Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems, Piotr Czekalski (Ph.D. Eng.) April / May 2013

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1 Utworzenie nowej specjalności Studiów Doktoranckich w Dyscyplinie Informatyka na Wydziale AEiI Politechniki Śląskiej: Eksploracja Danych (Data Mining) akronim: EkDan Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems, Piotr Czekalski (Ph.D. Eng.) April / May 2013 Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego 1

2 Lecture outline: 1. GIS Systems in General. 2. GIS employed. 3. GIS by the Programmers Point of View. 4. Reliable and Valuable Spatial Data. 5. GIS data by Units, Coordinates, Mappings is Virtual Earth Flat? 6. Satellite Navigation Systems. 7. Experiment Design in FSX, ESP, Prepar3D and X-Plane. 8. ESP from the Users Point of View. 9. FSX API. 10. Applying Autogen for Experiments and Scenery Design. 11. Scenery Design 12. GIS and FSX Cooperation in the Altogether. Projekt współfinansowany ze środków Unii Europejskiej w ramach Europejskiego Funduszu Społecznego 2

3 Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems PART 8 ESP FROM THE USERS POINT OF VIEW 3

4 GIS - FSX Microsoft Flight Simulator. The Sky Is Boundless, The World Is Alive. It s As Real As It Gets. History: Over 25years ;-) sublogic (1977). Microsoft (od 1982) Altair i IMSAI Apple II 1980 TRS Microsoft Flight Simulator 1.00 dla IBM-PC 1983 Flight Simulator II - Apple II 1984 Flight Simulator II - Commodore 64, MSX, Atari Amiga, Atari ST (16 bitrelease). 4

5 GIS - FSX History (cont.): 1988 Microsoft Flight Simulator 3.0 i Microsoft Flight Simulator Microsoft Flight Simulator Microsoft Flight Simulator Microsoft Flight Simulator Microsoft Flight Simulator Microsoft Flight Simulator X (FSX) SDK! - so independent vendors start to produce plugins, hardware, scenery, models Microsoft ESP Microsoft closes FS team in ACES Studio and lay off the FS development team. FSX and ESP right is sold to Lockheed including ACES Studio developers New simulator: Microsoft Flight (http://www.microsoft.com/games/flight/) Available to download for free. 5

6 Want to play? Releases: Demo: Limited to two airports, two missions, three plane models. Polish language included. Standard Edition Deluxe Edition Acceleration Pack (zawiera SP2) Gold Edition Important updates SP1 SP2 GIS - FSX 6

7 GIS - FSX Want to write some code or create extra scenery? You re very welcome. FSX SDK: RTM SP1 not available now SP1A SP Acceleration (SP2/XPack) SP2 is recommended Current standard in most simulation systems, required for most extensions. 7

8 GIS - FSX I m not Air Born, I don t know how to FSX contains set of manuals and step by step, guided tours. Fly according to the procedures (arrival, departure, taxi, clearance requests, etc.). It is not the deal to take-off and somehow fly round the airport. The real deal is: Do above along with airport procedures. Go from point A to point B on IFR, configure navigation. Handle failures. Save fuel and be efficient. Request landing clearance, taxi for the correct gate. And those all above including crosswind and turbulence ;-). 8

9 GIS - FSX What is ESP and FSX programming for? Enables rapid creation of the complex and experimental environments. Brings you some cash: Stand-alone licence of the ORBX (single airport / area) is about 20-40AUD Hardware simulator starts from 6000$... Good yoke (i.e. Saitek is PLN). Single airplane licence of the unique unit is up to 100$. 9

10 GIS - FSX Lab 330 Elite PI

11 GIS - FSX ESP + REX high details and photorealistic sky and weather. 11

12 GIS - FSX FSX + REX. 12

13 GIS - FSX FSX + REX. 13

14 GIS - FSX FSX + REX. 14

15 Hardware requirements (by Microsoft) Windows XP SP2 / Windows Vista / Windows 7 Processor: 1.0 Ghz RAM: Windows XP SP2-256MB, Windows Vista 512MB Hard Drive: 14GB Video Card: 32MB DirectX 9 compatible Other: DX9 hardware compatibility and audio board with speakers and/or headphones Online/Multiplayer Requirements: 56.6 kbps or better for online play Real world requirements: Quadcore rapid processor (efficient, top clocking i7). 4GB RAM. GIS - FSX GTX460 graphics per one Full HD display (SLI strongly recommended). SSD storage (stripe) because of scene caching. 15

16 GIS - FSX Microsoft ESP. It is a generalized engine, stands behind FSX. Currently sold to Lockheed Martin and distributed as Prepar3d flight simulation system. Game-Based learning. Richard Blunt, Ph.D. a report for the ministry of defense USA Does Game-Based Learning Work? Results from Three Recent Studies. Does it work? Well Yes ;-). ESP ideas by Microsoft. FSX. Industrial process simulation (warehouse, production line, etc). Decision challenge support. Virtual training. 16

17 Microsoft Flight (2012). New engine. More game than simulation system (FSX was considered by users as too real thus too complex to play). GIS - FSX Many MS Flight developers are those people that created FSX. 17

18 GIS - FSX FSX by the user (pilot). Any viewpoint (inside cabin, outside, SDK driven). Cockpit vs virtual cockpit. Cockpit component are independent panels. Every single panel is a window with resize capability and moveable. This enables multiple displays, including possibility to imitate real devices (i.e. GPS) as external device. POV, zoom in zoom out enabled. Does not support multiple displays for scenery creation (as i.e. X-plane with cylindric and sphere display capabilities) that have to be done on hardware / rendering level. Voice communication is included. Out of the box it is limited to the voice synthesis of the pilot / co-pilot and ATC commands. User replies by selecting answer from the list provided by the simulator. There do exists VATsim (Voice Air Traffic sim), a real voice-based network where people fly together and where operators are real people working as ATC controllers. Only some of the popular airports are provided and in limited time. 18

19 GIS - FSX Basic panels (Depends on plane / heli model): Main panel (all instruments right front of the pilot s point of view. Radio stack. Top panel (over the head). Trim panel. PFD (artificial horizon, speed, attitude) MFD (multifunction display) GPS ATC EICAS Control panels (usually replaced by the physical devices): Yoke / cyclic stick. Rudder pedals / antitorque pedals. Throttle, reverse, mixture, rpm controls / collective pitch, throttle, rpm, turboshaft engine control. 19

20 GIS - FSX B Virtual cockpit. 20

21 GIS - FSX B ATC Window. 21

22 GIS - FSX B EIACS panel. 22

23 GIS - FSX GPS

24 GIS - FSX B Head panel. 24

25 GIS - FSX B PFD. 25

26 GIS - FSX B Radio stack. 26

27 GIS - FSX B Throttle control. 27

28 GIS - FSX B Trims. 28

29 Viewport. Generated by FSX / ESP engine. GIS - FSX Any viewport is supported. Pan / Zoom / Bend / Pitch. 29

30 GIS - FSX Simulated aerodynamics rules. See following slides for basic concepts. 30

31 GIS - FSX 31

32 GIS - FSX 32

33 GIS - FSX 33

34 GIS - FSX 34

35 GIS - FSX 35

36 GIS - FSX 36

37 GIS - FSX 37

38 GIS - FSX 38

39 GIS - FSX 39

40 GIS - FSX 40

41 GIS - FSX 41

42 Where to go and how to follow the route? VFR IFR Visual Flight Rules. Instrumental Flight Rules. Over the air infrastructure: Radio, plane lamps, transponder, guidance receivers (i.e. ILS), GPS, compass, attitude and vario, other instruments. Ground infrastructure. Visible (mostly for VFR): GIS - FSX Airport, runway, runway lights, auxiliary lamps (end of the runway, light approach attitude indicators). Taxiway symbols (horizontal and vertical signs), direction indicators, hold lines and lights etc. 42

43 43

44 44

45 45

46 Runway marking. GIS - FSX 46

47 GIS - FSX Ground infrastructure. Hidden (IFR devices): Tower / Approach / Ground services radios (many). VOR (VHF omnidirectional radio range)/dme (Distance Measuring equipment). ILS and other approaching systems. Guided transition over the airspace. Radar data + transponder code based aircraft identification (ADSB). Regular code is given by tower operator. Transponder special codes: 7700 seven-seven, go to heaven 7600 seven-six, radio fix 7500 seven-five, man with knife 47

48 FSX radio com / ATC. GIS - FSX There exists applicable API, supporting code extensions over SimConnect. VatSim network: There is out of the box ATC solution, that uses voice synthesis, supporting pre-defined communicates selection to let the user choose it s answer. This constitute standard communication, close to real one. One can hear other planes as well (both AI based and multiplayer). It is necessary to tune to the appropriate frequency, to hear conversation (ATC also helps to do so). On the other side, when creating airpot it is necessary to implement (configure) appropriate frequencies. Common airports include at least three frequencies: ATIS weather report, pressure at runway level/sea level, cloud base, active runways, etc. Repeated every few minutes. Ground Operations taxi and ground services (fuel, load / unload, etc.) Airfield Operations Tower take-off, landing, transition (allowance and guide), handling critical situations. In the reality it is much more, see: This is analogue transmision over VHF frequencies, works as CB radio only one person speaks at a time. 48

49 Plane is located at the gateway. What next? Ground services: Parking luggage load. Fuel. Pushback! There are services available out of the box fuel, pushback. Other available as plugins. GIS - FSX Closed loop animation problem no triggers. 49

50 GIS - FSX 50

51 GIS - FSX 51

52 Even the same plane can behave differently. It is because of (implemented in ESP/FSG): GIS - FSX Payload utilized. Fuel weight. Above alters center of gravity location of the plane it can be configured for every aircraft / flight. 52

53 GIS - FSX 53

54 GIS - FSX ESP/FSX simulates many failures. It enables pilots to train critical situations and failures handling. ESP/FSX engine is capable to check overload, overstress, overspeed and simulate positive and negative load factors. 54

55 Planes, soarers and helis. Almost everything humankind has created, many releases provide more details and functions than out of the box models, including prototypes. Different paintings (i.e. airlines characteristic) plane body is textured as well. Planes Helicopters Gliders GIS - FSX 55

56 GIS - FSX Airport: Surfaces / flat objects: Near airport surface and airport basemap (bitmap). Airport apron texture. Runways, taxiways. 3D models: Buildings. Infrastructure (i.e. VOR, power lines, lights). Ground service objects (i.e. fuel pump stations, cars, trolleys). Lights. Light surface problem with nvidia 3D. 56

57 GIS - FSX Scenery: Dedicated (i.e. airport, city). Textures are usually created from photos so mimic reality well. You need to tell autogen to switch off. Autogen (automated scenery generation). Autogen is based on 1.2km x 1.2km mesh. Every cell of the mesh has some classification applied. Every classification has its own surface texture, including projection fo the underlying flora and buildings. Every class is accompanied by the configuration that describes the average building height, building textures, etc. (depends on lon / lat and terrain classification). Autogen creates random scenery. Density is controlled (manually, with respect to the rendering channel performance). Unknown areas look like if they were created naturally but autogen created scenery is far from the reality. 57

58 GIS - FSX ESP/FSX uses geodetic (instead of cartesian) coordinates to locate objects on the surface of the earth. Any object is located using lon/lat/height above the sea level. ESP/FSX earth model is not flat! It is geoid: Major radius (to the equator) = km Perimeter of the equator is: km Semi-minor, polar radius = km Polar perimeter is km 58

59 Longitude 0 is Greenwich. Positive means located on the eastern hemisphere. Negative means located on the western hemisphere. Turn on 180 deg. Latitude 0 is the equator. Positive means north hemisphere lotaced object. Negative means south hemisphere located object. Level 0 is sea level. Positive means above sea level. GIS - FSX Negative means below sea level (under water or located within depression). 59

60 GIS - FSX 3D objects use cartesian coordinates. X=Y=Z=0 is the center of the object, located by the lon/lat/height. Y axis is north directed (positive value means go north, negative goes south). X axis is east directed (posotove value means go east, negative goes west). Z axis is height. Each axis resolution is 16bit, signed ( <-> ) units. Each axis has independent scalling factor. The factor is 1mm to 32768m per unit. 60

61 GIS - FSX Weather model in ESP/FSX: Capabilities: Weather schema (out of box): Clear Skies Cold Fronts Building Storms Fair Weather Fogged In Gray and Rainy Heavy Snows Major Thunderstrom Stormy Weather Winter Wonderland Live weather, set once per flight. Live weather, updated. User defined weather. Plugins (cloud model, sky texture, sunbursts simulation). Thermal visualisation for soaring. 61

62 Ground moving objects. GIS - FSX The World Is Alive is not limited to the airports. There are other aircrafts and boats driven by AI. There are cars running along the roads and small boats moving over lakes and seas they are driven statistically, over the closed loop animations. They use simplified model but includes i.e. overnight lights and textures. This statistical traffic generation has strong impact on the performance of the simulation and can be controled by the settings. 62

63 GIS - FSX FSX controls: Keyboard Mouse Universal: Joystick Gamepad Dedicated: Yoke Throttles Pedals Instruments. 63

64 Plane: Yoke, throttle, rudder (pedals or 4th DOF of the joystick), others, instruments. Yoke is replaced by the stick (side stick / center stick) in acrobatic planes and gliders. Glider: Center-stick, rudder pedals, others, instuments. Helicopter: Cyclic stick, antitorque pedals, throttle / colective. Extras: GIS - FSX GPS, radio stack, navi devices, artificial hoizon, flaps, airbrakes, brakes. 64

65 GIS - FSX Piston engines: Throttle control, rpm, mixture. Almost constant RPM, variable propeller pitch. Fixed pitch propeller with variable RPM. Mixture. Throttle. Multiple engines. 65

66 GIS - FSX Helicopter has much different controls than plane / glider: Cyclic stick (two separated as in case of most, i.e. Bell or one common, centered as in case of Robinson. Antitorque pedals Throttle / colective. 66

67 Other instruments (not directed to the control surfaces) Usually mimic some particular model but can be adopted to almost any plane as instruments do repeat. ESP/FSX can render instruments and controls on the screen those may be operated using mouse pointer by simply dragging and clicking them but for reality-like experiences some of them are essential: Radio GPS Artificial horizon, compass, altimeter, vario, speed. ILS GIS - FSX 67

68 GIS - FSX Fixed or component construction. 68

69 GPS: GIS - FSX Hardware provided by vendors (i.e. Garmin) require GPS simulation to tell the GPS device where it is located. Control panel (no display) to drive software implemented GPS. Simulation only, operated by keyboard and mouse. 69

70 GIS - Elite 70

71 Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems PART 9 FSX API 71

72 You ve got hardware and software, you know how to fly. Let s start programming. Data extension. GIS - FSX FSX SDK. Mostly constitutes of the 3D and flat models creation and providing tones of XML and texture files. Code extension. FSX SDK Unmanaged / managed -> C++ i C# SDK supports creation of the components that both replace existing and provide new ones. XML familiarity is essential in most cases. SDK service pack and simulator service pack have to be same. 72

73 SDK constitutes of four classes: GIS - FSX Core Utilities Kit includes programming API (SimConnect SDK), camera configuration (viewport), provides access to the simulation variables. Environment Kit terrain, scenery, 3D modelling, plane / boat AI, special effects. Mission Creation Kit create your own scenario. Includes guidance (flying lessons, and missions). SimObject Creation Kit enables creation of the new models (including planes, boats, ground services, also panels, displays, etc. 73

74 Installation procedure. Hardware requirements (prerequisites): User have to be local administrator. It is advised to disable UAC..NET Framework 2.0 (x86 / x64) VCRedist XML4 GIS - FSX Windows Update ;-). ESP/FSX SP release need to be same as SDK release. Install SDK RTM first, then update to SP1A, SP2. Watch Acceleration Pack there do exists different SP1A than provided over the Internet. SP2 is also different (SP2/XPack). 74

75 GIS model is related to the: Environment Kit, SimConnect, SimObject with particular respect to the ground objects moving. By the SDK one should hold: XML editor (Notepad++, Altova, VS), Graphical images editor (Gimp) 3D authoring software (Gmax) FSX SDK LibraryCreator XML GIS - FSX 75

76 GIS - FSX SimConnect API reference. About 65 functions. Core is written in unmanaged (C++). There are wrappers for managed code (.NET 2.0) using wrappers. Common projects (among others): New instrumental panel or new behavior to the existing one or panel replacement. Events replacement handle events your own way. Flight recording / monitoring. Mission and challenge extensions. 76

77 Common projects (c.d.): GIS - FSX Create and handle flightplan managed by AI. Change weather. Create hardware drivers for new hardware. Control cameras that user can select from the list during simulation. Some features are related to the air racing feature and are available only when SP2/XPack (SDK do Acceleration pack) is installed. SimConnect supports EXE and DLL creation, including automated startup when simulator starts. 77

78 Plugins can be created as client-server applications where server is an ESP/FSX simulator. Supports both local and remote (over TCP/IP) communication. Client opens connection to the active server then sends request. The requect can be a setting /action or request for the data. Then it awaits simulator answer. DLL or EXE? SimConnect created as EXE is an external application, somehow independent of the main FSX/ESP process. If fails, will not hang simulator. EXE may be executed automatically or manually. DLL is integrated with the simulator but if fails, simulator does as well. DLLs are not threadsafe. EXE is easier to debug. GIS - FSX Managed code extensions have to be EXE one. 78

79 Creating SimConnect project. GIS - FSX Warning Simconnect supports only x86 even when working on x64 platform. In C/C++ If extension does not provide rich user interface, choose win32 console application project template. If it does contain UI, choose Win32 Project or MFC Application. In any case add SimConnect.h reference and link SimConnect.lib file. Create.def file containing at least DLLStart i DLLStop. SimConnect expects no _ prefix! Configure.def filename within project properties. 79

80 GIS - FSX Creating SimConnect in managed code. In C# / VB.NET (.NET 2.0<->3.5) Construct Windows Application (for C# or any other.net language) Add reference to the Microsoft.FlightSimulator.SimConnect (or Microsoft.ESP.SimConnect) Include: using Microsoft.FlightSimulator.SimConnect; using System.Runtime.InteropServices; Warning manageable SimConnect SDK dll is installed into the GAC. During development stage one cannot reference this dll so another copy of the file is provided in SDK installation folder. SimConnect_Open & SimConnect_Close has been replaced with SimConnect & Dispose. It means that connection handler is hidden inside the class and one no longer need to provide it as the parameter. 80

81 GIS - FSX SimConnect.ini file is responsible to keep global configuration for all plugins. It supports enabling of the trace / debug mode: level poziom informowania (Verbose/Normal/Warning/Error/Off) console Yes / No OutputDebugString Yes / No file Filename file_next_index Integer 81

82 GIS - FSX SimConnect.cfg contains client configuration. This file is required only when ESP/FSX simulator and plugin software are located on different machines. On the client machine (running plugin) there is a prerequisite of installing SimConnect runtime, using SimConnect.msi. Parameters: Protocol Pipe / IPv4 / IPv6. IPv4 is default Address Port MaxReceiveSize maximum packet size, 8192 default. DisableNagle 0,1 1 to enable packet optimization algorithm. On the server side there do exists similar file, named SimConnect.xml 82

83 GIS - FSX FSX/ESP loads automated those plugins (both DLL and EXE) that are configured in EXE.xml i DLL.xml files. Those files are located within configuration profile of the ESP/FSX (w profilu). <Launch.Addon> - jone section per client. <Disabled> - False = plugin enabled, True = plugin disabled. <Name> - common plugin name. <ManualLoad> - if True, a dialog box window will appear asking for the acceptnce of the plugin startup. <Path> - local or UNC path to the executable / dll. <CommandLine> - command line parameters, only for EXE plugins. 83

84 Sample DLL.xml: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="windows-1252"?> <SimBase.Document Type="Launch" version="1,0"> <Descr>Launch</Descr> <Filename>dll.xml</Filename> <Disabled>False</Disabled> <Launch.ManualLoad>False</Launch.ManualLoad> <Launch.Addon> <Name>First addon</name> <Disabled>False</Disabled> <ManualLoad>False</ManualLoad> <Path>First Addon.dll</Path> </Launch.Addon> <Launch.Addon> <Name>Second addon </Name> <Disabled>True</Disabled> <ManualLoad>False</ManualLoad> <Path>Second Addon.dll</Path> </Launch.Addon> </SimBase.Document> GIS - FSX 84

85 GIS - FSX DLL.xml and EXE.xml provide startup automation. During development stage developer usually runs the plugin project by itself. In case above (manual startup) FSX/ESP will not handle closing the plugin thread when closed, so plugin logic should be responsible for the detection of the absence of the server to shutdown the plugin. 85

86 Acceleration pack (XPack). GIS - FSX SimConnect.xml contains racing servers configuration (connection) parameters. SimConnect.cfg similar, but for the client software. Acceleration Expansion Pack starts three local servers by default, for local connection only (one for IPv4, one for IPv6 and one for Named Pipes protocol). Those servers do not require any configuration within SimConnect.* files. If remote configuration is required (i.e. over TCP) one have to create SimConnect.xml and create appropriate config data. 86

87 GIS - FSX SimConnect requires unique identifiers for any client plugin. Those identifiers also apply to the requests, variables, groups, events, etc. SimConnect is subject of the DLL hell. Theoretically all releases are kept in Windows Side by Side (WinSxS) folder so client software do not need to worry about appropriate DLL. To ensure full compatibility one may use legacy api but it is limited. 87

88 Following slides present command line application that just connects to the simulation system (C#), using SimConnect API. Warning this is non-structural sample just to show you some ideas. Set.NET version to 2.0 do 3.5 will not work with Create following steps: GIS - FSX Instantiate SimConnect class. Provide delegates (handlers) for OnRecvOpen, OnRecvQuit, OnRecvException Implement communicate listeners ( event handlers). Then loop over SimConnect.ReceiveMessage(). 88

89 GIS - FSX using System; using System.Diagnostics; using System.Windows.Forms; using Microsoft.FlightSimulator.SimConnect; //using Microsoft.ESP.SimConnect; 89

90 class Program { const int WM_USER_SIMCONNECT = 0x0402; private static SimConnect fsxsimconnect = null; static void simconnect_onrecvopen(simconnect sender, SIMCONNECT_RECV_OPEN data) { Console.WriteLine("Podłączyłem się do FSX / ESP. Naciśnij dowolny klawisz, aby zamknąć połączenie."); } static void simconnect_onrecvquit(simconnect sender, SIMCONNECT_RECV data) { Console.WriteLine("FSX / ESP zakończył połączenie."); closeconnection(); } static void simconnect_onrecvexception(simconnect sender, SIMCONNECT_RECV_EXCEPTION data) { Console.WriteLine("Przypełzł wyjątek z FSX / ESP: " + data.dwexception); } static private void closeconnection() { if (fsxsimconnect == null) return; fsxsimconnect.dispose(); fsxsimconnect = null; Console.WriteLine("Połączenie z FSX / ESP zamknięte."); } static void init() { fsxsimconnect.onrecvopen += new SimConnect.RecvOpenEventHandler(simconnect_OnRecvOpen); fsxsimconnect.onrecvquit += new SimConnect.RecvQuitEventHandler(simconnect_OnRecvQuit); fsxsimconnect.onrecvexception += new SimConnect.RecvExceptionEventHandler(simconnect_OnRecvException); } static void Main(string[] args) { try { Console.WriteLine("Uruchom FSX lub ESP, a następnie naciśnij cokolwiek..."); Console.Read(); fsxsimconnect = new SimConnect("C# testowa aplikacja do transpondera.",intptr.zero,wm_user_simconnect,null,0); init(); while(!console.keyavailable) fsxsimconnect.receivemessage();} catch (Exception ex) { MessageBox.Show(String.Format("Problem z FSX/ESP:\n {0}", ex.message), "Nie mogę się podłączyć do FSX ani do ESP.", MessageBoxButtons.OK, MessageBoxIcon.Error); } finally { closeconnection(); } } } 90

91 Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems PART 10 APPLYING AUTOGEN FOR EXPERIMENTS AND SCENERY DESIGN 91

92 Environment Kit SDK responsible for the scenery creation (both static and dynamic). Contents: GIS - FSX Autogen SDK automated scenery generation, wherever there is no dedicated scenery. Modeling SDK 3D models, including planes, vehicles, buildings, materials, object and object libraries. Special Effects SDK special effects including fire, smog, rain, vapor, exchaust gas, etc. Terrain SDK scenery configuration, provides information on the characteristics/classification of the particular area (earth, water), provides global textures. 92

93 GIS - FSX Traffic SDK provides access to the AI planes and boats. Living World SDK statistical, non AI traffic management, roads and boats (recreational), different than those driven by AI, under control of the Traffic SDK. Weather SDK weather API, supplemental to the SimConnect. BGL Compiler SDK airport and dedicated scenery compiler. 93

94 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Autogen is efficient solution if is prowided with properly configured areas (appropriate category and definitions). Autogen to rozszerzenie danych, nie rozszerzenie kodu (choć wymaga kodowania XML oraz tworzenia GUID). We employ GIS-like, approach using layers: Terrain have to be vectorized then flora and buildings are settled on it.. A useful tool is provided in SDK: annotator.exe (manual vectorisation is here). Terrain level requires extra attributes (describing the location of the building and its look and shape). Those locations are named footprints. New objects are located over this area, within footprints provided. You can choose between various autogen objects that constitute simulator library. 94

95 95

96 96

97 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Footprint creation, step by step. Footprint usually covers real building shape over the bitmap. Shape have to be convex. Can be almost any poligon (not necessarily quadrilateral as on the right picture). 97

98 Footprint categories: GIS FSX, Autogen SDK B Building red shaped R Row Houses purple shaped J PolyLine Buidling violet shaped L Library Item blue shaped V Vegetation (flora) green shaped I Polygon Region(floral area) red shaped, green filled. Copy / Paste works. 98

99 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Building overlaying is not supported (but adjacent buildings are ok). 99

100 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Sample district with footprints markings of different categories. 100

101 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Each building has its own set of properties. One need to provide it to let autogen know, what to do. Those properties are somehow fuzzy. 101

102 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Autogen uses four classes of the elevation textures: Standalone buildings. Row housing. Library objects. Green (vegetation). Each category has different internal format (all are bitmap however). Standalone buildings (see right). Different side elevations and roof textures, depending on the desired height of the building. 102

103 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Observe roof and side elevation depending on the desired number of the floors as configured before. Side elevation ad roofs are tiled. 103

104 104

105 105

106 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Side elevation always rendered as flat surface. Roofs are different within different areas of the world i.e. alpine are sharp to easily remove snow when heavy falls while mediterean roofs are flat. By the above, every roof has two variations of the texture daytime view and nighttime view that enables illuminated view. Roof configuration is held globally in RoofDescriptions.xml file. Roof textures are located along with side elevation as on the previous slides. There are many roof textures in every side elevation bitmap file. It is related to the building height so particular side elevation has always the same roof texture. 106

107 Row Houses. GIS FSX, Autogen SDK There are two wall-textures for the building one for shorter and one for longer wall. Decision is made by length comparison. regular, non row houses use only one texture for every side. Requires tiling of the textures along and across (front and side walls). Height of the building determines texture used every texture file contain many textures with height range applied so different height row houses will have different wall textures. Texture file is 512x512px bitmap divided into meaningfull parts. Roof is tilled, taken as one of the roofs available in the texture (library). Gabled roof is created along one of the sides. Highest floor elevation is then altered to suit the gabled roof. 107

108 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Row Houses texture. See texture components and description 108

109 109

110 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Row houses texture tilling rules and samples. Above two units building (frontside 2x16px) side 1x16px. Gabled roof is created across. One can observe highest flor cut to suit gabled roof. A row house of the (3.5x 16x16px) is presented below. 110

111 111

112 Polyline Buildings. Such buildings contain a courtyard inside. This is common for the Old Town areas. It is new in FSX, simplifies creation of the city centers. Uses much different texture size: 1024x1024px for the side elevation, 512x512px for the roof. There 9 profiles for such buildings (polyline buildings): Three kind of roofs Three profiles for 3,4 & 5 floors. Extra Basement floor. Each profile is composed of the: Two or three textures for the courtyard. One or two textures for the roof. Side elevation, tiled. GIS FSX, Autogen SDK 112

113 Polyline Buildings. GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Texture is organized horizontaly into the stripes of the 1024x32px. With the respect of the building height there were two kind of the textures one for the 3 floor buildings and other for the 3-5 floor buildings. In any case an extra basement stripe is provided for every texture. Each texture has dwo versions (night / day) and 26 variations for different world regions: i.e. file BLD_Europe_North_1.dds contains North-West Europe, version 1. Roofs do not have variations with respect to the world region. Texture file format: bitmap DXT1 no alpha channel, DSS format. 113

114 114

115 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Polyline Buildings roof textures. Roof texture has two variations gable and flat. Mansard roofs use both textures flat inside and gable outside. Filenames are: BLD_roof_Top_<xxx>.dds for the flat roofs (named BLD_roof_Top) BLD_roof_Side_<xxx>.dds for the gable roof (named BLD_roof_Side) Each texture file is 512x512px, format DSS (DXT1, no alpha channel). Each roof texture is a stripe of 512x128px, so there are four roof textures in each file. Texture can be tiled along, but not across. 115

116 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Sample roof texture (flat), polyline buildings. 116

117 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Gabled roof texture file. One side, other is created automatically. 117

118 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Daytime texture Nighttime texture 118

119 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK 119

120 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Those building constitute part of the objects visible during autogen created simulation scenery. The other part are library objects, inculding bridges, lamps, industrial parks, Wiele obiektów powtarza się w świecie (mosty, lampy, zakłady przemysłowe refinery, etc.). FSX provides tones of pre-defined library objects with predefined size, shape, structure and textures. To use such objects one need to provide its identifier (GUID) and location. Those objects are usually more complex comparing to described previously autogen buildings so each object has its own texture. Some texture parts can be shared among objects, however those parts can be applied independently to different objects within different places. 120

121 121

122 122

123 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Creating DXT1 texture with DDS bitmap format. Use imagetool.exe tool, located in SDK / Terrain SDK folder. 1. Create texture file according to the template, save as PSD, BMP or TGA, i.e. tekstura.bmp. 2. Run: imagetool dxt1 dds mips tekstura.bmp. (file may include path) 3. Tool will create tekstura.mip file. 4. Change extension from.mip to.dds. 5. Upload your file into Microsoft Flight Simulator X/Texture folder. 123

124 Configure autogen data: GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Default.xml located in Flight Simulator X/Autogen defines relation between library files and area categories defined for the autogen service. AutogenDescriptions.xml defines vegetation (flora) groups and regions. Vegetation models are located within XML file: AutogenDescriptions_mid.xml and AutogenDescriptions_min.xml are basic and minimum complexity configuration for the vegetation. They can be switched in FSX.cfg along with performance capabilities of the simulation hardware (it does have strong impact on the performance). Extrusions.xml contains configuration for the one dimension objects that do not have predefined length and can be tiled (i.e. powerlines, roads, some bridges, fences, etc.) Materials.xml textures configuration, links to individual DSS files. Autogen uses those files to obtain appropriate texture. RoofDescriptions.xml regional configuration for the roofs. TerrainAutogenClassDescriptions.xml Terrain classification configuration. 124

125 Vegetation. GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Trees and bushes are library objects. Groupping of the vegetation is a process where some kind of the forest is created where particular kind of trees occurs statistically over the area. This constructs diverse forests with some dominating species. Groupping is hierarchical a group can contain some particular objects or other groups. Autogen generates vegetation of some particular kind proportionally within a group with respect to the coefficients configured for the group. 125

126 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Sample Sycamore ALL group consists of: 75% sycamore adult trees, 15% sycamore old trees, 10% sycamore young trees. Where sycamore adult trees are composed of: 0.2 (p25%) of sycamore mat1 trees 0.2 (p25%) of sycamore mat2 trees 0.2 (p25%) of sycamore mat3 trees 0.2 (p25%) of sycamore mat4 trees 126

127 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Vegetation density (quality) configuration of the rendering. Vegetation is pre-rendered from the multiline vector into the bitmap then loaded into the terrain. Rendering density is configured in FSX.cfg: [TERRAIN] IMAGE_PIXELS_FOR_AUTOGEN_POLYGONS=<xxx> where <xxx> comes a value between 16 (lowest quality but fastest) and 2048 (slowest but provides best visual effect). 16 is about 80m, 2048 is about 0,5m Default value is 16 (lowet) any increase requires more resources. 127

128 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Adding new item to autogen library (short / procedure). 1. Compose 3D object using 3D Studio Max or GMAX. Do not add textures just colour your model (black is not a good idea ;-) ). Object size should be in metric units (with base of the 1m). 2. Export your object to the file using FSX SDK plugin for 3D Max or GMAX. Generate new GUID and friendly name. Save as Flightsim DirectX (*.X) format. Create a screenshot of your object, resize to 256x256px and save to the.jpg file this is going to be thumbnail library picture. Store it within Environment Kit/Autogen SDK/Renders folder. 3. Convert.x to.mdl Using command line tool located in Environment Kit/Modeling SDK\3DSM7\Plugins znajduje one can convert DirectX (.x) files to MDL. This is for 3DMax GMAX creates mdl files using plugin: XtoMdl /DICT:..\..\bin\modeldef.xml /XMLSAMPLE <twój plik>.x Copy created.mdl file to Environment Kit/BGL Compiler SDK folder. 128

129 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK 4. Create library object XML configuration file in Environment Kit/BGL Compiler SDK for the previously created mdl file: <twój plik>.xml: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso "?> <FSData version="9.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/xmlschema-instance" xsi:nonamespaceschemalocation="bglcomp.xsd"> <ModelData sourcefile= <twój plik>.mdl" /> </FSData> 5. Move <twój plik>.xml over BGLComp.exe this should execute compiler and create <twój plik>.bgl library file. 6. Copy <twój plik>.bgl file to both folders: Environment Kit/Autogen SDK Microsoft Flight Simulator X/Addon Scenery/scenery 7. Add your new class of the object to the Default.xml: Copy Default.xml from Microsoft Flight Simulator X/Autogen to Environment Kit/Autogen SDK. Using any XML editor, edit AutogenEditor.exe.config file (located in Environment Kit/Autogen SDK) then change the attribute value between <value></value> tags. 129

130 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK <setting name="objectspath" serializeas="string"> <value>%programfiles%\microsoft Games\Microsoft Flight Simulator X\Scenery\Global\Scenery\autogen.bgl;<twój plik>.bgl </setting> i zapisz plik. Save file Run AutogenEditor, click View -> Windows -> All Library Objects, click All Library Objects on the left. A cone should appear (actually it is a thumbnail created just before a.jpg file). </value> 130

131 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Mark your object within AutogenEditor add new class then change its name, provide footprint and size (base unit is 1m). Default.xml should contain something like below: <CLASS> <NAME>Cones</NAME> <GUID>88a4b4ff475ce44c614381a2d013b18f</GUID> <WIDTH>20</WIDTH> <DEPTH>20</DEPTH> <LIBRARYOBJECT> <NAME><twoja nazwa></name> <GUID>95be2ae047e5793c67fd16a788fa9a10</GUID> </LIBRARYOBJECT> </CLASS> 131

132 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK 8. Add reference to the new object class using Annotator. Run annotator.exe (located in Environment/Autogen SDK ) Open Microsoft Flight Simulator X/Scenery/World/Texture/024b2su1.bmp Select library objects category (L)Library then place some of them on the background layer.. They should appear as small light-blue dots on the dark green forest background. Save file. Start simulation, start your trip from the Sea-Tac International (KSEA) remember to set date to any June-July (summer). Go west: cones should be visible in the forest. Number of visible cones is related to the performance configuration. Their base is about 20x20m, height about 10m so flight altitude should be about 200ft. 132

133 Default.XML editing hints: Manual edition is not advised. Sometime AutogenEditor fails to start then it is the only choice. Tag reference (short): GIS FSX, Autogen SDK <AUTOGEN> - header <REGION><CODE> - country code more about on Terrain SDK lecture reference. <CLASS> - new class of objects <NAME> - class name <GUID> - class GUID <WIDTH><DEPTH> - footprint size (area required to settle an object of the class) <LIBRARYOBJECT> - new library object <NAME><GUID> - object s name and GUID. One can add both classes and objects (both existing and new). There is no reason to add new regions use existing list instead. 133

134 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Sometime it is necessary to exclude some area from the Autogen service. Use shp2vec from the Terrain SDK to do it. Exclusion sone should not be large rather small (i.e. dedicated district, city, etc.). XML files validation sometime changes are not consistent providing to files lost, etc. (tools are provided by SDK in: Environment Kit\Autogen SDK): AC2Scan verifies Default.xml correctness AC3Scan verifies AutogenDescriptions, Extrusions, Materials, RoofDescriptions and TerrainAutogenClassDescriptions (XML and SPB) AGNScan verifies.agn (autogen annotation files). ContentScan Runs three of the above + BGLScan i MDLScan extra. 134

135 GIS FSX, Autogen SDK Dedicated scenery (i.e. airport). Composed of the set of 3D objects. In case of the airport there is an extra config. Radio frequencies. Ground services (pushback, gate, fuel, luggage, cathering). Navigation equipment. Lights (taxi, runway, etc.) 135

136 Applied Experiment Design based on GIS and Flight Simulation Systems PART 11 SCENERY DESIGN 136

137 Requirements (before you begin): FSX FSX SDK 3D Studio or GMAX (www.turbosquid.com/gmax) Library Creator XML (www.fsdeveloper.com/forum/downloads.php). GIMP (www.gimp.org). Configure GMAX: GIS FSX, Scenery design Metric units, grid 1m. Copy \Microsoft Flight Simulator X SDK\SDK\Environment Kit\Modeling SDK\FSX_GmaxGamePack to \gmax\gamepacks Run GMAX using FSX_Gmax shortcut provided, instead of the original one! Configure windows (a must!) Choose local settings to EN-US or EN-GB a decimal point have to be full stop instead of comma. 137

138 GIS FSX, Scenery design 138

139 GIS FSX, Scenery design Creating scenery. Airport. Not just buildings. Parameters and services. Lights. Ground services. Nav equipment. City buildings Those very different than others or building full city from scratch. Replaces Autogen created scenery with dedicated one. i.e. LA Central. London city. Sydney opera. Characteristic infrastructure. Golden Gate. Wind farm in Kopenhagen (over the sea). Academic Campus in Gliwice. Earth surface is not flat in FSX (it was in 2004 and earlier)! 139

140 140

141 141

142 GIS FSX scenery design 142

143 Concept. GIS FSX, Scenery design Get familiar with the building / object in reality. Inventorying, pay attention to the characteristic components. Obtain surface bitmap (including details, i.e. runways, taxiways) Obtain front and side elevation of the buildings and objects. Obtain surrounding terrain maps. Convert bitmap data to one of the formats supported by imagetool.exe: BMP, TGA, PSD, DDS, RAW (R8), PPM. Callibrate size to be a power of

144 GIS FSX scenery design 3D modelling (dummy example). Create simplified box models (may include some extra features but not to much as it has strong performance impact). Apply textures. 144

145 GIS - FSX scenery design Subject of project: Building consists of five surfaces. Will be modelled as box. Sizes: 60m width, 38m length, 35m height. Sidewall share the same texture. Roof separate, dedicated texture. 145

146 Textures: GIS FSX, Scenery design Side elevation Roof 146

147 147

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