FOURTH SECTION DECISION

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1 FOURTH SECTION DECISION Application no /10 Adam CICHOPEK against Poland and 1,627 other applications (see list appended) The European Court of Human Rights (Fourth Section), sitting on 14 May 2013 as a Chamber composed of: Ineta Ziemele, President, Päivi Hirvelä, George Nicolaou, Ledi Bianku, Zdravka Kalaydjieva, Krzysztof Wojtyczek, Faris Vehabović, judges, and Francoişe Elens-Passos, Section Registrar, Having regard to the applications listed on the appendix, Having deliberated, decides as follows: THE FACTS 1. A list of all the applicants is set out in the appendix. A. Background 2. The so-called public security authorities ( aparat bezpieczeństwa publicznego or organy bezpieczeństwa publicznego), i.e. a Polish communist secret police apparatus, operated in

2 2 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION The apparatus, which was reshaped several times, consisted of different services and institutions, comprising the political police and special armed forces. It was patterned on the NKVD (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел/narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del, i.e. the Soviet People s Commissariat for Internal Affairs) and the KGB (Комитет государственной безопасности/komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti, i.e. the Committee for State Security) and established (under the supervision of the NKVD) in 1944 with a view to securing Communist rule and combating, suppressing and eliminating groups of political opposition, including the post-war underground resistance against Communism and the Polish Church. In the 1950s these organs were in charge of prisons and labour camps; at that time, they were also competent to conduct criminal investigations under the rules of criminal procedure (see Domalewski v. Poland (dec.), no. 4610/97, ECHR 1999-V). From 1956 onwards, when the level and nature of repression changed, their tasks involved in the protection of the communist system included, among other things, the control and infiltration of Polish society secured by its own members and through a system of paid or unpaid informers and secret collaborators, denunciation, monitoring of persons in, or cooperating with, the opposition, political opponents, priests and other persons suspected of being in any way associated with anti-communist ideas or critical of the communist party s programme, its role and members 3. The general information concerning the public security service published on the official website of the Institute of the National Remembrance - Commission for the Prosecution of Crimes against the Polish Nation (Instytut Pamięci Narodowej Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu the IPN ) 1 reads, in so far as relevant, as follows: Since 1944 until 1990 the functionaries of the security services constituted the armed arm of the communist party. The main goal of the services was to protect the communists from society and to eliminate opposition.... First, the Security Services operated within the Ministry of Public Security which was created in summer The executive staff of the Ministry had been trained in NKVD school in Kuibyshev (USSR). Apart from the central office, the soviet 1. The IPN s mission is described on its website as follows: The Institute of National Remembrance was created to address issues which are considered essential to the legislative power in Poland, primarily to preserve the memory of: the losses which were suffered by the Polish Nation as a result of World War II and the post-war period; patriotic traditions of fighting against occupants, Nazism and Communism; citizens' efforts to fight for an independent Polish State, in defence of freedom and human dignity; and to fulfil: the duty to prosecute crimes against peace, humanity and war crimes; the need to compensate damage suffered by the repressed and harmed people at the times when human rights were violated by the State.

3 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 3 advisers were sent to all newly-created regional Offices of Public Security throughout Poland. The official activity of the Ministry of Public Security started on 1 January 1945 and its wide range of power was not limited by law. The Ministry focused on achieving goals set by the Polish Workers Party (PPR) [Polska Partia Robotnicza] and later the Polish United Workers Party (PZPR) [Polska Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza]. At the peak of its expansion in 1953 there were 33,000 functionaries working within the ministry structures. Additionally, a network of 73,000 informers (in the mid 1950s) collaborated with the ministry. The informers were recruited by means of brutal intimidation or promises of financial gain. Nevertheless, some of the informers, especially members of the communist party, volunteered for the work. Offices of Public Security and their informants kept under surveillance the political parties, national and local public administration, social and religious organisations, factory workers and, in general, social attitudes. One third of adult Poles were registered in the ministry s files because they constituted a dubious element. In 1954 the Ministry of Public Security was replaced by the Ministry of Interior Affairs (MSW) and the Committee of Public Security Affairs. In 1956 the Committee was disbanded and its competences and staff transferred to the Ministry of [the] Interior... The Security Service (SB) operated in Poland between 1956 and The fall of the communist system in Poland in 1989 brought an end to the existence of this political police and organ of terror, which was hostile to Polish society throughout its existence The Security Service operated through the following main structures: Department I (for intelligence), Department II (for counter-intelligence); Department III (for anti-state activities against the country in the sphere of ideology, culture and education; the tasks involved, inter alia, infiltration of artistic, intellectual, academic, journalist and similar circles, finding secret collaborators within those groups as well as monitoring of targeted persons), Department IV (church and religious associations; the tasks involved infiltration of targeted groups, monitoring etc.), Department V (for protection of industry and anti-state activities in industry and within workers unions and circles), the Office of Foreign Passports (Biuro Paszportów), the so-called Bureau "A" (cipher); Bureau "B" (observation) and Bureau "W" (oversight of correspondence), Bureau T (operational techniques). The subordinate units at local level had departments organised in the same way. In they were organised in regional (wojewódzkie) and district (rejonowe) offices for internal affairs (urzędy spraw wewnętrznych). 5. Following the fall of Communism in Poland, the Security Service was dissolved by virtue of the law of 6 Apri on the Office for State Protection (ustawa o Urzędzie Ochrony Państwa) ( the 1990 Act ), a new body responsible for intelligence and counter-intelligence. At that time the Security Service comprised around 30,000 persons, including some 24,000 functionaries. They could be re-employed by the Office for State Protection on condition that they successfully passed a vetting procedure,

4 4 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION which some 14,000 officers underwent. 10,439 persons were eventually found suitable for re-employment and 3,595 were vetted negatively and not retained (see also paragraphs below). 6. On 23 January 2009 Parliament enacted the Act on amendments to the law on old-age pensions of professional soldiers and their families and to the law on old-age pensions of functionaries of the police, the Internal Security Agency, the Intelligence Agency, the Military Counter-Intelligence Service the Military Intelligence Service, the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Border Guard, the Government Protection Bureau, the State Fire Service, the Prison Service and their families (ustawa o zmianie ustawy o zaopatrzeniu emerytalnym żołnierzy zawodowych oraz ich rodzin oraz ustawy o zaopatrzeniu emerytalnym funkcjonariuszy Policji, Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego, Agencji Wywiadu, Służby Kontrwywiadu Wojskowego, Służby Wywiadu Wojskowego, Centralnego Biura Antykorupcyjnego, Straży Granicznej, Biura Ochrony Rządu, Państwowej Straży Pożarnej i Służby Więziennej oraz ich rodzin the 2009 Act ). The 2009 Act, which entered into force on 16 March 2009, introduced new rules for the calculation of the pensions of former functionaries of the State security service into the law of 18 February 1994 on old-age pensions of functionaries of the police, the Internal Security Agency, the Intelligence Agency, the Military Counter-Intelligence Service, the Military Intelligence Service, the Central Anti-Corruption Bureau, the Border Guard, the Government Protection Bureau, the State Fire Service, the Prison Service and their families (ustawa o zaopatrzeniu emerytalnym funkcjonariuszy Policji, Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego, Agencji Wywiadu, Służby Kontrwywiadu Wojskowego, Służby Wywiadu Wojskowego, Centralnego Biura Antykorupcyjnego, Straży Granicznej, Biura Ochrony Rządu, Państwowej Straży Pożarnej i Służby Więziennej oraz ich rodzin the 1994 Act ). In particular, one of the coefficients relevant for the calculation of pensions of former functionaries was lowered from 2.6% to 0.70% for each year of service with the former communist State security authorities in the period from 1944 to 1990 (see also paragraphs below). For the purposes of the 2009 Act, the State security authorities are those listed in the law of 18 October 2006 on the disclosure of information of documents of the State security authorities in the years and the content of such documents (ustawa o ujawnianiu informacji o dokumentach organów bezpieczeństwa państwa z lat oraz treści tych dokumentów the 2006 Act (see also paragraphs below). B. The circumstances of the cases 7. The facts of the case, as submitted by the applicants, may be summarised as follows.

5 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 5 1. Cichopek v. Poland (no /10) 8. The applicant, Mr Adam Cichopek, is a Polish national who was born in He lives in Chrzanów. 9. From 1969 to 1990 the applicant served in the Security Service, holding various posts. Starting as an operational inspector in 1969, he was promoted to the post of Deputy Commandant of the District Office for Internal Affairs (Rejonowy Urząd Spraw Wewnętrznych) responsible for the Security Service. In 1990, on his dismissal from service, he held the rank of major. 10. On 4 November 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration (Dyrektor Zakładu Emerytalno- Rentowego Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji), pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN (see also paragraphs below), issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from 3, Polish zlotys (PLN) to PLN 1, monthly. According to the applicant, after taxation, the net amount of his current pension was PLN 1, The applicant lodged an appeal against that decision with the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division (Sąd Okręgowy Wydział Ubezpieczeń Społecznych). He sought to have his previous pension restored, submitting that the impugned decision was based on legal provisions which were incompatible with Articles 2, 10, 31 3 and 31 of the Constitution (see also paragraphs below) and that it had been contrary to international law. 12. On 23 April 2012 the Regional Court dismissed his appeal as unfounded. Relying on the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010, whereby a challenge to the constitutionality of the 2009 Act had meanwhile been examined and rejected (see also paragraphs below), the court held that the relevant provisions of the 2009 Act had been applied correctly in the applicant s case. 13. The applicant lodged an appeal on 1 June According to the most recent information supplied by the applicant on 31 December 2012, the proceedings were still pending before the Warsaw Court of Appeal (Sąd Apelacyjny) and no hearing date had yet been set. 2. Romański and Others v. Poland (no /10) 14. The application was lodged by eleven Polish nationals: Mr Janusz Romański ( the first applicant ) was born in 1937, Mr Andrzej Gomuliński ( the second applicant ) was born in 1943, Ms Barbara Gomulińska ( the third applicant ) was born in 1944, Ms Janina Męcik ( the fourth applicant ) was born in 1942, Ms Danuta Makuch ( the fifth applicant ) was born in 1945, Mr Lech Męcik ( the sixth applicant ) was born in 1938,

6 6 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION Ms Wanda Wacławik ( the seventh applicant ) was born in 1942, Ms Stanisława Fortuna ( the eighth applicant ) was born in 1931, Ms Elżbieta Duda ( the ninth applicant ) was born in 1941, Ms Wiesława Giera ( the tenth applicant ) was born in 1936 and Ms Wiesława Przewrocka ( the eleventh applicant ) was born in The applicants, except for the fourth applicant who lives in Mysiadło, live in Warsaw. In the proceedings before the Court they were represented by Ms M. Gąsiorowska, a lawyer practising in Warsaw. 15. Except for the first applicant who was positively vetted in 1990, the remaining applicants were not subjected to the vetting procedure (see also paragraph 5 above and paragraphs below). 16. On 16 November 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the first applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from PLN 2, (gross) to PLN 1, monthly. After taxation, the net amount of his current pension was PLN 1, Similar decisions reducing their pensions were issued in respect of the remaining applicants: on 22 October 2009 the second applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 3, (gross) to PLN 1, (gross). After taxation, the net amount of his current pension was PLN 1,186.63; on 29 October 2009 the third applicant s retirement pension was reduced to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1,308,97 (net); the applicant failed to indicate the previous amount. However, at the same time, payment of this benefit was suspended because she had also the right to a disability pension, which was more advantageous. The amount of her current disability pension was PLN 1,563.70; on 9 November 2009 the fourth applicant s retirement pension was reduced to PLN 1, (gross); the applicant failed to indicate the previous amount. However, at the same time, payment of this benefit was suspended because she had also the right to a disability pension, which was more advantageous. The amount of her current disability pension was PLN 1, (gross); on 16 October 2009 the fifth applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross)/pln (net); the applicant failed to indicate the previous amount; on 9 November 2009 the sixth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 3,895.61(gross) to PLN 2, (gross); on 3 November 2009 the seventh applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 2, (net) to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1, (net); on 13 October 2009 the eight applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross); the applicant failed to indicate the previous amount;

7 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 7 on 27 October 2009 the ninth applicant s retirement pension was reduced from PLN 2, to PLN 1, but, at the same time, payment of this benefit was suspended because she had also the right to a disability pension, which was more advantageous. The amount of her current disability pension was PLN 1,344.72; on 19 October 2009 the tenth applicant s old-age pension was reduced from PLN 2, to PLN 1,687.11; on 2 December 2009 the eleventh applicant s old-age pension was reduced from PLN 1, to PLN 1, The applicants on various dates appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, submitting in essence that the social security authority had misinterpreted the provisions of the 2009 Act and that the impugned decisions were unlawful and contrary to the Constitution and international treaties ratified by Poland. In particular, they relied on Articles 2, 8, and 32 of the Constitution, asserting that the legislature had overstepped its competence because it had imposed collective punishment on them, that it had failed to respect the principle of protection of acquired rights and that they were discriminated against on account of their service in the State security authorities. They also invoked Articles 6, 7, 13 and 14 of the Convention and Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention. 19. The applicants have not informed the Court about the outcome of the appeal proceedings, except for the second applicant who produced a copy of the Supreme Court s decision of 23 November 2012, refusing to entertain his cassation appeal against the judgment of the Warsaw Court of Appeal. It emerges from that decision that the Warsaw Regional Court dismissed the applicant s appeal against the pension decision on 16 May 2011 and that his appeal against that judgment was dismissed by the Warsaw Court of Appeal on 12 January Giętkowska v. Poland (no /12) 20. The applicant, Ms Ewa Giętkowska, is a Polish national born in 1954 and living in Serock. In the proceedings before the Court she was represented by Mr S. Pikulski, a lawyer practising in Warsaw. 21. From 16 July 1984 to 1 October 1989 the applicant was employed in the Office of Foreign Passports of the Warsaw District Headquarters of the Civic Militia. From 2 October 1989 to 15 July 2003 she was a policewoman in the Warsaw-Ochota District Police Headquarters and then in the Warsaw- City District Police Headquarters. She worked in the Investigation Department and the Homicide Department. The applicant retired on 15 July On 19 October 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment

8 8 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION of the applicant s pension, whereby her benefit was reduced from PLN 3,010 to PLN 2, monthly. That meant that instead of receiving as before 78.84% of her pension s basis of assessment, she received 52.80% of that amount. 23. On 12 November 2009 the applicant appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division. The court dismissed her appeal on 7 January The applicant lodged an appeal against the judgment. On 7 July 2011 the Warsaw Court of Appeal rejected the appeal. 24. On 10 October 2011 the applicant lodged a cassation appeal (skarga kasacyjna). The Court of Appeal rejected it as inadmissible on 17 October The applicant s further interlocutory appeal (zażalenie) against that decision was dismissed by the Supreme Court on 3 February Poniecki v. Poland (no /12) 25. The applicant is a Polish national, born in 1954 and living in Łódź. In the proceedings before the Court he was represented by Mr T. Srogosz, a lawyer practising in Częstochowa. 26. From 16 April 1976 to 30 May 1999 the applicant was a functionary of the Civic Militia and, after having been positively vetted in 1990, of the Police (Policja). He began his career from a clerk in the field of operational techniques (referent techniki operacyjnej) in the Office of Foreign Passports and, until 31 July 1990, he held various posts in units of Bureau B and Bureau T of the Security Service (see also paragraph 4 above). In June-September 1982 the applicant participated in a special course for the Security Service. In he followed extramural studies at the Legionowo Officer Academy of the Ministry of the Interior (Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Ministerstwa Spraw Wewnętrznych), an academy which trained officers for the Security Service. 27. On 1 June 1999 the applicant retired and was granted the right to an old-age pension corresponding to 63.19% of its basis of assessment. 28. On 16 November 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from PLN 3, gross to PLN 2, gross monthly. 29. In a subsequent decision, issued on 17 December 2009, the applicant s pension was assessed at PLN 2, gross and PLN 2, net. 30. The applicant appealed against both decisions to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division. He argued, among other things, that they were in breach of the constitutional principles of non-discrimination, protection of acquired rights and presumption of

9 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 9 innocence, and also incompatible with Articles 6 and 7 of the Convention and Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention. The court, noting that from 8 January 1978 to 31 July 1990 the applicant had been a functionary of the Security Service, which justified the application of the 2009 Act, and having regard to the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010 (see paragraphs below), rejected the appeal on 15 July The judgment, following the applicant s further appeal, was upheld by the Warsaw Court of Appeal on 5 April The court stressed that the amount of the applicant s benefit even after the reduction remained higher that the average old-age pension under the general social security scheme. 5. Przybylski v. Poland (no /10) 31. The applicant is a Polish national born in 1948 and living in Poznań. In the proceedings before the Court he was represented by Mr P. Sowisło, a lawyer practising in Poznań. 32. The applicant was a functionary of the Security Service from 16 December 1973 to 31 March On the latter date he retired. 33. On 27 October 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from PLN 2, to PLN 1, monthly. 34. The applicant appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, arguing that the provisions of the 2009 Act on which the impugned decision was based were unconstitutional. In particular, he alleged a breach of the principles of the protection of acquired rights, the separation and balance of powers, proportionality, equality before the law and non-discrimination. On 18 April 2011 the Regional Court, relying on the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010, dismissed the appeal. The applicant appealed. On 22 February 2012 the Warsaw Court of Appeal heard the appeal and partly amended the first-instance judgment, holding that in respect of the period from 1 October 1975 to 1 August 1978, during which the applicant had studied at the Legionowo Officer Academy of the Ministry of the Interior, the relevant coefficient for the pension s basis of assessment should be 2.6%, not 0.7%. The applicant has not informed the Court of the current, increased amount of his old-age pension.

10 10 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 6. Weber v. Poland (no /11) 35. The applicant is a Polish national, born in 1949 and living in Warsaw. In the proceedings before the Court the applicant was represented by Mr D. Sucholewski, a lawyer practising in Warsaw. 36. The applicant was a functionary of the Security Service from 6 December 1976 to 31 July On 16 May 1990 the Vetting Commission for Central Personnel gave a positive opinion on the applicant s suitability for re-employment in the new state security institutions (see also paragraph 5 above and paragraphs below). She continued service in the Office for State Protection until 30 June 1998, when she retired. 37. On 16 November 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby her benefit was reduced from PLN 2, to PLN 1, monthly. 38. On 24 November 2009 the applicant appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, maintaining that the provisions of the 2009 Act on which the impugned decision was based were unconstitutional. In particular, she alleged a breach of the principles of the protection of acquired rights, the separation and balance of powers, proportionality, equality before the law and non-discrimination. She has not informed the Court of the outcome of the proceedings. 7. Czajka v. Poland (no /11) 39. The applicant is a Polish national born in 1934 and living in Suwałki. In the proceedings before the Court he was represented by Ms B. Świątkiewicz, a lawyer practising in Warsaw. 40. The applicant was a functionary of the Security Service from 1 May 1960 to an unspecified date in He held various posts, beginning his career as an operational inspector. On the termination of service he held the rank of lieutenant colonel. The applicant was granted the right to a disability pension on 30 April He did not undergo the vetting procedure. 41. On 26 October 2009 and 17 December 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from PLN 4, to PLN 2, gross (1, net) monthly. 42. The applicant appealed against both decisions to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, arguing that the provisions of

11 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 11 the 2009 Act on which the impugned decision was based were unconstitutional. In particular, he alleged a breach of the principles of the protection of acquired rights, the separation and balance of powers, proportionality, equality before the law, non-discrimination and the right to social security. He submitted that the 2009 Act imposed collective punishment on former functionaries of the Security Service and that they were refused the right to a hearing and could not defend themselves against charges of a criminal nature laid against them in the preamble to that Act. The applicant also invoked Articles 6 and 7 of the Convention and Article 1 of Protocol No.1 to the Convention. On 30 May 2011 the Regional Court, relying on the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010 (see paragraphs below) dismissed the appeal. The applicant appealed to the Warsaw Court of Appeal. He has not informed the Court of the outcome of the proceedings. 8. Kosiorek v. Poland (no /12) 43. The applicant is a Polish national, born in 1950 and living in Rogoźnik. In the proceedings before the Court she was represented by Ms A. K. Wojcieszuk-Kwiatkowska, a lawyer practising in Katowice. 44. The applicant was a functionary of the Security Service from 1 January 1970 to 31 May She held various posts, starting her career as a typist in the Investigation Department of the Katowice Security Service. On the termination of her service, she was a senior clerk in the field of operational techniques. She retired on 23 June On 4 November 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby her benefit was reduced from 52% to 31.15% of the pension s basis of assessment. This corresponded to PLN 862,70 monthly. 46. The applicant appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, maintaining that the provisions of the 2009 Act on which the impugned decision was based were unconstitutional and in breach of the Convention. On 25 May 2011 the Regional Court, relying on the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010 (see paragraphs below), dismissed the appeal. The applicant s appeal against the judgment was heard, and rejected, by the Warsaw Court of Appeal on 15 March 2012.

12 12 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 9. Aleksiuk v. Poland (no /12) 47. The applicant is a Polish national born in 1946 and living in Hajnówka. In the proceedings before the Court he was represented by Ms Z. Daniszewska-Dek, a lawyer practising in Białystok. 48. The applicant was a functionary of the Security Service from 1 November 1970 to 1 September 1975 and from 1 August 1978 to 1 January On 27 October 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the applicant s pension, whereby his benefit was reduced from PLN 2, to PLN 1, monthly. 50. The applicant appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, maintaining that the provisions of the 2009 Act on which the impugned decision was based were unconstitutional, that that Act of itself was a form of political repression and revenge based on collective responsibility and that it was in breach of the Convention. He alleged, in particular, a violation of the constitutional principles of the protection of acquired rights, the separation and balance of powers, proportionality, equality before the law and non-discrimination and also invoked Articles 1 and 14 of the Convention. On 4 May 2011 the Regional Court, relying on the Constitutional Court s judgment of 24 February 2010 (see paragraphs below), dismissed the appeal. The Warsaw Court of Appeal rejected the applicant s appeal against the first-instance judgment on 15 October Wyszomirska and Others v. Poland (no /10) 51. The application was lodged by 15 Polish nationals: Ms Renata Wyszomirska ( the first applicant), born in 1946; Ms Ewa Linowska ( the second applicant ), born in 1958, Ms Grażyna Piasny ( the third applicant ), born in 1957; Ms Anna Kończak ( the fourth applicant ), born in 1947, Ms Katarzyna Pilarska ( the fifth applicant ), born in 1935, Ms Ewa Kamińska ( the sixth applicant ), born in 1957; Ms Urszula Kaczorowska ( the seventh applicant ) born in 1944; Mr Zbigniew Wyszomirski ( the eight applicant ) born in 1943; Mr Mariusz Klauzo ( the ninth applicant ), born in 1940; Mr Sławomir Kazimierz Tokarski ( the tenth applicant ) born in 1943; Mr Juliusz Kowalski ( the eleventh applicant ) born in 1950; Mr Stanisław Laskowski ( the twelfth applicant ), born in 1946; Ms Halina Czapska ( the thirteenth applicant ) born in 1961; Ms Ewa Stępniewska ( the fourteenth applicant ) born in 1957 and Ms Teresa Pieńkowska ( the fifteenth applicant ) born in The applicants, except for the seventh and the twelfth applicants who reside in

13 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 13 Legionowo, live in Warsaw. In the proceedings before the Court they were represented by Ms M. Gąsiorowska, a lawyer practising in Warsaw. 52. On 9 October 2009 the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, pursuant to section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and on the basis of information received from the IPN, issued a decision on the re-assessment of the first applicant s pension, whereby her benefit was reduced from PLN 2, (net) to PLN 1, (gross)/ PLN 1, (net) monthly. 53. Similar decisions were issued in respect of the remaining applicants: on 12 October 2009 the second applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 3, (gross)/pln 2, (net); the pension s basis of assessment was reduced from 75% to 52.94%. Pursuant to an indexation decision of 12 March 2010, the applicant s pension was fixed at PLN 2, (net). The applicant has failed to specify the amount before the decrease but an indexation decision of 4 May 2009, which she produced, stated that her pension was fixed at PLN 3, (net). on 26 February 2010 the third applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 3, (net); she has failed to specify the amount before the decrease. On 16 June 2010 her old-age pension was lowered to PLN 2, (net) due to the fact that she was in paid employment, which justified a statutory reduction of her social security benefits; on 28 October 2009 the fourth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 1, (net) to PLN 1, (gross)/pln (net); on 23 October 2009 the fifth applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN (gross)/pln (net). The applicant has failed to specify the amount before the decrease; on 12 October 2009 the sixth applicant s benefit was reduced from 4, (gross) to PLN 3, (gross); the pension s basis of assessment was reduced from 75% to 56.35% ; on 24 November 2009 the seventh applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 2,368.61(gross) to PLN 1, (gross); on 28 October 2009 the eighth applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross); according to the applicant, his pension s basis of assessment was reduced from 75% to 43.53%. He has not specified clearly the amount before the decrease but an indexation decision of 27 February 2009, which he submitted, stated that the net amount of his pension was fixed at PLN 2, (net) in In his case, the social security authority issued three decisions: the first of 28 October 2009 (described above), the second of 17 December 2009 specifying the gross (PLN 1,805.61) and net (PLN 1,504.11) amounts of his pension and the third (indexation decision) of 26 February 2010 fixing his pension at PLN 1, (net); on 15 October 2009 the ninth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 2, (net) to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1, (net) ;

14 14 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION on 8 October 2009 the tenth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 3,504.73(gross) to PLN 2, (gross); on 4 November 2009 the eleventh applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross). The applicant has failed to state clearly the amount before the decrease but an indexation decision of 27 February 2009, which he submitted, indicated that for 2009 his pension was increased to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1, (net). Subsequently, by an indexation decision of 26 February 2010, the applicant s gross pension of PLN 1, was reduced by PLN 1, due to the fact that he was in paid employment, which justified a statutory reduction of his old-age benefits. In consequence, the applicant s pension was fixed at PLN 1, (net) for on 23 September 2009 the twelfth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 2, (net) to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1, (net); on 9 October 2009 the thirteenth applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1,453.63; the pension s basis of assessment was reduced from 45.75% to 35.46%. The applicant has failed to state clearly the amount before the decrease but an indexation decision of 27 February 2009, which she submitted, indicated that her pension was fixed at PLN 2, (gross)/pln 1, (net) for 2009; on 13 October 2009 the fourteenth applicant s benefit was reduced to PLN 1, (gross)/pln 1, (net); the pension s basis of assessment was reduced from 55.19% to 42.52%. The applicant has failed to state clearly the amount before the decrease; on 19 October 2009 the fifteenth applicant s benefit was reduced from PLN 3, (gross)/pln 2, (net) to PLN 2, (gross)/ PLN 2, (net). 54. The applicants, on various dates, appealed to the Warsaw Regional Court Social Security Division, submitting in essence that the social security authority had misinterpreted the provisions of the 2009 Act and that the impugned decisions were unlawful and contrary to the Constitution and international treaties ratified by Poland. In particular, they relied on Articles 2, 8, 10, 30 and 32 of the Constitution, asserting that the legislature had overstepped its competence because it had imposed collective punishment on them, that it had failed to respect the principle of protection of acquired rights and that they were discriminated against on account of their service with the State security authorities. They also invoked Articles 6, 7, 13 and 14 of the Convention and Article 1 of Protocol No. 1 to the Convention. The applicants have not informed the Court about the outcome of the appeal proceedings.

15 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION Remaining cases listed in the appendix 55. In the remaining 1,618 cases the applicants, on various dates between September and December 2009, received similar decisions reducing their pensions with effect from 1 January 2010 issued by the Director of the Board for Pensions of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration. As in the cases described above, those decisions were based on section 15b read in conjunction with section 32(1)(1) of the 1994 Act and information on their employment in the State security authorities received from the IPN. 56. Most applicants contested unsuccessfully the decisions before the Warsaw Regional Court. The court, rejecting their appeals, relied on the same grounds as those cited above. Subsequently, the vast majority of the applicants lodged appeals with the Warsaw Court of Appeal. The appeals, except for a few cases where certain parts of the first-instance judgments relating to technical points or mistakes in the calculations were amended, were dismissed (see also paragraphs 12, 30, 34, 42, 46 and 50 above). Certain applicants have failed to inform the Court of the outcome of the appeal proceedings and, as it emerges from the material in the Court s possession, some cases are still pending before the domestic courts. C. Relevant domestic law and practice 1. Vetting procedure for former functionaries of the Security Service (a) The 1990 Act 57. The 1990 Act entered into force on 10 May It was repealed on 29 June 2002 and replaced by the law of 24 May 2002 on the Internal Security Agency and the Intelligence Agency (ustawa o Agencji Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego oraz Agencji Wywiadu). Section 129(1) of the 1990 Act read: The Security Service shall be dissolved once the Office for State Protection has been set up. Section 131 read: 1. Once the Office for State Protection has been set up, functionaries of the Security Service shall be dismissed from the service by virtue of law. 2. The [preceding] provision shall also apply to functionaries of the Civil Militia (Milicja Obywatelska) who were functionaries of the Security Service on 31 July Pursuant to section 132 2, the Cabinet was to determine, within ten days following the 1990 Act s entry into force, the procedure and conditions for admission to service and re-employment of former functionaries of the Security Service. On 21 May 1990 the Cabinet issued Resolution 69 on the

16 16 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION procedure and conditions for admitting functionaries of the Security Service to service in the Office for State Protection and other organisational units under the Minister of the Interior, and on their employment in the Ministry of the Interior (uchwała w sprawie trybu i warunków przyjmowania byłych funkcjonariuszy Służby Bezpieczeństwa do służby w Urzędzie Ochrony Państwa i w innych jednostkach organizacyjnych podległych Ministrowi Spraw Wewnętrznych oraz zatrudniania ich w Ministerstwie Spraw Wewnętrznych the 1990 Resolution ). 59. Under section 133 of the 1990 Act, functionaries of the former Security Service and Civic Militia who were admitted to service or reemployed in organisational units under the Minister of the Interior preserved continuity of their service or employment. (b) The 1990 Resolution 60. The 1990 Resolution (which was repealed on 30 March 2001) set up the Vetting Commission for Central Personnel (Komisja Kwalifikacyjna do Spraw Kadr Centralnych) and regional vetting commissions (wojewódzkie komisje kwalifikacyjne). Pursuant to paragraphs 5 and 6, the regional vetting commissions instituted a procedure on an application from a former functionary and gave opinions on candidates. The Vetting Commission for Central Personnel was responsible for the supervision of the process, handling appeals against the regional commissions opinions and reporting on the conduct of vetting proceedings to the Cabinet. 61. Pursuant to paragraph 7.1, a regional vetting commission evaluated the usefulness of a candidate for service on the basis of his application, personal files, records of service and other documents supplied. It could also, of its own motion or at the candidate s request, conduct an interview. 62. Paragraph 8.1 of the 1990 Resolution read as follows: A regional vetting commission shall give a positive opinion on a candidate if it is satisfied that he meets the requirements for a functionary of a given service or for an employee of the Ministry of the Interior specified by law and if it is convinced that he has moral standing (kwalifikacje moralne) to perform service, in particular: 1) in the course of his service he has not infringed the law; 2) he has performed his duties in a manner not infringing the rights and dignity of other persons; 3) he has not used his function for unofficial purposes. 2. The 1994 Act 63. Section 13 of the 1994 Act in the version applicable until 15 March 2009, before the entry into force of the 2009 Act (see paragraph 6 above), read as follows:

17 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION The following types of service shall be treated as equivalent to service in the police, the Office for State Protection, the Border Guard, the State Fire Service or the Prison Service: 1) service performed as a functionary of the national police, the State security service, public order and national security authorities, other than service referred to in subsection 2; 2) military service relevant for the determination of the right to a military pension; 3) service performed as a functionary of the Rail Security Guard (Służba Ochrony Kolei) if [the person concerned] was transferred directly to service in the Civic Militia or the Prison Service before 1 April 1955; 4) employment or service in professional units for fire protection and education in firefighter schools, as a member of the Fire Service Technical Corps, or as a functionary of the Fire Service before 31 January Subsection 1 shall not apply to service performed between 1944 and 1956 as a functionary of the State security service, public order and national security authorities if, in the course of performing his duties, a functionary committed an offence against justice or [offence] infringing the personal rights of a citizen and, in consequence, was dismissed from service in disciplinary proceedings or if criminal proceedings against him were discontinued in view of the minimal degree of social danger of his act, or if he was convicted for an intentional offence by a final judgment of a court. 64. Section 15(1) of the 1994 Act, in the version applicable until 16 March 2009, read, in so far as relevant: The retirement pension of a functionary who remained in service before 2 January 1999 shall amount to 40% of its basis of assessment 2 for the first fifteen years of service and shall be increased by: 1) 2.6% of the basis of assessment for each subsequent year of service; 2) 2.6% of the basis of assessment for each year of contributory periods preceding service but not for more than three years from those contributory periods; 3) 1.3% of the basis of assessment for each year of contributory periods over and above the three year contributory period referred to in subsection 2; 4) 0.7% of the basis of assessment for each non-contributory year preceding service. 2. The basis of assessment of a pension (podstawa wymiaru emerytury) is an income which constitutes a reference base for calculating pension contributions.

18 18 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 65. Under the 1994 Act and previous uniformed services pension laws a professional soldier and a functionary of a uniformed service were entitled to a retirement pension after 15 years of service. Accordingly, a condition for the acquisition of pension rights was the requisite period of service, not the reaching of a certain age. The right to a retirement pension under the uniformed services pension scheme as applicable in the past and currently was not linked with the requirement to pay contributions by the person concerned since those pensions were financed from State funds. 3. Definition of State security authorities under the 2006 Act 66. The preamble to the 2006 Act reads as follows: We hereby recognise that employment or service in the security authorities of the Communist state, or assistance provided to those authorities by an informer, consisting in combating democratic opposition, trade unions, associations, churches and religious organisations, violations of the right to freedom of expression and assembly, the right to life, liberty, property and security of citizens, was inextricably linked with violations of human and civil rights committed in the name of the Communist totalitarian regime. Having regard to the foregoing and the need to ensure that functions, posts and professions requiring public confidence are held by persons whose conduct shows, and has showed in the past, their honesty, nobility, a sense of responsibility for their words and acts, civil courage and integrity; also having regard to the constitutional guarantees securing to citizens the right to information on persons who have held such positions, have enacted as follows The relevant parts of section 2 of the 2006 Act read as follows: 1. State security... authorities, within the meaning of this Act, shall be: 1) the Department of Public Security of the Polish Committee of National Liberation; 2) the Ministry of Public Security; 3) the Committee for Public Security; 4) organisational units subordinate to the authorities mentioned in points 1-3, in particular the units of the Civic Militia in the period up to 14 December 1954; 5) central bodies of the Security Service of the Ministry of the Interior and their subordinate local units in the regional, district, and equivalent Civic Militia headquarters, as well as in the regional, district, and equivalent offices for internal affairs; 6) the Academy of Internal Affairs; 7) the Reconnaissance Unit of the Border Defence Force; 8) the Main Board of the Internal Service of the military units of the Ministry of the Interior and their subordinate sections; 9) the Military Information Corps; 10) the Military Internal Service;

19 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION 19 11) Directorate II of the General Staff of the Polish Army; 12) other services of the Armed Forces providing operational intelligence or conducting investigative activities, including those within various armed services and branches and within military districts Within the meaning of this Act the State security service units shall be those units of the Ministry of the Interior which were dissolved by virtue of law upon the reorganisation of the Office for State Security, as well as their predecessors. 4. The 2009 Act 68. The 2009 Act opens with a preamble, the relevant parts of which read as follows: Recognising that the system of communist power was mainly based on a widespread network of State security authorities, which essentially performed the function of a political police, applying unlawful methods and infringing fundamental human rights, noting that crimes were committed against organisations and persons defending independence and democracy and, at the same time, [their] perpetrators were exempted from responsibility and escaped justice, seeing that functionaries of the State security service performed their duties without risking their health or life, taking advantage of various economic and legal privileges in exchange for the preservation of the inhuman regime,... rewarding the conduct of those functionaries and citizens who, taking a huge risk, took the side of freedom and the injured citizens, being guided by the principle of social justice which does not permit toleration and reward of lawlessness, have enacted as follows Section 2 of the 2009 Act introduced a number of amendments to section 13 of the 1994 Act (see paragraph 63 above). Point 1) in subsection (1) was rephrased as follows: Periods of service as a functionary of the Office for State Protection. New points 1a) and 1b) were also added to subsection (1): 1a. Periods of service as a functionary of the Civic Militia, except for service referred to in subsection 2. 1b. Periods of service as a functionary of the State security service referred to in section 2 of the [2006 Act] in accordance with the principles mentioned in section 15b, except for service described in subsection Section 2 added a new section 13a to the 1994 Act. This provision, in so far as relevant, reads as follows: 1. On a request from the relevant pension authority, [the IPN] shall prepare on the basis of personal files in its possession information on the course of service of named

20 20 CICHOPEK v. POLAND AND OTHER APPLICATIONS DECISION functionaries of the State security service referred to in section 2 of [the 2006 Act] and shall transmit it to that authority within four months of receipt of the request Information on the course of service referred to in subsection 1 shall contain; 1) the functionary s personal data... 2) an indication of the periods of service in the State security service referred to in section 2 of [the 2006 Act], 3) information whether documents in [the IPN] archives show that during that period the functionary, without his superiors knowledge, cooperated and actively supported persons or organisations acting for the Polish State s independence. 71. New section 15b was also added. It reads as follows: 1. For a person who served in the State security authorities referred to in section 2 of [the 2006 Act] and who was in service before 2 January 1999, his pension shall amount to: 1) 0.7% of its basis of assessment for each year of service in the State security authorities between 1944 and1990; 2) 2.6% of its basis of assessment for each year of service or periods equivalent to service referred to in section 13 (1) (1-1a) and (2-4). 2. Sections 14 and 15 shall apply accordingly. 3. At a [functionary s] request, the full period of service in the State security service can be added to the periods referred to in section 13(1) if he can show that before 1990, without his superiors knowledge, he cooperated with and actively supported persons or organisations acting for the Polish State s independence. 4. In the situation mentioned in subsection 3, evidence can comprise information described in section 13 a (1) and, equally, other kinds of proof, in particular a criminal conviction, even if not final, in connection with an activity, [undertaken] without his superiors knowledge and consisting of cooperating with and actively supporting persons or organisations acting for the Polish State s independence when serving in the State security service between 1944 and The relevant part of section 3 of the 2009 Act reads as follows: 2. For persons in respect of whom information referred to in section 13a... shows that between 1944 and 1990 they worked in the State security service referred to in section 2 of [the 2006 Act] and who on the date of entry into force of this Act receive benefits accorded under [the 1994 Act], the relevant pension authority... shall of its own motion institute proceedings for the determination of the right to benefits and their amounts. [An] appeal to a court against a decision of the pension authority shall not stop the enforcement of that decision. 3. Payment of benefits determined in accordance with subsection... (2) shall be made with effect from 1 January Retirement pensions under the general social security scheme 73. The rules for the determination of retirement pensions under the general social security scheme are laid down in the law of 17 December

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