20 th International Conference OIL-GAS AGH 2009

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1 XX Międzynarodowa Konferencja 20 th International Conference OIL-GAS AGH 2009 Nowe metody i technologie w geologii naftowej, wiertnictwie, geoinżynierii, inżynierii złożowej i gazownictwie New Methods and Technologies in Petroleum Geology, Drilling, Geoengineering, Reservoir Engineering and Gas Engineering CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS MATERIAŁY KONFERENCYJNE Cracow, May, 2009

2 ORGANIZATORZY: Aademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Kraowie Wydział Wiertnictwa, Nafty i Gazu Fundacja WIERTNICTWO NAFTA GAZ, NAUKA I TRADYCJE WSPÓŁPRACA: Secja Wiertnictwa i Górnictwa Otworowego Komitetu Górnictwa PAN Stowarzyszenie Nauowo-Techniczne Inżynierów i Techniów Przemysłu Naftowego i Gazowniczego Secja Polsa SPE PATRONAT HONOROWY: Michał Szubsi Prezes Zarządu PGNiG S.A. KOMITET ORGANIZACYJNY: Przewodniczący Stanisław Nagy Z-ca Przewodniczącego Jan Artymiu Seretarz Nauowy Sławomir Wysoci Seretariat onferencji Elżbieta Lis Finanse onferencji Piotr Kosowsi, Justyna Polańsa Członowie Zbigniew Sztymar KOMITET NAUKOWY Przewodniczący Jaub Sieme AGH Kraów CZŁONKOWIE KOMITETU NAUKOWEGO Petr Bujo VSB-TU Ostrava, Republia Czech, Piotr Czaja AGH Kraów, Marian Dolipsi Silesian Technical University, Gliwice, Stanisław Dubiel AGH Kraów, Józef Dubińsi GIG, Katowice, Dan Maniu Duse Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Rumunia, Andrzej Gonet AGH Kraów, Maciej Kalisi AGH Kraów, Antoni Kidybińsi Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Jerzy Klich AGH Kraów, Zygmunt Kolenda AGH Kraów, Eustachy I. Krzyzanowsi Ivano-Franivsij Derzavnyj Technicznyj Uniwerstytet Niefty i Gazu, Ivano-Franovs, Uraina, Henry Marca AGH Kraów, Jace Matysziewicz AGH Kraów, Maciej Mazuriewicz AGH Kraów, Stefan Misa University of Tulsa, Tulsa, USA, Eugeniusz Morzyci IGSMiE PAN, Kraów, Stanisław Nagy AGH Kraów, Jerzy Nawroci PIG Warszawa, Roman Ney PAN, Warszawa, Andrzej Olajossy AGH Kraów, Andrzej Osiadacz Politechnia Warszawsa, Warszawa, Tad W. Patze University of Texas, Austin, USA, Jan Pina Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Słowacja, Krystian Probierz Politechnia Śląsa, Gliwice, Józef Raczowsi Instytut Nafty i Gazu, Kraów, Janusz Roszowsi AGH Kraów, Stanisław Rychlici AGH Kraów, Yuri M. Ter-Sarisov Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow, Rosja, Andrzej Siemaszo NPK, Warszawa, Dan Stefanescu S.N.G.N Romgaz S.A., Medias, Rumunia, Stanisław Strycze AGH Kraów, Wacław Trutwin IMG PAN Kraów, Kazimierz Twardowsi AGH Kraów, Vlad Ulmanu Petroleum University of Ploesti, Ploesti, Rumunia, Yury F. Wasiuchov, Moscow State Mining Univ. Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Rosja, Andrzej Wojtanowicz Luisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA, Ludwi Zawisza AGH Kraów ADRES: XX Międzynarodowa Konferencja Nauowo-Techniczna OIL-GAS AGH 2009 nt. Nowe metody i technologie w geologii naftowej, wiertnictwie, geoinżynierii, inżynierii złożowej i gazownictwie Aademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Kraowie, Wydział Wiertnictwa, Nafty i Gazu, al. Miciewicza 30, Kraów Tel.: , fax: ,

3 ORGANIZERS: AGH University of Science & Technology in Cracow Drilling & Oil-Gas Faculty Foundation WIERTNICTWO NAFTA GAZ, NAUKA I TRADYCJE COOPERATION: Drilling & Hole Mining Section of Mining Committee of Polish Academy of Science Society of Petroleum Engineers Poland Section in Cracow Polish Society of Petroleum Engineers in Cracow HONORARY PATRONAGE: Michał Szubsi President of the Management Board of PGNiG ORGANIZING COMMITTEE: Chairman Stanisław Nagy, AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow, Poland Co-Chairman Jan Artymiu, AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow, Poland Scientific Secretary Sławomir Wysoci AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow, Poland Organizing Secretary Elżbieta Lis, AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow, Poland, Poland Financial Secretary Justyna Polańsa, Piotr Kosowsi, AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow Members Zbigniew Sztymar, AGH Univ. of Sci. & Technology, Cracow SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE: Chairman of Scientific Committee Jaub Sieme AGH UST Cracow, Poland MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Petr Bujo VSB-TU Ostrava, Czech Republic, Piotr Czaja AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Marian Dolipsi Silesian Technical University, Gliwice, Poland, Stanisław Dubiel AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Józef Dubińsi Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland, Dan Maniu Duse Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu, Romania, Andrzej Gonet AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Maciej Kalisi AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Antoni Kidybińsi Central Mining Institute, Katowice, Poland, Jerzy Klich AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Zygmunt Kolenda AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Eustachy I. Krzyzanowsi Ivano-Franivsij Derzavnyj Technicznyj Uniwerstytet Niefty i Gazu, Ivano-Franovs, Uraine, Henry Marca AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Jace Matysziewicz AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Maciej Mazuriewicz AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Stefan Misa University of Tulsa, Tulsa, USA, Eugeniusz Morzyci Mineral & Economy Research Institute of Polish Academy of Science, Cracow, Poland, Stanisław Nagy AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Jerzy Nawroci Polish Geological Institute, Warsaw, Poland, Roman Ney Polish Academy of Science,Warsaw, Poland, Andrzej Olajossy AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Andrzej Osiadacz Technical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, Tad Patze University of Texas, Austin, USA, Jan Pina Technical University of Kosice, Kosice, Slovaia, Krystian Probierz Silesian Technical University, Gliwice, Poland, Józef Raczowsi Institute of Oil & Gas, Cracow, Poland, Janusz Roszowsi AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Stanisław Rychlici AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Yuri M. Ter-Sarisov Scientific-Research Institute of Natural Gases and Gas Technologies VNIIGAZ, Moscow, Russia, Andrzej Siemaszo National Contact Point, Warsaw, Poland, Dan Stefanescu S.N.G.N Romgaz S.A., Medias, Romania, Stanisław Strycze AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Wacław Trutwin Strata Mechanics Institute of Polish Academy of Science, Cracow, Poland, Kazimierz Twardowsi AGH UST Cracow, Poland, Vlad Ulmanu Petroleum University of Ploesti, Ploesti, Romania, Yury F. Wasiuchov, Moscow State Mining Univ. Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Andrzej Wojtanowicz Luisiana State University, Baton Rouge, USA, Ludwi Zawisza AGH UST Cracow, Poland ADDRESS: 20 th International Scientific & Technical Conference OIL-GAS AGH 2009 New methods and technology in the geology, drilling, geoengineering, reservoir engineering and gas engineering AGH University of Science & Technology in Cracow, Drilling & Oil-Gas Faculty, 30 Miciewicza Ave, Cracow Phone: , fax: ,

4 Dru publiacji wyonano zgodnie z materiałami dostarczonymi przez Autorów po aceptacji recenzentów WYDAWCA: Aademia Górniczo-Hutnicza w Kraowie, Wydział Wiertnictwa-Nafty i Gazu, Al. Miciewicza 30, Kraów RECENZENCI: prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław Dubiel prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej Gonet dr hab. inż. Zbigniew Fąfara prof. dr hab. inż. Maciej Kalisi dr hab. inż. Stanisław Nagy prof. dr hab. inż. Stanisław Rychlici prof. zw. dr hab. inż. Jaub Sieme prof. dr hab. Piotr Tomczy prof. dr hab. inż. Kazimierz Twardowsi dr hab. inż. Ludwi Zawisza TŁUMACZENIA: mgr Jolanta Lepiarczy Sład: Scriptorium TEXTURA Dru i oprawa: Druarnia Kolor Art s.c. ISBN

5 Szanowni Państwo! Przypada nam miły obowiąze przeazać Państwu publiację onferencyjną stanowiącą część materiałów druowanych dotyczących prezentowanych referatów nauowych wygłoszonych w dn maja 2009 w ramach XX jubileuszowej Międzynarodowej Konferencji Nauowo-Technicznej Oil-Gas AGH 2009 nt. Nowe metody i technologie w geologii naftowej, wiertnictwie, geoinżynierii, inżynierii złożowej i gazownictwie. Prezentowany tom materiałów stanowi wybór prezentacji, tóre są uzupełnieniem referatów opubliowanych w Archives of Mining Science w Vol. 54 czasopisma z listy podstawowej Thomson-Reuters oraz czasopisma Wiertnictwo-Nafta-Gaz Vol. 26 zeszyt 1 3. Innym uzupełnieniem wygłoszonych i zaprezentowanych w sesji posterowej prezentacji jest zbiór abstratów onferencji. Honorowy patronat nad onferencją objęli JM Retor Aademii Górniczo-Hutniczej prof. dr hab. inż. Antoni Tajduś oraz Prezes Zarządu PGNIG S.A. Michał Szubsi. Konferencja wpisuje się równocześnie w obchody 90-lecia Aademii Górniczo-Hutniczej (informacje dodatowe odnośnie jubileuszu: Mamy nadzieję, że wspomniana onferencja oraz towarzyszące jej wydarzenia stanowić będą dosonałą oazję do zaprezentowania osiągnięć nauowych polsiego i światowego setora naftowego i gazowniczego, a taże umożliwi wymianę poglądów, doświadczeń oraz życzliwą dysusję na temat nowych ierunów badawczych w zaresie geologii naftowej, wiertnictwa i geoinżynierii, inżynierii złożowej i gazownictwa. Inne informacje odnośnie onferencji (w tym taże publiacje eletroniczne) znaleźć można pod adresem: Przewodniczący Komitetu Organizacyjnego XX Konferencji Dziean Wydziału Wiertnictwa, Nafty i Gazu Dr hab. inż. Stanisław Nagy, prof. nzw. Prof. dr hab. inż. Andrzej Gonet

6 Dear Sirs, It is our pleasure to present you the conference proceedings which are supplementary materials of the 20th AGH Oil-Gas 2009 International Conference, which will tae place in Cracow, on May Presented materials contain selected presentations that are supplements of articles published in the Archives of Mining Science Vol. 54 (journal of the Thomson-Reuters Master List) and in the Drilling Oil-Gas Vol. 26 issues 1 3. Additional supplement to the presented during the poster session presentations is the boo of abstracts. The honorable patronage over the conference holds Professor Antoni Tajduś, the Rector of the AGH University of Science and Technology, and Michał Szubsi, the President of the Management Board of PGNiG. The conference is part of celebration of the 90th anniversary of the University of Science and Technology foundation. Further information could be found at the website: We hope that the conference and associated events will be a great opportunity to present accomplishments of Polish and world oil and gas industry, as well as, to share experience and discuss new research problems in petroleum geology, drilling & geoengineering, reservoir engineering and gas engineering. Further information concerning the conference (including the electronic publications) are available at website. Stanisław Nagy, D.Sc., Ph.D. Prof. Andrzej Gonet, D.Sc.,Ph.D. Chairman of Organizing Committee Dean of Drilling, Oil and Gas Faculty

7 Spis treści Table of contents Yershina Ainaul, Yershin Shahbaz, Zhapbasbayev Uza THERMOMECHANICAL METHOD OF STOREHOUSE OIL COLLECTION Petr Bujo, Pavla Miundová, Jiří Koziore, Antonín Kunz PROCESS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH INTO A ROCK MASS IN THE LOCALITY OF SMALL RESEARCH POLYGON ON THE PREMISES OF VŠB-TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF OSTRAVA Jerzy Gasińsi, Tomasz Kaczmare CYFROWA DOKUMENTACJA POWYKONAWCZA WIERCEŃ W UKŁADZIE REJESTRACYJNYM I ANALITYCZNYM OPRACOWANA W PGE KWB BEŁCHATÓW S.A. Peter Horbaj, Olga Végsöová, Ján Pina POSSIBILITIES OF USING BIOMASS FOR PRODUCING LIQUID FUELS IN SLOVAKIA Saltanbe Muhambetzhanov, Talgatbe Kenzhebaev THE APPROXIMATED METHODS OF THE SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS OF THE LIQUID FILTRATION THEORY IN POROUS ENVIRONMENT Marcel A. Piteiu, Florinel Şuţoiu, Ana Maria Simescu , A CENTURY OF GAS INDUSTRY IN ROMANIA Vladyslav Kovaleno INFLUENCE OF ULTRA FINE GRINDING OF CEMENT AGENT AND AN AGGREGATE ON STRENGTH PARAMETERS OF A FINE-GRAINED CONCRETE Katarina Simon., Davorin Matanović, Nadilja Gaurina-Međimurec, Zdeno Krištafor, Matija Malnar, Borivoje Pašić, B., Ivo Zelić GEOSTEERING Maciej Kalisi, Madina Sabyrova ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF POWER RESOURCES OF THE CASPIAN SEE Iouri Khilevitch, Jan Marszałe PRZEKSZTAŁCENIE WYEKSPLOATOWANEGO ZŁOŻA GAZU ANTONIN W PMG MIKSTAT K.I. Jiyembayeva, N.S. Pa, K.A. Turegeldiyeva, A.G. Muhanov PECULIARITIES OF WELL PRODUCTION GATHERING AND TREATMENT AT ALIBEKMOLA FIELD, KAZAKHSTAN

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9 THERMOMECHANICAL METHOD OF STOREHOUSE OIL COLLECTION Yershina Ainaul, Yershin Shahbaz, Zhapbasbayev Uza Kazah State Women s Pedagogic University, Almaty, Kazahstan Physical department al-farabi, Kazah National University, Almaty, Kazahstan (corresponding author: During several years of exploitation the field pipelines are putting out of action. The reason on that is aggressive salt water which flows in bottom of a pipe. It result to emergency gap, when oil spills and accumulates in natural folds of area. That oil called storehouse oil and place where it accumulates is storehouse. Aerial photography shows that there are more than 3 thousand storehouses of spilled oil which pollutes surroundings and cause losses of precious raw. The useful area occupied by oil storehouses occupies at least 3000 hectares of spilled oil. The smallest storehouse is meters in diameter, the biggest hectares. This storehouses contains about 1 million tons of oil. Storehouse oil endures serious structural changes, has totally lost light ends and presents inspissated mass, which contains asphalted-tarry matter, paraffin, salts and other. By field observation even in summer when atmospheric air temperature in shadow reaches 40 0 C, only surface layer of storehouse oil get warm. There is a serious tas to clear fields from storehouse oil. It is unable to extract it by excavator because of three conditions of oil: 1) consolidated, 2) adhesive, 3) waxy. In this case Kazahstan scientists developed and introduce Thermomechanical method of storehouse oil collection for purification of storehouses from oil (already obtained patent on that method). The ernel of that method consist in dilution of inspissated oil with using of circular supersonic jet which is generated by standard mobile steamer. It loos lie mobile platform for transportation of device around border of storehouse, there is a boom with bend situated on platform which helps to deliver nozzle with supersonic stream to different sections of storehouse. Circular supersonic steam stream has next parameters: M=2,0, steam temperature T=383K and pressure P=1,4 atmospheres. Following experiments showed that in 1 hour with mentioned parameters it is possible to flux and dilute more than 10 tons of storehouse oil in winter time using steam stream. The consumption of steam does not exceed 1,25 tons/hour. The mobile steam stream in normal woring regime is using steam with pressure Po=30 atm., temperature To=350 0 C, consumption Gp=1,6 tons/hour and may guarantee stable wor of supersonic nozzle. Technical solution for production of storehouse oil collection plant consist of next elements: 1. storehouse oil collection plant with boom and mobile platform which helps to deliver nozzle with supersonic stream to different areas of storehouse. 2. mobile steam plant, 3. steam line, 4. deflation of liquated oil pump. Flexible steam line of mobile steam plant is connected with ring camera which ends by ring Lavalle nozzle with central body. Central body may be made in form of figured run-out through which diluted mass is drawing off (fig.1). Such construction of sorter with hot steam stream cover allows additionally heat oil and preserves pipe line from freezing of oil. Diluted water-oil emulsion is taing away by pump and is pumping over to a plant capacity for rectification of storehouse oil. On figure 1a shown picture of supersonic ring stream nozzle. On figure 1b is shown principle scheme of influence of steam stream with storehouse oil. 1 9

10 a) b) Figure 1. Supersonic steam nozzle. Scheme of influence of ring steam stream with steam storehouse oil. 1 -, 2 oil, 3 - disturbed part of storehouse oil. As it is noted above, damages on intrafield oil-pipe lines brought to contamination of vast territories with spilled oil which accumulates in natural and artificial hollows called storehouses. Storehouse oil is a useful hydrocarbon raw in spite of suffering serious structural modifications. Upper layer become hardened and it is impossible to extract it. For collection of condensed mass is offered Thermomechanical method of dilution of storehouse oil with mobile supersonic umbellate steam stream (fig.1). Supersonic nozzle made in form of ring Lavalle nozzle with central body and fixed obliquity angle and maing possible to obtain umbellate steam stream with superfluous parameters on output section of nozzle - Tn= K, pressure Pn=1,2-3 atmosphere, vapor speed Vn= m/s. The advantage of supersonic steam stream in its high energy (inetic and thermal). Its utilization energetically much favorable, because significant part of thermal energy is transformed to inetic energy which destroys viscous organic mass by steam. On figure 1 shown interaction process of supersonic ring steamstream with highviscosity liquid. On figure 2,3 shown industrial plant which melts storehouse oil and cleans storehouse from oil. Storehouse oil collection plant woring principle is based on mechanical and thermal influence of supersonic steam stream on resinous mass of storehouse oil. During woring process high temperature steam stream (200 0 C) is being used. This method is being most simple, safe and effective in comparison with others. It allows to get oil-water pulp, which may be taen from storehouse by displacement pump. Figure 2. Storehouse oil and oil-slime collection plant. Collecting all mass of storehouse oil is collected by gradually moving platform along perimeter of oil storehouse (fig.4). In a case when oil storehouse areas are large, collection begins from side and continue till total extraction of storehouse oil at first. Then plant is moving along the perimeter of oil storehouse to 2 10

11 neighboring section and the cleared area begin reclaiming. Figure 3. Storehouse oil and oil-slime collection plant scheme 1 - Trailer chassis with carrying capacity 5 tons, 2 - input connecting pipe of attaching steam from steam generator, 3 - steam line to nozzle 5, 4 - a boom, 5 - jet ring nozzle, 6 - rotary boom platform, 7 - support-rotating circle of platform, 8, 9 - hermetic pipe sections, 10 - oil-water emulsion suction unit nipple, 11 - boom lift, 12 - boom rotary mechanism, 13 - boom lift rope, 14 - boom ending rotary mechanism (sections 9 and 10) in horizontal axis, 15 - boom ending rotary mechanism rope, water (steam) collectors, 19 - oil-slime suction unit pipe flange, 20-6 platform chassis pullout bearing. Figure 4. Woring scheme of plant moving mechanism on storehouse surface. As it shown by chemical analysis storehouse oil consist of gasoline fraction (12%), motor oil (20%) 20 TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE OIL-GAS AGH 2009, MAY 2009, CRACOW, POLAND and fuel oil (68%). It maes possible to include storehouse oil in processing and obtain commodity output. Thus, extraction of storehouse oil is profitable both in ecological and industrial cases. This industrial-scale plant was produced and approved in natural conditions. Report has pictures, schemes. Also there is a video film. 3 11

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13 PROCESS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH INTO A ROCK MASS IN THE LOCALITY OF SMALL RESEARCH POLYGON ON THE PREMISES OF VŠB-TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF OSTRAVA Petr Bujo 1, Pavla Miundová 2, Jií Koziore 3, Antonín Kunz 4 1 VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, 2 VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Institute, 3 VŠB Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical, 4 Green Gas, DPB a.s., Pasov ABSTRACT: Applied research into temperature changes in roc mass caused by deep boreholes used as low-potential energy sources for heat pumps is conducted on the premises of VŠB Technical University of Ostrava (VŠB-TUO) in localities of two research polygons. A so-called Large Research Polygon situated near the New Assembly Hall + Centre for Information Technologies (CIT) of VŠB-TUO is designed especially for observing the influence of great heat withdrawal from the roc environment. A so-called Small Research Polygon, located in the vicinity of a new building of Energy Research Center of VŠB-TUO is intended mainly for research into the restoration and accumulation behaviour of rocs in the surroundings of solitary and also dual boreholes connected to heat pumps and an air-conditioning system. KEY WORDS: heat pump, heat transfer, boreholes 1. INTRODUCTION The meeting of the European Council held in Brussels on the 8 th and 9 th of March 2007 brought together the heads and the Prime Ministers of EU member states. The main topic was the energy industry. A binding target of a 20% share of renewable energies in overall EU energy consumption by the year 2020 was defined; amounts for specific member states would be determined on the basis of many factors. The definite target of the Czech Republic, similarly to the other member states, is unnown at present and may be radically different from those of the other member states. This project is in conformity with the targets which the Czech Republic has accepted as signatory country to the Kyoto Protocol of The Czech Republic ratified the Kyoto Protocol on the 15 th of November According to this agreement, the Czech Republic should reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 8% in comparison with the year 1990 in the observed period from 2008 to To the accomplishment of such highly demanding tass that follow from the accepted international commitments, many measures adopted on the national level lead. They relate to education and training, the preparation of new ecological legislation, the development of various supporting ecological programmes on the level of ministries, the definition of research and development tass, tass of grant agencies, and others. The global objective of these measures is to support the utilisation of alternative energy sources. As a consequence of this policy, technologies utilising the renewable sources of energy are developed dynamically in the Czech Republic. To increasingly popular machines and equipment, heat pumps utilising low-potential primary energy belong. According to the strictest ecological regulations, this way of obtaining natural heat is not wholly ideal, because approximately one third of energy must be supplied in a form of electrical energy and only the remaining two thirds are clean in the sense of ecological terminology. However, in spite of this apparent disadvantage, heat pumps have many significant advantages, especially a possibility of being practically applied to any house, a possibility of installing various pump outputs from units to thousands of W, comfortable handling, maintenance-free operation, high reliability and long service lives. Thans to the above-mentioned advantages and on the basis of many years experience with the operation of heat pumps in Europe, heat pumps have a promising future in the Czech Republic as well. Among the alternative energy sources, which contribute to environmental improvement in local 1 13

14 conditions, thermal energy obtained by heat pumps is raned too. Primary heat can be obtained by heat pumps from the air, ground, or waste heat from e.g. industrial technologies. Our contribution is focused on the utilisation of low-potential thermal energy obtained from rocs by vertical boreholes. 2. HEAT PUMP UTILISATION IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC Heat pumps represent ecological and maintenance-free machines. In the Czech Republic, they are largely used for the all-yearround heating of construction buildings and the preparation of domestic hot water. For the airconditioning of buildings, they have been used only to a small extent so far. Heat pumps have been installed into construction buildings on a bigger scale since the year A growth in the heat pump maret has been influenced most by support provided by the state (40,000 CZK = about 1,400 EUR per family house at present) and above all by increases in energy prices. In the Czech Republic, a preferential tariff for electricity in the case of heat pump installation was also introduced; the relevant tariff applies to the whole construction building. As far as the number of installations is concerned, more than 80% of heat pumps are installed above all in new family houses. After statistics, in the year 2005 approximately every tenth new family house was equipped with a heat pump. The remaining about 20% of installations fall to the heating of town sports halls, retirement homes, company buildings, schools, hotels, family hotels and ecclesiastical buildings (Slováe 2006). The installed heat pumps come from the following foreign manufacturers: IVT (Sweden the largest amount of applications), Viesmann (Germany), NIBE (Sweden), Stiebel Eltron (Germany), Climate Master (USA), and also from Czech manufacturers (mainly air-source heat pumps). Overall development in the number of heat pump installations has obtained, as already mentioned, appropriate dynamics since the year The first ten installations were financially supported by the State Environmental Fund falling under the competence of Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic in the year Unfortunately, any official statistics concerning the number of installations in this area do not exist. The number of installations can be deduced on the basis of both supports granted and the number of applications for the advantageous tariff for electricity; information can also be collected from companies installing these machines in buildings. By a combination of the sources presented above, it is possible to build up a reasonably reliable picture of development in the number of installations. number of installations Development in the number of heat pump installations in the Czech Republic year installations per year cumulative installations Figure 1. The estimation of the number of installations in the Czech Republic. Taen from (Poštula 2006), Modified plemented. We don t have statistical data for last years, but today we have about heat pumps in R. The price of heat pump itself depends on the manufacturer, the guaranty time (3 or 5 years) and offered accessories (electric boiler, boiler, control electronics, etc.). That is why the lowest purchase price does not mean automatically the lowest total price of installation into a building. As for the decision-maing process of investors, both physical and legal entities, considerations about the return of investment into this modern way of heating are decisive. The return of investment is closely connected with the costs of heating with specific inds of fuels. As model example of a typical family house in the Czech Republic, a building with the annual heat demand of about 105 GJ can be taen; the long-term temperature standard of 231 days of heating operation at the average outdoor temperature of 3.8 o C during the heating season is used as a basis. If the total investment into a heat pump (i.e. including the primary circuit and without the secondary one) is expected to be about 300,000 CZK, the rate of return on investment into the heat pump depending upon the considered alternative and after subsidy deduction is from four to about ten years, about 6 years on an average. Thus, as can be seen, the Czech Republic has also joined the overall trend in the utilisation of heat pumps. As with other developed countries of the European Union, a national association for the utilisation of heat pumps was founded (Czech 2 14

15 Heat Pump Association), which for example, initiated the organisation of the first international conference in Europe (3) Heat Pumps in EU Practice in the year BOREHOLES AS ENRGY SOURCE The main source of low-potential thermal energy of rocs, which is used by heat pumps of the ground-water type, is the sun. According to Swedish experts, the upper part of Earth's crust functions as heat exchanger for solar energy. Other sources of thermal energy of rocs are the heat flow through the surface of the Earth and the radioactive disintegration of minerals in rocs. However, these sources are mostly less than 10% of the total amount of thermal energy in rocs. The heat pumps, which use the low-potential renewable thermal energy of rocs by means of boreholes, provide stable heating outputs in the course of heating seasons. A large advantage of boreholes is also a possibility of storing excess heat during the summer months and extracting cold from the boreholes for the air-conditioning of buildings. Some European countries successfully design and implement in practice socalled Borehole Thermal Energy Storage (BTES), i.e. the storage of thermal energy by boreholes: large groups of boreholes connected to a heat pump heating or air-conditioning the building as needed. The authors of the paper are both representatives of a company that installs boreholes for heat pumps in the whole territory of the Czech Republic, including the provision of engineering services in the field of geology, and those of VSB Technical University of Ostrava that provides research services for dealing with large contracts. The company, Green Gas, DPB, a.s., has installed more than 2,200 boreholes for heat pumps of the total metrage of more than 210,000 m since October In the Czech Republic, boreholes, or their depths are determined so that the heating output of heat pump may represent about 60-80% of the heat loss of a building. In the geological conditions of the Czech Republic, the temperature of rocs in a borehole moves mostly in the range from 8 o C at the depth of about 20 m to 12 o C at the depth of about 140 m. In the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic, it is more economically advantageous, from the investor's point of view, to compensate the remaining part of heat losses with a bivalent heat source than to install boreholes for the total value of heat demand of the building. 4. DRILLING TECHNOLOGY IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC For the installation of boreholes, the company Green Gas, DPB, a.s. employs drilling rigs of the type Nordmeyer DSB 2/10, equipped for using a special technology. Depending upon the geological conditions, percussive rotary drilling or air rotary drilling with water feeding is applied. The boreholes are very slim: the initial borehole diameter is 152 mm; the final borehole diameter is 120 mm. The small borehole diameter allows the better transfer of heat from the rocs to the borehole heat exchanger (henceforth referred to as BHE). The maximum depth of the boreholes is mostly less than 130 m, exceptionally 150 m. Into the borehole, U-shaped polyethylene (PE) pipes - BHE, are embedded, and the borehole is filled with a grout mixture along the whole length. In BHE, an ecological, non-freezing, industrial alcohol-based mixture circulates. In the course of heat pump operation, this mixture draws the low-potential heat energy of temperature of 2-4 o C from the rocs and delivers it via a heat pump exchanger (evaporator) to an ecological refrigerant circulating under pressure in the internal circuit of the heat pump. Figure 2. An example of drilling wors in the locality of VSB Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic 5. THE FIRST EXPERIENCE OF THERMAL RESPONSE TESTS IN CZECH REPUBLIC The determination of an adequate depth of a borehole intended for the heat pump depending upon both the geological conditions of a locality and the heating/cooling output required by the building concerned is a critical parameter of a project of the heat pump-assisted heating/cooling of the building. The fundamental problem of the determination of the adequate borehole depth is 3 15

16 the determination of chosen physical properties of rocs in the given locality. In the past, physical properties were determined on roc samples produced from drill cores in laboratories. However, this method mostly does not tae into account the influence of the surrounding roc mass (groundwater inflows, tectonics), and that is why it is only used as complementary one at present. For this reason, researchers (Sweden, USA) have developed a special field test thermal response test (Gehlin 2002), which on the basis of heat transfer from plastic BHE into a roc mass finds out certain thermal properties of rocs (temperature of rocs in the borehole, specific thermal conductivity of rocs, total thermal resistance of the borehole). In Europe, this test is nown as Thermal Response Test (henceforth referred to as TRT). These chosen physical properties of rocs serve as ones of input values for software EED 2.0, which is often applied to the design of borehole depth in Europe. The principle of TRT is usually the controlled heating of roc mass by means of BHE in a borehole for minimally 50 hours without any interruption. Simultaneously, temperatures of liquid in BHE are measured at the inlet into and the outlet from the borehole depending upon the test period, and from temperature evaluation, the chosen physical properties of rocs are determined. Figure 3. A TRT apparatus in the course of testing at VSB Technical University of Ostrava (first experiment 2005) In the Czech Republic, the first TRT's were carried out in the locality of Ostrava-Poruba, where the building of Assembly Hall and Information Technology Centre of VSB Technical University of Ostrava (henceforth referred to as VSB-TUO) was constructed, in April The tests were evaluated by Dr. G. Hellström, the author of the design of Swedish 4 mobile testing apparatus, from Lund University (Sweden). In the first phase, two test boreholes, each 130 m deep, being about 150 m from each other and located in the designed field of boreholes for heat pumps, were drilled. The purpose was to verify the influence of potential changes in the geological conditions on test results. Both the boreholes were standardly equipped (double-pipe PE - BHE, Ø 40 mm, performed grouting of boreholes) for future connection to a heat pump. Table 1. A general geological record of test boreholes VSB Technical University of Ostrava Geology/ Borehole No. 1 Borehole No. 2 Borehole Quaternary Miocene Lower Carbonifer ous m: clays, gravelsands, clay sands, negligible water inflow m: stiff clays, no water inflow m: claystones, siltstones with sandstone layers, heavy inflow of water at about 105 m The course of tests in the test boreholes, including the evaluated thermal properties of rocs is presented in the following table: Table 2. TRT results- the loality of VSB-Technical University of Ostrava Parameter Borehole No. 1 Borehole No. 2 Heat injection into 8.2 W 7.6 W the borehole Average pump rate 0.83 l/s 0.87 l/s during the test Time of heating 71.5 hours 93.3 hours the borehole by electric boiler Average 10.8 o C 10.8 o C temperature of rocs T ug Thermal 2.2 W/mK 2.1 W/mK conductivity of rocs Total thermal resistance R b 0.16 K/Wm 0.12 K/Wm Grout mixture cement + bentonite 0-14 m: clays, gravelsands, clay sands, negligible water inflow m: stiff clays, no water inflow m: claystones, siltstones with sandstone layers, no water inflow Stüwather m 2000Z It is evident that the values are very close lower heat resistance R b in the borehole No. 2 was 16

17 given by the type of applied grout mixture it was a special saced mixture of cement + bentonite + quartz sand. The goal was to decrease the thermal resistance of borehole R b by means of a mixture of better thermal conductivity given by the presence of sorted quartz sand. 6. EXAMPLES OF THE TWO LARGEST INSTALLATIONS WITH BOREHOLES Before the year 2006, the largest building heated with a heat pump in the Czech Republic was a building consisting of a sports hall and a hotel in the town of Opava. This building has been heated by heat pumps from 81 boreholes drilled to the depth of 100 m since autumn In the boiler room of the building, 8 heat pumps of the total heating output of 455 W are installed. In addition to heating, the heat pumps also serve the preparation of hot water, the air-conditioning of the building and the reheating of water in an outdoor pool. The heat extracted from one metre of borehole is about 56 Wm -1. The number and the depth of boreholes were determined by professional estimation. For this construction wor, any thermal response tests were not carried out. With regard to a rather high content of water in underlying gravels to the depth of about 30 m, BHE is dimensioned sufficiently, which has been confirmed by experience from operation, when especially during the extremely long winter of the year 2005, the heating system did not almost use auxiliary electric boilers. Uncertainties that appeared during the construction of the heating system of sports hall in Opava were a cause of a more thorough design wor on the hitherto biggest construction wor of this type in the Czech Republic. It was the case of a building consisting of the Information Technology Centre and the Assembly Hall of VSB TUO in Ostrava. The vast premises of the University were supplemented by this modern construction wor with the heat pump-based heating system, co-financed by the EU funds. The dimensioning of BHE's used results of the abovediscussed thermal response tests as a basis. TRT results formed a base for calculating the total number of boreholes necessary for heating the building of VSB-TUO. Owing to a shortage of finance for placing an order for calculation with Lund University, merely a professional estimation was carried out. This estimation was based on the following: an analogous case heating the town multipurpose hall situated in Opava by heat pumps with boreholes, foreign experience from similar geological conditions (Germany), the rough calculation of borehole metrage by using software EED 2.0 (Hellstrm, Sanner 2000). Basic input data for the qualified estimation were taen from the energy audit of this construction wor (Rybach, Sanner 2000): the heating output of heat pumps: 650 W the expected cooling output of heat pumps: 325 W thermal energy produced by heat pumps per year: 1,352 MWh The professional estimation was carried out on the basis of analogous cases: in the locality of Opava, groundwater inflows occurred in Quaternary gravelsands and in many boreholes also in sand intercalations in the Miocene in the locality of VSB TUO, a groundwater inflow occurred only in one of two test boreholes, in the locality of VSB TUO, solid rocs of Lower Carboniferous were found. From the technical point of view, the heat that is extracted from a borehole meter can be determined roughly. For instance, in the locality of Opava this will be a proportion of the total heating output (i.e. 455 W) to the total metrage of boreholes (i.e. 8,100 m). The heat extracted from a metre of borehole roughly determined lie that amounts to about 56 Wm-1. In the locality of VSB-TUO, a smaller heat extraction rate can be conservatively expected owing to lower groundwater inflows. On the basis of German experience from similar geological conditions ( dry clays + solid rocs), it was possible to expect a danger of gradual long-term cooling of the roc mass by a large amount of boreholes connected to heat pumps. By using the presented analogies as a basis, heat extracted in the locality of VSB TUO was estimated at about 45 W per metre of borehole. This rough value meant that for the total required heating output of heat pumps, 14,500 m of boreholes, i.e. 112 boreholes each 130 m deep would be necessary. The Rough Calculation of Borehole Metrage by Software EED

18 On the basis of parameters of energy audit, the results of TRT's and the nowledge of pump rate of the circulating pump on the borehole side of the heat pump (Q = 3.4 m s -1 ), a rough calculation of the total borehole metrage was executed by software EED 2.0 with the following results: Table 3. Results of EED 2 Modelling 6 Boreholes/type of grout mixture Conventiona l grout mixture Grout mixture with quartz sand Borehole depth 130 m 130 m Rough total 15,000 m 14,000 m metrage Number of boreholes The calculation contained riss for the following reasons: the recharging of boreholes by thermal energy drawn from the building in the course of building air-conditioning was not taen into account, the consumption of thermal energy in the building on a month to month basis was inserted into software only roughly without any deeper analysis, in the Czech Republic, this is the first attempt at executing such a calculation for a large building, and from this little authors' experience in this computer program follows. In the final phase, it was decided to install altogether 110 boreholes each 140 m deep (total metrage of 15,600 m) owing to the use of the conventional grout mixture (Stüwatherm causes problems for pumping equipment) and the eeping of a certain reserve of heating output of the roc mass. 7. RESEARCHES INTO THE THERMAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK MASS The Small Research Polygon is intended above all for research into the regeneration and accumulation behaviour of rocs in the surroundings of boreholes used for energy purposes for small customers (largely family houses). SRP is situated near the new building of ERC (on the premises of VŠB-TUO as well). Here, two operational boreholes were drilled to the depth of 140 m. They are equipped with thermal sensors too; 4 are mounted on the outlet branch at the depth levels of 20, 50, 100 and 140 m and 2 are there on the inlet branch at the levels of 20 and 100 m. The boreholes are connected to the heat pump from the company IVT installed newly in the ERC building. In November 2008, three new monitoring boreholes were drilled here by the company Green Gas DPB, JSC in Pasov, namely: the central borehole to the depth of 160 m and two classical boreholes to the depth of 140 m. 8. CONCLUSIONS AND INTENTIONS The above-presented preparatory wor, the equipment of research measurement polygons and the team of interested worers guarantee the successful realization of research intentions. Data acquired from laboratory measurements and research carried out in situ (hydrodynamic tests, geophysical measurements, TRT tests, temperature measurements) will be utilised for the building of a mathematical model enabling modelling the development of temperature changes in roc mass at the long-term operation of heat pumps (cooling) and at the possible reverse accumulation of heat, e.g. from the operation of air conditioning system (heating) in the case of both industrial and communal utilisation of heat pumps. In the paper, findings obtained in the course of dealing with the grant project of Regional Council of Moravian-Silesian Region (NK ) were utilised. 9. SELECTIVE REFERENCES Bufa, A. (2006): Tepelná erpadla v roce 2005, Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic, statistical survey results, Praha. Slováe, J.: (2006): Tepelná erpadla v praxi EU, AVT. Hellstrm G., Sanner B.: (2000):. Earth Energy Designer, User manual, Version 2.0. Kunz, A., Ryša, J., Koníe, J., Bujo, P.: Využití horninového prostedí jao stálého efetivního zdroje energie pro tepelná erpadla Zborní prednášo, Technicá univerzita v Košiciach. ISBN , 207 pp. Bujo, P., Vrte, M., Horá, B., Hájovsý, R., Hellstrm, G.: Studie odezvy horninového masivu pro instalace tepelných erpadel. Ostrava pp. Name, Sure-name., Name, Sure-name., (year), Title of the boo, 5th edition, Editors eds., City, State. 18

19 CYFROWA DOKUMENTACJA POWYKONAWCZA WIERCE W UKADZIE REJESTRACYJNYM I ANALITYCZNYM OPRACOWANA W PGE KWB BECHATÓW S.A. Jerzy Gasisi, Tomasz Kaczmare PGE KWB Bechatów S.A. ABSTRAKT: Rozbudowa systemu odwodnienia PGE KWB Bechatów S.A., ja równie prowadzone na szero sal rozpoznanie budowy geologicznej przy pomocy prac wiertniczych, wymusza na inwestorze dostosowanie systemu obiegu informacji do nieustannie zwiszajcej si iloci danych powyonawczych gromadzonych w archiwach. Zadanie te spenia specjalnie opracowany cyfrowy system gromadzenia informacji powstajcych podczas prowadzenia prac wiertniczych. Jego pierwszym ogniwem jest Karta Otworu Wiertniczego, obejmujca cay omplet danych dotyczcych samego procesu wiercenia otworu oraz prac dodatowych. Karta ta doczana jest do cyfrowych baz danych, umoliwiajcych przetwarzanie i archiwizowanie zgromadzonych informacji. Szybi dostp do informacji geologicznych i wiertniczych pozwala na biece prowadzenie rónych analiz technicznych i technologicznych uatwiajcych optymalizacj prowadzenia prac wiertniczych i odwadniajcych. SOWA KLUCZOWE: odwodnienie, baza danych, doumentacja. 1. WSTP Prace wiertnicze na terenie dzisiejszej PGE KWB Bechatów S.A. wyonywane s od pocztu lat szedziesitych ubiegego stulecia. Dotycz one zarówno cigego poszerzania informacji geologicznej o warunach zalegania zoa wgla brunatnego w ontecie otaczajcych go sa, ja te s podstaw systemu odwodnienia wgbnego opalni dotyczcego zarówno Pola Bechatów ja i Pola Szczerców. Maj one charater wierce hydrogeologicznych w postaci otworów esploatacyjnych (wielo i normalnorednicowych) oraz rozpoznawczych. Gbooci tych otworów s cile zwizanie z parametrami zalegania sa i sztatuj si one gównie w przedziale gbooci m, masymalne gbooci przeraczaj 500 m od powierzchni terenu. W czasie realizacji adego otworu powstaje szczegóowa doumentacja dotyczca budowy geologicznej, charaterystyi hydrogeologicznej górotworu, parametrów technologicznych wyonywanego wiercenia. Z pocztu byy to arusze papieru z nanoszonymi rcznie informacjami. W zwizu z braiem odpowiednich technologii nie byo moliwoci sporzdzania tej doumentacji w sposób cyfrowy, co sprawiao due trudnoci z syntezowaniem danych oraz ich ewentualn obrób. Zauway trzeba równie, e odowanie opisanych wyej informacji o przebiegu robót geologicznych jaimi s roboty wiertnicze jest penym wypenieniem wymogów jaie wyniaj z przepisów wyonawczych do Prawa Geologicznego i Górniczego. Rozwój informatyi doprowadzi do stworzenia bazy w postaci eletronicznej doumentacji powyonawczej, cechujcej si przejrzystoci, nieograniczon moliwoci rozwoju oraz pozwalajc na przetwarzanie danych pod adym tem, zadanym przez uytownia. Poczti informatyzacji doumentacji powyonawczej przy pracach wiertniczych miay miejsce z nadejciem lat dziewidziesitych XX w. Gównym impulsem by dugotrway proces tworzenia Zbiorczego Zestawienia Wyniów Wiercenia, utworzenie tórego wymagao duego naadu czasu oraz pracy. Ponadto ograniczenia w opiowaniu oraz przesyaniu taiej doumentacji wymusiy onieczno poszuiwania rozwizania pozwalajcego zmechanizowa proces powstawania doumentacji, ograniczy czas jej tworzenia oraz poprzez zdigitalizowanie danych doprowadzi do moliwoci prostego archiwizowania oraz ich przesyania pomidzy wieloma uytowniami. 1 19

20 2. OBIEG DANYCH W SYSTEMIE INFORMATYCZNYM Od samego pocztu wiercenia tworzona jest doumentacja powyonawcza wiercenia. Geolog dozoru wraz z dowiercaniem otworu uzupenia olejne metry opisu geologicznego, technologicznego oraz hydrogeologicznego. Rozbudowany system informacji, z adym dniem powiszajcy swoj objto, wymaga niezawodnego systemu bazodanowego pozwalajcego na niezwoczny i bezporedni dostp do jego zasobów. Pierwszym etapem w eletronicznym przebiegu doumentacji powyonawczej wierce jest Karta Otworu Wiertniczego, tworzona przez geologa dozoru na podstawie danych terenowych. Nastpnie dane zawarte w poszczególnych artach otworów wiertniczych transferowane s do Bazy Danych Wiertniczych (BDW) oraz Bazy Danych Geologicznych (BDG). Poszczególne etapy przepywu informacji przedstawia ryc. 1. Zobrazowana jest ona w postaci profilu litologicznego z wyczerpujcym opisem warstw, przedziaami ich zalegania oraz wielociami procentowego uzysu rdzenia. Ponadto w przypadu sa wglanowych w opisie litologicznym orelane jest RQD, stanowice bardzo istotn informacj dotyczc warunów hydrogeologicznych warstwy wodononej. Przyadowy opis prób rdzeniowych dla przewierconego profilu górotworu uazanego na ryc.2 przedstawiono na ryc.3. Ryc.2. Próby rdzeniowe w srzynac Próby rdzeniowe w srzynach przeznaczone do opisu geologa doumentujcego Figure 1. Obiegi informacji z otworów wiertniczych Ryc. 1. Obieg informacji z otworów wiertniczych poprzez Karty Otworów Wiertniczych do Bazy Danych Wiertniczych oraz Bazy Danych Geologicznych. Przepyw danych pomidzy poszczególnymi etapami procesu przebiega w sposób zautomatyzowany, zainicjowany przez inspetora nadzoru prowadzcego poszczególne rodzaje prac wiertniczych. Na adym etapie przetwarzania danych nastpuje ich weryfiacja oraz moliwo archiwizacji. 3. KARTA OTWORU WIERTNICZEGO Karta otworu wiertniczego jest cyfrowym nastpc Zestawienia Zbiorczego Wyniów Wiercenia. Zawarte w niej informacj s dostpne poprzez wydru ja i podgld na eranie monitora. Najwaniejsz informacj zawart w KOW utrwalane jest budowa geologiczna przewiercanego odcina profilu górotworu. 2 Ryc. 3. Fragment KOW z opisanym zanym Ryc. 3. Fragment KOW z opisanymi próbami rdzeniowymi uazanymi na Ryc. 2 Oprócz informacji geologicznych w KOW utrwalane s informacj zwizane z technologi wyonanego otworu. W zalenoci od tego, czy jest to otwór rozpoznawczy, obserwacyjny czy studnia odwadniajca niezbdne informacje o zarurowaniu, zastosowanej obsypce oraz szczegóowej zabudowie filtrów z opisem ich granulacji (lub w przypadu filtrów siatowych rodzaju siati) s umieszczone w KOW. Kluczowym zagadnieniem, zwaszcza pod wzgldem prowadzenia prac górniczych, jest ewidencjonowanie wszelich materiaów pozostawionych w górotworze, tóre w przyszoci mogy, by zaóci przysz esploatacj górnicz. Najwisze zagroenie dla pracy opare, a w szczególnoci tamocigów 20

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