshape the European energy map quite significantly. As of now, many international companies are carrying out drilling searching for the gas, exploiting of the fuel might begin in One thing is important here some in Poland believe that selling drilling licenses to foreign companies might be dangerous, because once a drilling proves effective, Russia s Gazprom or other businesses may simply purchase such a company and gainthe influence on Poland s emerging shale gas market. What one cannot forget about here is the fact that within the field of energy policy Poland, as every country, acts only in a broader, geopolitical context. Energy policy is a game of influence and control, far-sighted decisions, and, last but not least, luck of possessing rich resources of fossil fuels. Traits of this game are clearly visible in, for example, Russia s pulling off the Nord Stream project now it can easily blackmail Ukraine or Belarus, depending on these two countries attitude towards Russian policies. Poland has been so far relatively vulnerable within this chessboard of relations because of its dependency on Russian natural gas. Russian Federation openly states it wants to gain geopolitical advantage through its natural resources export. That is why the country is not willing to co-operate with the EU in this field, it prefers to pick several EU members and do business with them separately, which seems to be an easier task. Moreover, the European Union has not until lately provided its members with proper regulations concerning the time of energy crises and energy solidarity for example as late as 2006 it started creating an internal natural gas market, and anti-crisis solidarity law is in the process of bringing it into practice right now (the end of 2011). Despite the fact that the EU is trying to lessen its dependency on Russian natural gas, by, for instance, forcing member states to consume energy more effectively or rising the level of energy produced from renewable sources in the general energy balance up to 20% in 2020, it will still grow even up to 84% in 2030.
13 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 13 RÓWNOWAGA ENERGETYCZNA W POLSCE I JEJ PRZYSZŁOŚĆ. PRZYKŁAD GAZU JAKO ŹRÓDŁA ENERGII Streszczenie Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie gazu naturalnego jako jednego z najważniejszych zdaniem autorów surowców energetycznych w obecnej i przyszłej polityce energetycznej Polski. Polityka energetyczna polskiego rządu w obszarze gazu jest obecnie kształtowana głównie przez trzy czynniki: strategię uniezależnienia się od dostaw gazu ze wschodu i związaną z tym rozbudowę infrastruktury przesyłowej w kierunku północ południe oraz droga morską; prowadzone na szeroką skalę prace poszukiwawcze na złożach gazu łupkowego; konieczność spełnienia wymogów określonych w polityce energetycznej Unii Europejskiej oraz wymogów pakietu klimatycznego. Realizowane obecnie inwestycje w obszarze polskiej polityki energetycznej autorzy postrzegają jako spójne, zaplanowane i celowe, prowadzące do zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Polski. Za najważniejsze należy uznać budowę gazociągów łączących polskie sieci przesyłowe z sieciami na Litwie, w Czechach i Niemczech. Mimo wątpliwości związanych z wyższymi kosztami produkcji gazu, równie ważne strategicznie są budowa gazoportu w Świnoujściu oraz poszukiwania złóż gazu łupkowego. Zdaniem autorów, w perspektywie kilku lub kilkunastu lat status Polski na energetycznej mapie świata może się radykalnie zmienić, z kraju uzależnionego w dużej mierze od importu surowca z Rosji, na kraj eksportujący nadwyżki zakupionego oraz pozyskanego z własnych zasobów gazu naturalnego, posiadający kilka alternatywnych dróg pozyskania tego surowca. SŁOWA KLUCZOWE: polityka energetyczna, gaz ziemny, źródła energii, Polska, Rosja, Unia Europejska
14 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 15 Krzysztof R. Mazurski Wyższa Szkoła Zarządzania Edukacja Wrocław BROWN COAL AND THE THREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT: THE CASE OF THE LEGNICA ŚCINAWA DEPOSIT (POLAND) ABSTRACT The rapidly growing demand for electrical energy and the geopolitical situation in Poland is increasing State involvement in the interest of energy-security. Alternative sources of energy do not provide such a guarantee, and nuclear energy is too expensive for Poland, so this technology cannot be used on a large scale. It raises also serious social controversies. Resources of black coal will run to depletion within the next twenty years. Meanwhile gigantic deposits of brown coal are exploited on a comparatively smaller scale. State authorities incline more and more strongly to their extraction. The Legnica Ścinawa deposit in the northern part of central Silesia provides the greatest prospect, but controversies too. These problems are discussed here in the paper. KEYWORDS: environment, energetics, brown coal, Poland, Silesia INTRODUCTION In the late 1980s Poland introduced intensive and deep social-economic changes, connected with the change of the political system, which is qualified as the constitutional transformation 1. Its first phase brought a liquidation of many obsolete or uncompetitive works, especially in industry, quickly causing considerable economic hardship. However, a modernization process was quickly initiated involving investment in new enterprises using new technologies. The reduction of the threat to the environment by pollution emissions provided beneficial effects for nature 2. Simultaneously the demand for electrical energy came down, but increased quickly after The dynamics of economic development in Poland is so strong and constant that this country holds the positive coefficient of gross national product (GNP), the only one in the European Union in spite of the deep crisis in the world economy after K.R. Mazurski, Die Transformation der Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftsordnung Polens, Geographie und Schule 1995, H. 93, p K.R. Mazurski, The Constitutional Transformation and a Threat of the Environment in Poland, Journal of Environmental Protection 2011, No. 2, p The strength of energy consumption is driven by the growth in domestic use thanks to improvement in electro- technical equipment. Consequently, the lack of 170 TkWh of energy can be visible already in The resultant competition in sourcing of energy-raw materials causes prices to grow very quickly. The above perspective forced Polish authorities after 2000 to work towards energy security. Poland s energy is produced first of all from black and brown coal (national resources), mineral oil and natural gas (importation, mostly from Russia, which is very insecure and politically risky). Resources of shale gas are currently in the phase of research and exploration. Alternatives: the use of indigenous coal resources or the construction of nuclear power stations would create the guarantee of security for the Polish economy. To be sure, preparations to construct the first nuclear power station have begun, but its utilization involves a longer time span. Besides one installation (the construction of several installations at one time exceeds economic possibilities of the State) will not cover the projected demand, so it leaves only coal. However, it is necessary to be aware that resources of black coal will be depleted within years. There is brown coal instead; these resources are among the greatest in Europe, and perhaps in the
15 16 BROWN COAL AND THE THREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT Krzysztof R. Mazurski world. Currently 14 billion Mg is proven reserves, 58 billions Mg are identified as prospective, and further 140 billion Mg is found in other coal-bearing areas 3. The brown coal supports 35% of Poland s electrical energy production, being produced in power stations with power of about 9.2 GW, which represents 26% of all installed power. The energy from the brown coal is 25% cheaper than from black coal and over 50% cheaper than gas and wind energy. At present, the exploitation is from four regions. The forecast brings the following prognosis for exploitation of particular deposits: in the Bełchatów Basin they will be used up to 2031 and at the expansion of the Złoczew mine to 2042, in the Turoszów Basin (south-west from Legnica) to 2038 and at the expansion of the Radomierzyce deposit to 2045, in the Konin Basin to 2016 and at the expansion of new deposits to 2037, in the Turek Basin to 2020 and at the expansion of new deposits to It is necessary to note that these new deposits possess considerably worse technical parameters and are less rich, implying that in years the coal output will begin to drop from the present level of 55 millions Mg/year. Meanwhile, reserves as yet, the deposit between Legnica and Ścinawa is best recognized among others and better situated in relation to potential energy users. This is also the region of the intensive exploitation of copper deposits, so called the Legnica Głogów Copper District (LGOM). The brown coal in this area was discovered in the 1950s when searching for copper, and records estimate its resources as 8% of world total. CHARACTERIZATION OF DEPOSITS BETWEEN LEGNICA AND ŚCINAWA The discussed deposits are located north-west from Wrocław, in the central part of Silesia. They cover four basic areas, which together possess resources over 40 billions Mg, being the richest in Europe (best estimate 15 billions Mg). Deposits Legnica-West and Legnica-East are best recognized and possess the B category (A is most valuable). The area with the category C1 (not a big investment risk) occurs here from the north and the east. The vast north: deposits Legnica- North and Ścinawa possess the C2 category (initial documentary evidence), while the very vast area Ścinawa Głogów are appointed as D2 and E (initial estimates). These coal resources are located on two large 3 J. Libicki, Z. Tarasiewicz, Projektowanie i budowa Kopalni Węgla Brunatnego Legnica, Węgiel Brunatny 2005, nr 3/52. Figure 1. Brown coal deposits in south-western Poland. Own placement. structural geological units. The first deposit covers so called the for-sudetic block (the Legnica region), another one the for-sudetic monocline (the Ścinawa region). Here Tertiary compositions above the series of Palaeozoic rocks, among them coal-bearing formations from the lower and central Miocene (Neogene, million years). This is overlain by the cap-rock of younger sediments, which end with a series of sediments from the San II glaciation ( ths. years). Research has ascertained four coal seams (highest of 20 m thickness), the third is deepest, but with unprofitable parameters 4. They are divided by insertions of loams, occasional muds, sands and gravels, whereas the outer surface is morphologically diversified this is the eroded bottom moraine with the rest of the lake district 5. The local coal possesses very good properties, and the energy parameter is especially profitable, because it amounts to over 9200 kj/kg, namely 20% more than in the Bełchatów Basin. This means that 24 millions Mg of the local coal will suffice for a production of 29 TkWh instead of 34 millions Mg at Bełchatów. Simultaneously, the price of the brown coal is 80 PLN/Mg (about 25 USD, 2 nd qtr 2012), compared with black coal 250 PLN/Mg (about 78 USD). Nonetheless, the works for the extension of these deposits were suspended in the 1970s as areas of the development of the building and the infrastructure on them for copper mining. However, the Polish government was forced after 2000 to renew interest in this area because of the quickly grow- 4 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, Złoża węgla brunatnego w rejonie Legnicy-Ścinawy i technologie ich zagospodarowania, LXXXI Zjazd Naukowy Polskiego Towarzystwa Geologicznego Mezozoik i kenozoik Dolnego Śląska, Żagań 2011, p J. Malewski, J. Blachowski, K. Kaźmierczak, M. Kucharska, Środowiskowe i społeczne uwarunkowania eksploatacji węgla brunatnego Legnica. Raport końcowy 18, Poltegor-Instytut, Wrocław, 2008.
16 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 17 Figure 2. Copper industrial area (LGOM) and brown coal deposits in the beginning of 1970s. 1 LGOM borders, 2 old copper basin, 3 brown coal deposits, 4 main roads, 5 railways, 6 copper smelting works, 7 copper mines 6. ing application of energy and rising prices. At last, the Cabinet accepted Idea of the Spatial Management of the Country towards 2030 on It binds, among other things, to include the protection of gas and coal deposits (including the Legnica Ścinawa region) against growing and permanent, long-standing investments. Maximum planned output would amount 30 millions Mg a year after sixteen years of the mine construction and would last years 7. THREATS The idea of an opencast mine in these deposits has is the most likely to be built. If so, it would go down to 220 m of depth and would occupy 3000 hectares. We have to add another 300 hectares, located by the Odra Rv. for the power station with a planned power > 4.5 GW 8. External spoil-heap, planned in the first stage of exploitation, would occupy 1625 hectares, because first of all 175 m of the top-layer should to be taken off. As a re- 6 Ibidem. 7 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, op. cit. 8 Ibidem. sult, the depressive crater 5 kms from borders of the exploitation would lower the pressure of underground waters in the area of only 120 km 2, because penetrable sediments embrace 40-50% of the whole. It is estimated that the decrease of crops will be visible within the area of 12 km 2. One should however emphasise that a spatial direction of the output has great significance. And so, the average agricultural fertility of soils is here clearly higher than in this part of Silesia and amounts to 4.1 and often below 3.0 (in the scale 1 best fertility, 10 worst), so it means good and average quality of soils, locally very good, too 9. On that account, arable land occupies over 60% of the area, and in some communes even over 70%. First of all, these are pseudopodsols (40%) and brown soils (34%). The intensive agriculture is developed also thanks to the flatness of the area, to the mild climate and good hydrological proportions. It is necessary however to note that the quality of soils decreases northerly and north-west from Legnica, where arable land occupies 33% and forests 60% of the area. This is related also to the density of population which amounts P/km 2 eastwards, while towards Ścinawa it comes down to P/km 2. Besides the problem of providing for communication tracks, power lines and similar infrastructural elements, the strong threat is evident for biotic nature. Some ecologists warn of the risk of the drying of marshy meadows along the Odra Rv. that are unique in lowland Europe. They cover such habitats, as flood-meadows, old river-beds, swamps and bogs, where among other things, the common woodpecker (Dryobates medius) and vociferous swan (Cygnus olor) are recorded. Up to 13 local species of fauna are protected in the European Union, besides 43 species of plants and animals inscribed in the Polish Red Books. The direct threat will affect three nature reserves, two areas of protected scenery, and three areas of NATURE Afforestation can be done on 22-70% of the area, depending on an investment variant. However, they are generally of low productive quality (fundamentally pine and worse leafy species) and considerably damaged their defoliation amounts to 26-60%. Surface waters in well-known deposits will not be disturbed. This refers to the Kaczawa Rv. and its confluents as well as small post-glacial lakes that are recreational grounds. On that account, Legnica deposits will not be exploited in south-eastern and south-western 9 K.R. Mazurski, Użytkowanie gruntów w rejonie Legnicy, Prace Naukowe Akademii Ekonomicznej we Wrocławiu 1989, nr 456, p J. Malewski, J. Blachowski, K. Kaźmierczak, M. Kucharska, op. cit.
17 18 BROWN COAL AND THE THREAT TO THE ENVIRONMENT Krzysztof R. Mazurski parts 11. However, some smaller water flows will have to change course, and probably some smaller ponds will disappear. It should be noted that these developments overlap areas of so called Main Reservoirs of Underground Waters that are also the subject of special protection 12. The potential threat from dust and noise emission should not be high. Established practices provide solutions that limit it very radically. This will comply with the minimum levels required in the European Union 13. The greatest problem of a social character arises from the necessary displacement of several villages, in the beginning for needs of the external spoil-heap Gogołowice, Parszowice and Radlice, together about 100 farms 14. This would mean also a full liquidation of 19 villages and partial of 5, only in three Legnica fields 15. They possess many historical monuments, such as churches, cemeteries or foundation of timber forts. This is however an area of clear depopulation in consequence of low demographic increase and with growing negative migration balances, resulting from a serious ageing of the population. Figure 3. Updated brown coal fields between Legnica and Ścinawa J. Libicki, Z. Tarasiewicz, op. cit. 12 J. Malewski, J. Blachowski, K. Kaźmierczak, M. Kucharska, op. cit. 13 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, op. cit. 14 J. Libicki, Z. Tarasiewicz, op. cit. 15 J. Malewski, J. Blachowski, K. Kaźmierczak, M. Kucharska, op. cit. 16 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, op. cit. DISCUSSION The intention for the renewal of works for exploitation of the deposit has led, of course, to large controversies in the local society, engaging also as usual, numerous green groups as well as dedicated proecological groups 17. Six communes and several NGOs notified the formal objection. It should however be remembered that it will take some time before an actuation of the output, because there are essential realization decisions. Acceptance of land use plans by local authorities is an essential final decision. When considering possible results, one should bear in mind that within a dozen or so years the exploitation of copper will finish, including the end of copper smelting works too together with the prospective unemployment for 150k persons 18. The EU energy policy perceives brown coal as nonconflictive, therefore this energy source has a growing meaning in Europe. Such position brings a weighty argument for the Polish cabinet. However, on the other hand as the counterargument, Poland has obtained too low allowance on the emission of CO 2. An extension of the brown coal consumption will exceed the level of CO 2 emission which was admitted by the EU. An increase of surcharges will be high, and this, consequently, will have effect on an increase of operating costs of energy. Higher prices of current will become inevitable. This will reduce probably the demand for this raw material. Doubtless the Legnica Ścinawa deposits are admitted rightly as a part of strategic State reserves in the balance of energy resources. This cannot be the subject of discussion, who will decide about their use, because they are no matter or capital of local importance, but only nationwide 19. On the other hand, the State must take into account the business of local community and importance of local nature in the whole Polish environment. Anxieties formulated very concretely, seem to be premature. Indeed the decision for a deposit protection was taken, but it is not yet known which exploitation technology will be applied. Four methods have been analysed: 1) an opencast output, 2) an underground output, 3) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), 4) Underground biogasification. 17 P. Kanikowski, Koło Legnicy leży pod ziemią wielki skarb, J. Libicki, Z. Tarasiewicz, Węgiel brunatny jako alternatywa dalszego rozwoju gospodarczego rejonu legnickiego, WUG: Bezpieczeństwo Pracy i Ochrona Środowiska w Górnictwie 2006, nr 5, p J. Malewski, J. Blachowski, K. Kaźmierczak, M. Kucharska, op. cit.
18 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 19 UCG is a very promising ecological technology, but in case of the brown coal not a very practical application 20. Similarly, 4) is the same. At present, only opencast technology is conspicuous for effectiveness from different considerations, although it causes the greatest environmental transformations. It is not known, however, what technical progress will result in a dozen or so years. It is certain instead that a shortage of energy can soon develop, and that failure to expand indigenous energy will deepen Poland s dependence from foreign sources of raw materials coupled with a serious risk of higher costs. CONCLUSIONS The following facts are irrefutable: 1) World demand for energy is increasing rapidly, including Poland, 2) National resources of energy raw materials are approaching exhaustion rapidly, 3) during the next dozen or so years the wide area of LGOM 21 can be affected by serious structural unemployment, 20 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, op. cit. 21 K.R. Mazurski, Główne zmiany środowiska pod wpływem przemysłu miedziowego w Legnicko-Głogowskim Okręgu Miedziowym, Zeszyty Badań Rejonów Uprzemysławianych 1979, nr 71, p ) the diversification of deliveries of energy raw materials (for example, the construction of gas port at Świnoujście) will diminish the dependence from Russia, but will not resolve the deficit, 5) the optimistic hope, based on shale gas, is rather undefined and too one-sided, 6) Resources of brown coal in Poland are certain and sufficient for many decades. In light of the above, the Polish government must take a radical solution to the problem and focus on brown coal plus nuclear energy (the raw material for its production must also be imported). Nuclear power stations are still very badly perceived in Poland, as demonstrated by protests against the location for the first station. It seems therefore that the construction of new power stations based on brown coal is inevitable. It is necessary here to agree with the principle that the construction and development of brown coal mines must be linked to the reduction of copper mining for the avoidance of overpressure on the environment 22. Solutions to minimize environmental threats and the use of the best methods of reclamation together with a suitably humane treatment of the local population should also be taken into consideration. 22 A. Stachowiak, J. Nowak, E. Sztromwasser, op. cit. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author acknowledges the input of Mr. John Stocks, Great Malvern (UK), in the final preparation of the paper. WĘGIEL BRUNATNY I ZAGROŻENIE ŚRODOWISKA: PRZYPADEK ZŁOŻA LEGNICA ŚCINAWA (POLSKA) Streszczenie Szybko rosnące zapotrzebowanie na energię elektryczną i geopolityczna sytuacja Polski powoduje wzrastające zaangażowanie państwa w problem bezpieczeństwa energetycznego. Alternatywne źródła energii nie zapewniają go, a energia nuklearna jest zbyt droga dla Polski, stąd też technologia ta nie może być zastosowana na szerszą skalę. Powoduje też ona poważne kontrowersje społeczne. Równocześnie ogromne złoża węgla brunatnego eksploatowane są na względnie małą skalę. Władze państwowe przychylają się coraz silniej do ich wydobywania. Złoże Legnica Ścinawa w północnej części środkowego Śląska posiada największe możliwości wzbogacenia czynnych zasobów paliwa energetycznego, ale budzi to także kontrowersje. W niniejszym opracowaniu przedstawiono związane z nim problemy. SŁOWA KLUCZOWE: środowisko, energetyka, węgiel brunatny, Polska, Śląsk
19 Vol. 13, Nr 4, 2012 GOSPODARKA RYNEK EDUKACJA 21 Miroslav Fašanok 1 Zuzana Fischerova 1 Martin Zvonař 2 Igor Duvač 2 1 Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin, Trencin, Slovakia 2 Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND OCCURRENCE OF THE TERMS RELATED TO THE FIELD OF SPORT SCIENCE ABSTRACT In the paper the author presents a brief outline of the origin of some important terms in the area of physical activity, the development in the area of Physical Education, Exercise and Sport Science, a role of a scientific approach to the study of sport and exercise, different fields and different purposes of research. The author also analyses the usage frequency of selected terms in English, German, Czech and Slovak and compares their usage in the reviewed languages and suggests the proper usage of these terms. KEYWORDS: terminology, sport science, exercise, sport, study, physical education, kinesiology INTRODUCTION In the last four decades a number of different terms related to the area of sport activity has occurred. The terms as sport, physical education, movement education, sport education, sport science, exercise science, physiology, kinesiology, sport studies, study of sport have become common but we are not always quite certain of how to use them properly. There are also big differences in the usage of these terms in particular languages. The aim of this paper is to find out these differences and to suggest the proper usage of these terms. PURPOSE The purpose of this paper is to find out these differences and to suggest the proper usage of these terms. ORIGINS OF TERMINOLOGY IN THE AREA OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY There is a lack of clarity when discussing the terms, with almost identical or similar meanings (e.g. science and study or sport and exercise). In the first part we will deal with the history of these terms, their origins, and how their forms and meanings have changed over time. 1. SCIENCE The notion of science is thought to have come into use in England around The original meaning knowledge (of something) acquired by study, also a particular branch of knowledge, originated from Old French and from Classical Latin word scientia (knowledge) that probably had a meaning to separate one thing from another, to distinguish. The word is commonly understood as distinction between theoretical truth (Greek. episteme) and methods for effecting practical results (tekhne). Main modern (restricted) sense of body of regular or methodical observations or propositions comes from 18 th century. 2. STUDY The term having the roots in the early 12 th century comes from Old French, estudier with meaning to study / from Classical Latin studium with meaning study, ap-
20 22 ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENTAND OCCURRENCE OF THE TERMS RELATED TO THE FIELD OF SPORT SCIENCE M. Fašanok, Z. Fischerova, M. Zvonař,I. Duvač plication. The noun study has a meaning application of the mind to the acquisition of knowledge and was first recorded in ca SPORT A) verb The term sport comes from Old French (ca. 1400) with the meaning to take pleasure, to amuse oneself, / from Anglo-French disport / from Old French desport pastime, recreation, pleasure / from desporter to divert, amuse, please, play. Sense of the phrase to amuse oneself by active exercise in open air or taking part in some game dates from the late 15 th century. B) noun The term comes from middle 15 th century (pleasant pastime) from sport (verb). The meaning game involving physical exercise was first recorded in EXERCISE A) noun The term has its roots by the middle of 14 th century (condition of being in active operation, practice for the sake of training) from Old French, exercice (exercise, execution of power; physical or spiritual exercise), from Latin exercitium (raining, exercise) from exercitare (keep busy, drive on). Original sense may have been e.g. driving farm animals to the field to plow. The meaning physical activity was first recorded in English in late 14 th century referring to written schoolwork from early 17 th century. B) verb The term comes from the late 14 th century, (to employ, put into active use) from exercise (noun.); (to make use of) is related to mental and spiritual training; sense of engage in physical activity dates back to ORIGINS OF SPORT SCIENCE WHAT IS SPORT SCIENCE? Sport science is an emerging discipline which applies scientific principles to understand factors associated with sporting performance or health and well-being. This relatively new and rapidly expanding area of scientific investigation has a large international following. In most institutions a multidisciplinary approach is used to acquire an integrated understanding of the effects of physical activity on the body 1. 1 J. Fourie, W. Fourie, Let s talk about varsity, Gabbema Books 2009, ISBN , p THE HISTORY OF SPORT SCIENCE The origins of Sport science can be traced to ancient Greece. The greatest influence on Western Civilization came from the Greek physicians of antiquity Herodicus, Hippocrates, and Claudius Galen. The last one was a teacher, philosopher, pharmacist and leading scientist of his day. During his life he produced five hundred books and treatises on all aspects of medical science and philosophical subjects and his ideas were to formulate many of the scientific beliefs which dominated medical thinking for about 1500 years. He was a physician and athlete and a strong advocate of proper diet in physical training. Galen 2. He recommended specific diets to help in the cleansing of the putrefied juices. Galen treated gladiators torn tendons and muscles using surgical procedures that he invented and recommended rehabilitation therapies and exercise regimes. Galen s writings about exercise and its effects might be considered the first formal how to manuals on these topics, which remained influential for the next centuries. With the use of experiment Galen showed that the arteries carried blood and not air as was commonly believed. He also understood the value of the pulse in diagnosis. His work was later translated by into Arabic by Assyrian Hunayn ibn Ishaq, which led to the spread of Greek physiology throughout the Middle East and Europe. Between 776 BC to 393 AD, the ancient Greek physicians planned the training regimens and diets of the Olympic competitors, many principles of which are still used today. During the Renaissance new ideas upon the working and functioning of the human body emerged as anatomists and physicians challenged the previously known theories. These spread with the implementation of the printed word in the 15 th century. Allied with this was a large increase in academia in general, universities were forming all around the world. Importantly, these new scholars went beyond the simplistic notions of the early Greek physicians. Italian doctor Girolamo Mercuriali (Hieronymus Mercurialis ) wrote the work De Arte Gymnastica which was first published in It is considered a prime creative example of the humanist renaissance use of surviving accounts of the ancient world. Mercuriali drew upon the writings of Galen, Hippocrates, Plato and others in compiling the first complete work on the health benefits of gymnastics and various forms of physical exercise. 2 W.D. McArdle, F.I. Katch, V.L. Katch, Essentials of exercise physiology, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2006, ISBN , p. 3.
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